Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 280

Search results for: body undulation

280 How the Kinematic Swimming of European Eel Anguilla Anguilla Changes from Axial to Non-axial Velocity Flow

Authors: Younes Matar, Fabien Candelier, Camille Solliec

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the kinematics of undulatory elongated fish swimming against a velocity flow. We perform the experiments on European eel Anguilla Anguilla swimming in a hydrodynamic re-circulating tank with the velocity flow fixed at 0.2 m/s. We find that the undulating shape of overall eel body changes when it swims slantwise from the flow direction, by comparison to axial undulation shape. We examine this kinematics and we propose a general equation describing the lateral position of undulation body taking into account the direction of the eel-s swimming.

Keywords: Undulatory swimming, maneuver, eel Anguilla Anguilla, biomechanic.

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279 The Bodybuilding Passage to the Act of the Adolescent

Authors: L. Chikhani, H. Issa

Abstract:

Objective: this work focuses on bodybuilding as narcissistic inscription of the relational dynamic of the ego and the body, in this sense we think that this symptomatic adolescent act highlights a defective image of the body, leading, by a sadistic passage exercized on the split body, to an Ego/body-ideal. Method: Semi structured interviews with 16 adolescents between 15 and 18 years old allowed us to highlight a lexical field related to the body and the excessiveness in sports;also, the administration of TAT to a bodybuilder (17 years old) for more than 2 years. Results: - Defectiveness in the structuration of the body image; the future bodybuilder will be fixated to the image of the narcissistic misrecognition. - Unsatisfying object relation, implicating incompleteness in the process of subjectivation. - Narcissistic and corporealizedego ideal leading the adolescent to a sadistic pathology directed toward one-s own body as a compensatory defense.

Keywords: Bodybuilding, body image, narcissism, object relation.

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278 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Asghar Bashir, Abir Ishtiaq, Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and Asma Salam

Abstract:

In the present study, 49 Hybrid (Catla catla ♂ x Labeo rohita ♀) were sampled from Al-Raheem Fish Hatchery, Village Ali Pure Shamali, Jhang Road, 18 Km from Muzaffar Garh using a cast net and Live fishes were transported to research laboratory. Mean percentage for water found 79.13 %, ash 6.58 %, fat 2.22 % and protein content 12.06 % in whole wet body weight. It was observed that body constituents were found increasing in the same proportion with an increase in body weight while significant proportional increase was observed with total length. However, condition factor remained insignificant (P>0.05) with body constituents.

Keywords: Hybrid fish, Body composition, Condition factor, Predictive equations

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277 Numerical Simulation and Experiment of a Lifting Body with Leading-Edge Rotating Cylinder

Authors: A. Badarudin, C. S. Oon, S. N. Kazi, N. Nik-Ghazali, Y. J. Lee, W. T. Chong

Abstract:

An experimental and simulation flight test has been carried out to evaluate the longitudinal gliding characteristics of a lifting body with blunted half-cone geometry. The novelty here is the lifting body's pitch control mechanism, which consists of a pair of leading-edge rotating cylinders. Flight simulation uses aerodynamic data from computational fluid dynamics supported by wind-tunnel test. Flight test consists of releasing an aluminum lifting body model from a moving vehicle at the appropriate wind speed while measuring the lifting body's variation of altitude against time of flight. Results show that leading-edge rotating cylinder is able to give small amounts of improvement to the longitudinal stability and pitch control to the lifting body.

Keywords: Lifting body, pitch control, aerodynamic, rotating cylinder.

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276 Feature's Extraction of Human Body Composition in Images by Segmentation Method

Authors: Mousa Mojarrad, Mashallah Abbasi Dezfouli, Amir Masoud Rahmani

Abstract:

Detection and recognition of the Human Body Composition and extraction their measures (width and length of human body) in images are a major issue in detecting objects and the important field in Image, Signal and Vision Computing in recent years. Finding people and extraction their features in Images are particularly important problem of object recognition, because people can have high variability in the appearance. This variability may be due to the configuration of a person (e.g., standing vs. sitting vs. jogging), the pose (e.g. frontal vs. lateral view), clothing, and variations in illumination. In this study, first, Human Body is being recognized in image then the measures of Human Body extract from the image.

Keywords: Analysis of image processing, canny edge detection, classification, feature extraction, human body recognition, segmentation.

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275 Robust On-Body Communications using Creeping Wave: Methodology and Analysis

Authors: M. Ali, K. Masood

Abstract:

In this paper methodology to exploit creeping wave for body area network BAN communication reliability are described. Creeping wave propagation effects are visualized & analyzed. During this work Dipole, IA antennas various antennas were redesigned using existing designs and their propagation characteristics were verified for optimum performance when used on BANs. These antennas were then applied on body shapes-including rectangular, spherical and cylindrical so that all the effects of actual human body can be taken nearly into account. Parametric simulation scheme was devised so that on Body channel characterization can be visualized at front, curved and back region. In the next phase multiple inputs multiple output MIMO scheme was introduced where virtual antennas were used in order to diminish the effects of antennas on the propagation of waves. Results were, extracted and analyzed at different heights. Finally based on comparative measurement and analysis it was concluded that on body propagation can be exploited to gain spatial diversity.

Keywords: BAN, Creeping Wave, MIMO, WIAs.

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274 Human Pose Estimation using Active Shape Models

Authors: Changhyuk Jang, Keechul Jung

Abstract:

Human pose estimation can be executed using Active Shape Models. The existing techniques for applying to human-body research using Active Shape Models, such as human detection, primarily take the form of silhouette of human body. This technique is not able to estimate accurately for human pose to concern two arms and legs, as the silhouette of human body represents the shape as out of round. To solve this problem, we applied the human body model as stick-figure, “skeleton". The skeleton model of human body can give consideration to various shapes of human pose. To obtain effective estimation result, we applied background subtraction and deformed matching algorithm of primary Active Shape Models in the fitting process. The images which were used to make the model were 600 human bodies, and the model has 17 landmark points which indicate body junction and key features of human pose. The maximum iteration for the fitting process was 30 times and the execution time was less than .03 sec.

Keywords: Active shape models, skeleton, pose estimation.

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273 Dual Mode Navigation for Two-Wheeled Robot

Authors: N.M Abdul Ghani, L.K. Haur, T.P.Yon, F Naim

Abstract:

This project relates to a two-wheeled self balancing robot for transferring loads on different locations along a path. This robot specifically functions as a dual mode navigation to navigate efficiently along a desired path. First, as a plurality of distance sensors mounted at both sides of the body for collecting information on tilt angle of the body and second, as a plurality of speed sensors mounted at the bottom of the body for collecting information of the velocity of the body in relative to the ground. A microcontroller for processing information collected from the sensors and configured to set the path and to balance the body automatically while a processor operatively coupled to the microcontroller and configured to compute change of the tilt and velocity of the body. A direct current motor operatively coupled to the microcontroller for controlling the wheels and characterized in that a remote control is operatively coupled to the microcontroller to operate the robot in dual navigation modes.

Keywords: Two-Wheeled Balancing Robot, Dual Mode Navigation, Remote Control, Desired Path.

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272 An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose

Authors: Sahar Noori, Seyed Amir Hossein, Mohammad Ebrahimi

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed, and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time. The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is observed between the results obtained in this paper and those calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design, parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic Heating, Blunt Body, Hypersonic Flow, Laminar, Turbulent.

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271 External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Asif Hussain Bhatti, Muhammad Fahad Nouman

Abstract:

115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean 22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r > 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K). The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.

Keywords: Labeo calbasu, Length-weight relationship, Body weight, condition factor

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270 Simulation of Sloshing behavior using Moving Grid and Body Force Methods

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating container are simulated numerically to assess the numerical approach for studying two-phase flows under oscillating conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating container directly using the moving grid of the ALE method, and the other is to simulate the effect of container motion using the oscillating body force acting on the fluid in the stationary container. The two-phase flow field in the container is simulated using the level set method in both cases. It is found that the calculated results by the body force method coinsides with those by the moving grid method and the sloshing behavior is predicted well by both the methods. Theoretical back ground and limitation of the body force method are discussed, and the effects of oscillation amplitude and frequency are shown.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, oscillation, moving grid, body force

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269 Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing

Authors: D. Zabala, N. Sánchez, J. Pinto

Abstract:

A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the car roof and floor. The transient heat conduction in each flat plate is modeled by the lumped capacitance method. Comparison with the experimental data shows that the heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the car body in the curing furnace, with deviations below 5%.

Keywords: Transient heat transfer, car body, lumpedcapacitance, primer baking.

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268 A Simulation Model for the H-gate PDSOI MOSFET

Authors: Bu Jianhui, Bi Jinshun, Liu Mengxin, Luo Jiajun, Han Zhengsheng

Abstract:

The floating body effect is a serious problem for the PDSOI MOSFET, and the H-gate layout is frequently used as the body contact to eliminate this effect. Unfortunately, most of the standard commercial SOI MOSFET model is for the device with finger gate, the necessity of the new models for the H-gate device arises. A simulation model for the H-gate PDSOI MOSFET is proposed based on the 0.35μm PDSOI process developed by the Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMECAS), and then the model is well verified by the ring-oscillator.

Keywords: PDSOI H-gate Device model Body contact.

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267 Human Body Configuration using Bayesian Model

Authors: Rui. Zhang, Yiming. Pi

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for human Body configuration based on the Silhouette. We propose to address this problem under the Bayesian framework. We use an effective Model based MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) method to solve the configuration problem, in which the best configuration could be defined as MAP (maximize a posteriori probability) in Bayesian model. This model based MCMC utilizes the human body model to drive the MCMC sampling from the solution space. It converses the original high dimension space into a restricted sub-space constructed by the human model and uses a hybrid sampling algorithm. We choose an explicit human model and carefully select the likelihood functions to represent the best configuration solution. The experiments show that this method could get an accurate configuration and timesaving for different human from multi-views.

Keywords: Bayesian framework, MCMC, model based, human body configuration.

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266 The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body

Authors: Zurriati Mohd Ali, Wahyu Kuntjoro, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.

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265 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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264 Detection and Pose Estimation of People in Images

Authors: Mousa Mojarrad, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Mehrab Mohebi

Abstract:

Detection, feature extraction and pose estimation of people in images and video is made challenging by the variability of human appearance, the complexity of natural scenes and the high dimensionality of articulated body models and also the important field in Image, Signal and Vision Computing in recent years. In this paper, four types of people in 2D dimension image will be tested and proposed. The system will extract the size and the advantage of them (such as: tall fat, short fat, tall thin and short thin) from image. Fat and thin, according to their result from the human body that has been extract from image, will be obtained. Also the system extract every size of human body such as length, width and shown them in output.

Keywords: Analysis of Image Processing, Canny Edge Detection, Human Body Recognition, Measurement, Pose Estimation, 2D Human Dimension.

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263 Using the V-Sphere Code for the Passive Scalar in the Wake of a Bluff Body

Authors: Y. Obikane, T. Nemoto , K. Ogura, M. Iwata, K. Ono

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to find the diffusion properties of vehicles on the road by using the V-Sphere Code. The diffusion coefficient and the size of the height of the wake were estimated with the LES option and the third order MUSCL scheme. We evaluated the code with the changes in the moments of Reynolds Stress along the mean streamline. The results show that at the leading part of a bluff body the LES has some advantages over the RNS since the changes in the strain rates are larger for the leading part. We estimated that the diffusion coefficient with the computed Reynolds stress (non-dimensional) was about 0.96 times the mean velocity.

Keywords: Wake , bluff body, V-CAD, turbulence diffusion.

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262 3D Digitalization of the Human Body for Use in Orthotics and Prosthetics

Authors: D. Koutny, D. Palousek, T. Koutecky, A. Zatocilova, J. Rosicky, M. Janda

Abstract:

The motivation of this work was to find a suitable 3D scanner for human body parts digitalization in the field of prosthetics and orthotics. The main project objective is to compare the three hand-held portable scanners (two optical and one laser) and two optical tripod scanners. The comparison was made with respect of scanning detail, simplicity of operation and ability to scan directly on the human body. Testing was carried out on a plaster cast of the upper limb and directly on a few volunteers. The objective monitored parameters were time of digitizing and post-processing of 3D data and resulting visual data quality. Subjectively, it was considered level of usage and handling of the scanner. The new tripod was developed to improve the face scanning conditions. The results provide an overview of the suitability of different types of scanners.

Keywords: 3D digitization, prosthetics and orthotics, human body digitization.

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261 Paradigms Shift in Sport Sciences: Body's focus

Authors: Michele V. Carbinatto, Wagner Wey Moreira, Myrian Nunomura; Mariana H. C. Tsukamoto, VilmaLeni Nista-Piccolo

Abstract:

Sports Sciences has been historically supported by the positivism idea of science, especially by the mechanistic/reductionist and becomes a field that views experimentation and measurement as the mayor research domains. The disposition to simplify nature and the world by parts has fragmented and reduced the idea of bodyathletes as machine. In this paper we intent to re-think this perception lined by Complexity Theory. We come with the idea of athletes as a reflexive and active being (corporeity-body). Therefore, the construction of a training that considers the cultural, biological, psychological elements regarding the experience of the human corporal movements in a circumspect and responsible way could bring better chances of accomplishment. In the end, we hope to help coaches understand the intrinsic complexity of the body they are training, how better deal with it, and, in the field of a deep globalization among the different types of knowledge, to respect and accepted the peculiarities of knowledge that comprise this area.

Keywords: Sport science, body, complexity theory, corporeity.

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260 An Optimal Control Problem for Rigid Body Motions on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimize the integral of the square norm of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal control, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, maximum principle, lie group, Rigid body motion, Lorentz metric.

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259 A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current

Authors: Cheng-Hsien Chang, Jyi-Tsong Lin, Po-Hsieh Lin, Hung-Pei Hsu, Chan-Hsiang Chang, Ming-Tsung Shih, Shih-Chuan Tseng, Min-Yan Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S) have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased on state drain current (I on) and a large normalized I DS. Furthermore, the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET is excellent for nanoscale device.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, tri-gate, self-heating effect.

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258 Planning Rigid Body Motions and Optimal Control Problem on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimizes the integral of the Lorentz inner product of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal control, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, maximum principle, lie group, rigid body motion, Lorentz metric.

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257 Modelling Peer Group Dieting Behaviour

Authors: M. J. Cunha

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to understand how peers can influence adolescent girls- dieting behaviour and their body image. Departing from imitation and social learning theories, we study whether adolescent girls tend to model their peer group dieting behaviours, thus influencing their body image construction. Our study was conducted through an enquiry applied to a cluster sample of 466 adolescent high school girls in Lisbon city public schools. Our main findings point to an association between girls- and peers- dieting behaviours, thus reinforcing the modelling hypothesis.

Keywords: Modelling, Diet, Body image, Adolescent girls, Peer group.

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256 Some Physical Fitness Values of Physical Education Department Students Engaged In Different Team Sport Branches

Authors: T. Atan, T. Ayyıldız, P. Akyol

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine and compare physical fitness values of students engaged in different team sport branches Totally 60 female, and 60 male athletes, that 20 athletes in each branch which are volleyball, basketball and football participated the study as a volunteer. The mean ages of female and male athletes were 21.20 ±1.87 and 21.61 ± 1.61 respectively. Age, height, body weight, body mass index, flexibility, body fat percentage, 30m sprint, maximum oxygen consumption capacity (MaxVO2) and drop jump values were measured. As a result of measurements, significant differences were found in height, weight, MaxVO2, shuttle run speed between different sports branches in female athletes. In male athletes, height, body weight, flexibility, 30m split speed and drop jump values were found significantly different between sports branches. As a conclusion and as a literature, it can be said that structure of body has to be appropriate with the engaged sports branch. Physical fitness values that required the sports branches can be expressed clearly by increasing the number of subjects.

Keywords: Volleyball, basketball, football, athletes, physical fitness.

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255 A survey Method and new design Lecture Chair for Complied Ergonomics Guideline at Classroom Building 2 Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand

Authors: Sumalee B., Sirinapa L., Jenjira T., Jr., Setasak S.

Abstract:

The paper describes ergonomics problems trend of student at B5101 classroom building 2, Suranaree University of Technology. The objective to survey ergonomics problems and effect from use chairs for sitting in class room. The result from survey method 100 student they use lecture chair for sitting in classroom more than 2 hours/ day by RULA[1]. and Body discomfort survey[2]. The result from Body discomfort survey contribute fatigue problems at neck, lower back, upper back and right shoulder 2.93, 2.91, 2.33, 1.75 respectively and result from RULA contribute fatigue problems at neck, body and right upper arm 4.00, 3.75 and 3.00 respectively are consistent. After that the researcher provide improvement plan for design new chair support student fatigue reduction by prepare data of sample anthropometry and design ergonomics chair prototype 3 unit. Then sample 100 student trial to use new chair and evaluate again by RULA, Body discomfort and satisfaction. The result from trial new chair after improvement by RULA present fatigue reduction average of head and neck from 4.00 to 2.25 , body and trunk from 3.75 to 2.00 and arm force from 1.00 to 0.25 respectively. The result from trial new chair after improvement by Body discomfort present fatigue reduction average of lower back from 2.91 to 0.87, neck from 2.93 to 1.24, upper back 2.33 to 0.84 and right upper arm from 1.75 to 0.74. That statistical of RULA and Body discomfort survey present fatigue reduction after improvement significance with a confidence level of 95% (p-value 0.05). When analyzing the relationship of fatigue as part of the body by Chi – square test during RULA and Body discomfort that before and after improvements were consistent with the significant level of confidence 95% (p-value 0.05) . Moreover the students satisfaction result from trial with a new chair for 30 minutes [3]. 72 percent very satisfied of the folding of the secondary writing simple 66% the width of the writing plate, 64% the suitability of the writing plate, 62% of soft seat cushion and 61% easy to seat the chair.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Work station design, ErgonomicsChair, Student, Fatigue

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254 Can Physical Activity and Dietary Fat Intake Influence Body Mass Index in a Cross-sectional Correlational Design?

Authors: D.O. Omondi, L.O.A. Othuon, G.M. Mbagaya

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (r2=0.096, F=13.616, β=-3.22, t=-3.69, n=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). Physical activity emerged as a more powerful determinant of BMI compared to dietary fat intake.

Keywords: Physical activity, dietary fat intake, Body MassIndex, Kenya.

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253 Kaolin for Production of Souvenirs

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

Ranong province has the best kaolin, and it is the most useful of all the clay types used in ceramic making. Until recently, there has been only one community business making ceramics in Ranong province. And this business could not build the mix of body and glaze from their raw material without assistance. Considering these problems, this research is aimed to test the composition of ceramic body and glaze which suit. Kaolin from Ranong is the raw material which these search focuses on. All other raw materials use in the investigation will come from southern Thailand, kaolin and limestone from Ranong province, ball clay from Surat Thani province, white sand from Songkhla province, and feldspar from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Results can be used to develop the efficiency of industrial production which in return will enhance the business process.

Keywords: Ceramic body and glaze, Ceramic material, Ceramic production from kaolin, Ceramic souvenirs.

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252 Optimal Estimation of Supporting-Ground Orientation for Multi-Segment Body Based on Otolith-Canal Fusion

Authors: Karim A. Tahboub

Abstract:

This article discusses the problem of estimating the orientation of inclined ground on which a human subject stands based on information provided by the vestibular system consisting of the otolith and semicircular canals. It is assumed that body segments are not necessarily aligned and thus forming an open kinematic chain. The semicircular canals analogues to a technical gyrometer provide a measure of the angular velocity whereas the otolith analogues to a technical accelerometer provide a measure of the translational acceleration. Two solutions are proposed and discussed. The first is based on a stand-alone Kalman filter that optimally fuses the two measurements based on their dynamic characteristics and their noise properties. In this case, no body dynamic model is needed. In the second solution, a central extended disturbance observer that incorporates a body dynamic model (internal model) is employed. The merits of both solutions are discussed and demonstrated by experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Kalman filter, orientation estimation, otolith-canalfusion, vestibular system.

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251 The Effect of Body Condition Score on Hormonal and Vaginal Histological Changes During Estrus of Synchronized Etawah Cross Bred Does

Authors: Diah Tri Widayati, Sunendar, Kresno Suharto, Pudji Asuti, Aris Junaid

Abstract:

Eight Etawah cross bred does were divided into two groups based on body condition score (BCS). Group I (BSC 2, body weight 25-30 kg; n = 4), and Group II (BSC 3, body weight, 35-40 kg, n=4). All does received intravaginal controlled internal drug release devices (CIDR) for 10 days, and a prostaglandin F2α at 48 h before CIDR removal. Estrus detection was carried out using vasectomized buck. Vaginal epithelium was taken to determine estrus cycle. Blood samples were taken every 3-6 hours, started from moment of CIDR removal until the end of estrus. The results showed vaginal histological indicated estrus occurred at the hours of 25 to 60 and 30 to 70 post CIDR removal in BCS 2 and 3, respectively. Progesterone peak of BCS 2 and BCS 3 were 0.18±0.31 and 0.48±0.31 ng/mL on the hour 0 post CIDR removal. Estradiol -17ß peak of each group was 53.25±35.08 and 89.91±92.84 pg/mL at 48 post CIDR removal. LH surge only occurred on BCS 3 groups, the LH concentrations were 9.9± 9.1; 4.5± 4.0; and 18.2± 9.1 ng/mL at 45, 48 and 51 hours post CIDR removal, respectively. It was concluded that the BCS had effects on vaginal histological changes and LH surge.

Keywords: Estrus synchronization, Vaginal histological changes, Progesterone, Estradiol -17ß , LH

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