Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1066

Search results for: block least mean square

1066 Effect of Hartmann Number on Free Convective Flow in a Square Cavity with Different Positions of Heated Square Block

Authors: Abdul Halim Bhuiyan, M. A. Alim, Md. Nasir Uddin

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the effect of Hartmann number on the free convective flow in a square cavity with different positions of heated square block. The two-dimensional Physical and mathematical model have been developed, and mathematical model includes the system of governing mass, momentum and energy equations are solved by the finite element method. The calculations have been computed for Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, the Rayleigh number Ra = 1000 and the different values of Hartmann number. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finite element method, free convection, Hartmann number, square cavity.

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1065 Vortex Formation in Lid-driven Cavity with Disturbance Block

Authors: Maysam Saidi, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi, Reza Maddahian

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of disturbance block on flow field of the classical square lid-driven cavity. Attentions are focused on vortex formation and studying the effect of block position on its structure. Corner vortices are different upon block position and new vortices are produced because of the block. Finite volume method is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and PISO algorithm is employed for the linkage of velocity and pressure. Verification and grid independency of results are reported. Stream lines are sketched to visualize vortex structure in different block positions.

Keywords: Disturbance Block, Finite Volume Method, Lid-Driven Cavity

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1064 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle, interference, block least mean square, frequency modulated continuous wave.

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1063 Mean-Square Performance of Adaptive Filter Algorithms in Nonstationary Environments

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, John Hakon Husøy

Abstract:

Employing a recently introduced unified adaptive filter theory, we show how the performance of a large number of important adaptive filter algorithms can be predicted within a general framework in nonstationary environment. This approach is based on energy conservation arguments and does not need to assume a Gaussian or white distribution for the regressors. This general performance analysis can be used to evaluate the mean square performance of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, its normalized version (NLMS), the family of Affine Projection Algorithms (APA), the Recursive Least Squares (RLS), the Data-Reusing LMS (DR-LMS), its normalized version (NDR-LMS), the Block Least Mean Squares (BLMS), the Block Normalized LMS (BNLMS), the Transform Domain Adaptive Filters (TDAF) and the Subband Adaptive Filters (SAF) in nonstationary environment. Also, we establish the general expressions for the steady-state excess mean square in this environment for all these adaptive algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate through simulations that these results are useful in predicting the adaptive filter performance.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, general framework, energy conservation, mean-square performance, nonstationary environment.

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1062 Combined Analysis of Sudoku Square Designs with Same Treatments

Authors: A. Danbaba

Abstract:

Several experiments are conducted at different environments such as locations or periods (seasons) with identical treatments to each experiment purposely to study the interaction between the treatments and environments or between the treatments and periods (seasons). The commonly used designs of experiments for this purpose are randomized block design, Latin square design, balanced incomplete block design, Youden design, and one or more factor designs. The interest is to carry out a combined analysis of the data from these multi-environment experiments, instead of analyzing each experiment separately. This paper proposed combined analysis of experiments conducted via Sudoku square design of odd order with same experimental treatments.

Keywords: Sudoku designs, combined analysis, multi-environment experiments, common treatments.

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1061 A New Block-based NLMS Algorithm and Its Realization in Block Floating Point Format

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

we propose a new normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm, which gives satisfactory performance in certain applications in comaprison with con-ventional NLMS recursion. This new algorithm can be treated as a block based simplification of NLMS algorithm with significantly reduced number of multi¬ply and accumulate as well as division operations. It is also shown that such a recursion can be easily implemented in block floating point (BFP) arithmetic, treating the implementational issues much efficiently. In particular, the core challenges of a BFP realization to such adaptive filters are mainly considered in this regard. A global upper bound on the step size control parameter of the new algorithm due to BFP implementation is also proposed to prevent overflow in filtering as well as weight updating operations jointly.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, Block floating point arithmetic, Implementation issues, Normalized least mean square methods

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1060 Block Sorting: A New Characterization and a New Heuristic

Authors: Swapnoneel Roy, Ashok Kumar Thakur, Minhazur Rahman

Abstract:

The Block Sorting problem is to sort a given permutation moving blocks. A block is defined as a substring of the given permutation, which is also a substring of the identity permutation. Block Sorting has been proved to be NP-Hard. Until now two different 2-Approximation algorithms have been presented for block sorting. These are the best known algorithms for Block Sorting till date. In this work we present a different characterization of Block Sorting in terms of a transposition cycle graph. Then we suggest a heuristic, which we show to exhibit a 2-approximation performance guarantee for most permutations.

Keywords: Block Sorting, Optical Character Recognition, Genome Rearrangements, Sorting Primitives, ApproximationAlgorithms

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1059 Enhancing the Performance of H.264/AVC in Adaptive Group of Pictures Mode Using Octagon and Square Search Pattern

Authors: S. Sowmyayani, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

This paper integrates Octagon and Square Search pattern (OCTSS) motion estimation algorithm into H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video codec in Adaptive Group of Pictures (AGOP) mode. AGOP structure is computed based on scene change in the video sequence. Octagon and square search pattern block-based motion estimation method is implemented in inter-prediction process of H.264/AVC. Both these methods reduce bit rate and computational complexity while maintaining the quality of the video sequence respectively. Experiments are conducted for different types of video sequence. The results substantially proved that the bit rate, computation time and PSNR gain achieved by the proposed method is better than the existing H.264/AVC with fixed GOP and AGOP. With a marginal gain in quality of 0.28dB and average gain in bitrate of 132.87kbps, the proposed method reduces the average computation time by 27.31 minutes when compared to the existing state-of-art H.264/AVC video codec.

Keywords: Block Distortion Measure, Block Matching Algorithms, H.264/AVC, Motion estimation, Search patterns, Shot cut detection.

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1058 Construction and Analysis of Samurai Sudoku

Authors: A. Danbaba

Abstract:

Samurai Sudoku consists of five Sudoku square designs each having nine treatments in each row (column or sub-block) only once such the five Sudoku designs overlaps. Two or more Samurai designs can be joint together to give an extended Samurai design. In addition, two Samurai designs, each containing five Sudoku square designs, are mutually orthogonal (Graeco). If we superimpose two Samurai designs and obtained a pair of Latin and Greek letters in each row (column or sub-block) of the five Sudoku designs only once, then we have Graeco Samurai design. In this paper, simple method of constructing Samurai designs and mutually orthogonal Samurai design are proposed. In addition, linear models and methods of data analysis for the designs are proposed.

Keywords: Samurai design, Graeco samurai design, sudoku design, row or column swap.

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1057 On Finite Wordlength Properties of Block-Floating-Point Arithmetic

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A special case of floating point data representation is block floating point format where a block of operands are forced to have a joint exponent term. This paper deals with the finite wordlength properties of this data format. The theoretical errors associated with the error model for block floating point quantization process is investigated with the help of error distribution functions. A fast and easy approximation formula for calculating signal-to-noise ratio in quantization to block floating point format is derived. This representation is found to be a useful compromise between fixed point and floating point format due to its acceptable numerical error properties over a wide dynamic range.

Keywords: Block floating point, Roundoff error, Block exponent dis-tribution fuction, Signal factor.

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1056 Development Partitioning Intervalwise Block Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: K.H.Khairul Anuar, K.I.Othman, F.Ishak, Z.B.Ibrahim, Z.Majid

Abstract:

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) by using Partitioning Block Intervalwise (PBI) technique is our aim in this paper. The PBI technique is based on Block Adams Method and Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF). Block Adams Method only use the simple iteration for solving while BDF requires Newtonlike iteration involving Jacobian matrix of ODEs which consumes a considerable amount of computational effort. Therefore, PBI is developed in order to reduce the cost of iteration within acceptable maximum error

Keywords: Adam Block Method, BDF, Ordinary Differential Equations, Partitioning Block Intervalwise

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1055 Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery

Authors: Ammar M. Hassan, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Yassin M. Y. Hasan, Mohamed A. A. Wahab, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.

Keywords: Authentication, hash function, multiple descriptioncoding, public key encryption, watermarking.

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1054 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.

Keywords: Image encryption, security analysis.

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1053 Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.

Keywords: Block cipher, Image encryption, Encryption quality, and Security analysis.

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1052 Efficient Realization of an ADFE with a New Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: N. Praveen Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Decision feedback equalizers are commonly employed to reduce the error caused by intersymbol interference. Here, an adaptive decision feedback equalizer is presented with a new adaptation algorithm. The algorithm follows a block-based approach of normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm with set-membership filtering and achieves a significantly less computational complexity over its conventional NLMS counterpart with set-membership filtering. It is shown in the results that the proposed algorithm yields similar type of bit error rate performance over a reasonable signal to noise ratio in comparison with the latter one.

Keywords: Decision feedback equalizer, Adaptive algorithm, Block based computation, Set membership filtering.

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1051 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colors. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photo-mosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of 4 steps: partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and color adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: Photo-mosaic, Euclidean distance, Block matching, Intensity adjustment.

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1050 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: Square tube, bending stress, energy absorption, finite element analysis, rigidity.

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1049 Development of Variable Stepsize Variable Order Block Method in Divided Difference Form for the Numerical Solution of Delay Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Mohamed B. Suleiman, Zanariah A. Majid, Khairil I. Othman

Abstract:

This paper considers the development of a two-point predictor-corrector block method for solving delay differential equations. The formulae are represented in divided difference form and the algorithm is implemented in variable stepsize variable order technique. The block method produces two new values at a single integration step. Numerical results are compared with existing methods and it is evident that the block method performs very well. Stability regions of the block method are also investigated.

Keywords: block method, delay differential equations, predictor-corrector, stability region, variable stepsize variable order.

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1048 Adaptive Block State Update Method for Separating Background

Authors: Youngsuck Ji, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the robust mobile object detection method for light effect in the night street image block based updating reference background model using block state analysis. Experiment image is acquired sequence color video from steady camera. When suddenly appeared artificial illumination, reference background model update this information such as street light, sign light. Generally natural illumination is change by temporal, but artificial illumination is suddenly appearance. So in this paper for exactly detect artificial illumination have 2 state process. First process is compare difference between current image and reference background by block based, it can know changed blocks. Second process is difference between current image-s edge map and reference background image-s edge map, it possible to estimate illumination at any block. This information is possible to exactly detect object, artificial illumination and it was generating reference background more clearly. Block is classified by block-state analysis. Block-state has a 4 state (i.e. transient, stationary, background, artificial illumination). Fig. 1 is show characteristic of block-state respectively [1]. Experimental results show that the presented approach works well in the presence of illumination variance.

Keywords: Block-state, Edge component, Reference backgroundi, Artificial illumination.

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1047 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order initial value problems (IVP­s­) in ordinary differential equations (ODE­s­) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, First Order Ordinary Differential Equations, Hybrid, Self starting.

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1046 Effect of Impact Location upon Sub-Impacts between Beam and Block

Authors: T. F. Jin, X. C. Yin, P. B. Qian

Abstract:

The present investigation is concerned with sub-impacts taken placed when a rigid hemispherical-head block transversely impacts against a beam at different locations. Dynamic substructure technique for elastic-plastic impact is applied to solve numerically this problem. The time history of impact force and energy exchange between block and beam are obtained. The process of sub-impacts is analyzed from the energy exchange point of view. The results verify the influences of the impact location on impact duration, the first sub-impact and energy exchange between the beam and the block.

Keywords: Beam, sub-impact, substructure, elastic-plasticity.

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1045 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block spacial level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward “Semi-open Sub-community” strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou West Area, residential block model, residential block fabric, “Semi-open Sub-community” strategy.

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1044 Block Cipher Based on Randomly Generated Quasigroups

Authors: Deepthi Haridas, S Venkataraman, Geeta Varadan

Abstract:

Quasigroups are algebraic structures closely related to Latin squares which have many different applications. The construction of block cipher is based on quasigroup string transformation. This article describes a block cipher based Quasigroup of order 256, suitable for fast software encryption of messages written down in universal ASCII code. The novelty of this cipher lies on the fact that every time the cipher is invoked a new set of two randomly generated quasigroups are used which in turn is used to create a pair of quasigroup of dual operations. The cryptographic strength of the block cipher is examined by calculation of the xor-distribution tables. In this approach some algebraic operations allows quasigroups of huge order to be used without any requisite to be stored.

Keywords: quasigroups, latin squares, block cipher and quasigroup string transformations.

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1043 An Accurate Computation of Block Hybrid Method for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

In this paper, self-starting block hybrid method of order (5,5,5,5)T is proposed for the solution of the special second order ordinary differential equations with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on stiff ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep Method, Self – starting, Special Second Order.

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1042 2 – Block 3 - Point Modified Numerov Block Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Abdu Masanawa Sagir

Abstract:

In this paper, linear multistep technique using power series as the basis function is used to develop the block methods which are suitable for generating direct solution of the special second order ordinary differential equations of the form y′′ = f(x,y), a < = x < = b with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuaous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain two different three discrete schemes, each of order (4,4,4)T, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on linear and non-linear ordinary differential equations whose solutions are oscillatory or nearly periodic in nature, and the results obtained compared favourably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep Method, Self – starting, Special Second Order.

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1041 Agents Network on a Grid: An Approach with the Set of Circulant Operators

Authors: Babiga Birregah, Prosper K. Doh, Kondo H. Adjallah

Abstract:

In this work we present some matrix operators named circulant operators and their action on square matrices. This study on square matrices provides new insights into the structure of the space of square matrices. Moreover it can be useful in various fields as in agents networking on Grid or large-scale distributed self-organizing grid systems.

Keywords: Pascal matrices, Binomial Recursion, Circulant Operators, Square Matrix Bipartition, Local Network, Parallel networks of agents.

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1040 Sequential Straightforward Clustering for Local Image Block Matching

Authors: Mohammad Akbarpour Sekeh, Mohd. Aizaini Maarof, Mohd. Foad Rohani, Malihe Motiei

Abstract:

Duplicated region detection is a technical method to expose copy-paste forgeries on digital images. Copy-paste is one of the common types of forgeries to clone portion of an image in order to conceal or duplicate special object. In this type of forgery detection, extracting robust block feature and also high time complexity of matching step are two main open problems. This paper concentrates on computational time and proposes a local block matching algorithm based on block clustering to enhance time complexity. Time complexity of the proposed algorithm is formulated and effects of two parameter, block size and number of cluster, on efficiency of this algorithm are considered. The experimental results and mathematical analysis demonstrate this algorithm is more costeffective than lexicographically algorithms in time complexity issue when the image is complex.

Keywords: Copy-paste forgery detection, Duplicated region, Timecomplexity, Local block matching, Sequential block clustering.

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1039 Packing and Covering Radii of Linear Error-Block Codes

Authors: Rabiˆı DARITI, El Mamoun SOUIDI

Abstract:

Linear error-block codes are a natural generalization of linear error correcting codes. The purpose of this paper is to generalize some results on the packing and the covering radii to the error-block case. We study their properties when a code undergoes some specific modifications and combinations with another code. We give a few bounds on the packing and the covering radii of these codes.

Keywords: Linear error-block codes, π-distance, Correction capacity, Packing radius, Covering radius.

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1038 A Finite Precision Block Floating Point Treatment to Direct Form, Cascaded and Parallel FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient finite precision block floating point (BFP) treatment to the fixed coefficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. The treatment includes effective implementation of all the three forms of the conventional FIR filters, namely, direct form, cascaded and par- allel, and a roundoff error analysis of them in the BFP format. An effective block formatting algorithm together with an adaptive scaling factor is pro- posed to make the realizations more simple from hardware view point. To this end, a generic relation between the tap weight vector length and the input block length is deduced. The implementation scheme also emphasises on a simple block exponent update technique to prevent overflow even during the block to block transition phase. The roundoff noise is also investigated along the analogous lines, taking into consideration these implementational issues. The simulation results show that the BFP roundoff errors depend on the sig- nal level almost in the same way as floating point roundoff noise, resulting in approximately constant signal to noise ratio over a relatively large dynamic range.

Keywords: Finite impulse response digital filters, Cascade structure, Parallel structure, Block floating point arithmetic, Roundoff error.

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1037 Group of Square Roots of Unity Modulo n

Authors: Rochdi Omami, Mohamed Omami, Raouf Ouni

Abstract:

Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and G2(n) be the subgroup of square roots of 1 in (Z/nZ)*. In this paper, we give an algorithm that computes a generating set of this subgroup.

Keywords: Group, modulo, square roots, unity.

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