Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: approximate tandem repeats

276 Finding Approximate Tandem Repeats with the Burrows-Wheeler Transform

Authors: Agnieszka Danek, Rafał Pokrzywa

Abstract:

Approximate tandem repeats in a genomic sequence are two or more contiguous, similar copies of a pattern of nucleotides. They are used in DNA mapping, studying molecular evolution mechanisms, forensic analysis and research in diagnosis of inherited diseases. All their functions are still investigated and not well defined, but increasing biological databases together with tools for identification of these repeats may lead to discovery of their specific role or correlation with particular features. This paper presents a new approach for finding approximate tandem repeats in a given sequence, where the similarity between consecutive repeats is measured using the Hamming distance. It is an enhancement of a method for finding exact tandem repeats in DNA sequences based on the Burrows- Wheeler transform.

Keywords: approximate tandem repeats, Burrows-Wheeler transform, Hamming distance, suffix array

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275 Approximately Jordan Maps and Their Stability

Authors: Nasrin Eghbali

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the approximate Jordan maps and boundedness of these maps. Also we investigate the stability of approximate Jordan maps and prove some stability properties for approximate Jordan maps.

Keywords: Approximate Jordan map, stability.

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274 Approximation Algorithm for the Shortest Approximate Common Superstring Problem

Authors: A.S. Rebaï, M. Elloumi

Abstract:

The Shortest Approximate Common Superstring (SACS) problem is : Given a set of strings f={w1, w2, ... , wn}, where no wi is an approximate substring of wj, i ≠ j, find a shortest string Sa, such that, every string of f is an approximate substring of Sa. When the number of the strings n>2, the SACS problem becomes NP-complete. In this paper, we present a greedy approximation SACS algorithm. Our algorithm is a 1/2-approximation for the SACS problem. It is of complexity O(n2*(l2+log(n))) in computing time, where n is the number of the strings and l is the length of a string. Our SACS algorithm is based on computation of the Length of the Approximate Longest Overlap (LALO).

Keywords: Shortest approximate common superstring, approximation algorithms, strings overlaps, complexities.

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273 Efficient Solution for a Class of Markov Chain Models of Tandem Queueing Networks

Authors: Chun Wen, Tingzhu Huang

Abstract:

We present a new numerical method for the computation of the steady-state solution of Markov chains. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed method, with a contraction factor α, converges to the one-dimensional null space of singular linear systems of the form Ax = 0. Numerical experiments are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, with applications to a class of interesting models in the domain of tandem queueing networks.

Keywords: Markov chains, tandem queueing networks, convergence, effectiveness.

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272 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-Based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan

Abstract:

Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38 eV to 2.5 eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: High-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

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271 Heat Transfer from Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, Hamidreza Bayat

Abstract:

Heat transfer from two cam shape cylinder in tandem arrangement had been studied numerically. The distance between the centers of cylinders (L) is allowed to vary to change the longitudinal pitch ratio (L/Deq). The equivalent diameter of the cylinder (Deq) is 27.6 mm and longitudinal pitch ratio varies in range 2<L/Deq<6. The Reynolds number based on equivalent circular cylinder are within 50< Reeq <300. Results show that Nusselt number of second cylinder increases about 5 to 33 times when longitudinal pitch ratio increases from 2 to 6.

Keywords: Cam Shaped, tandem Cylinders, Numerical, Heat Transfer.

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270 Approximate Frequent Pattern Discovery Over Data Stream

Authors: Kittisak Kerdprasop, Nittaya Kerdprasop

Abstract:

Frequent pattern discovery over data stream is a hard problem because a continuously generated nature of stream does not allow a revisit on each data element. Furthermore, pattern discovery process must be fast to produce timely results. Based on these requirements, we propose an approximate approach to tackle the problem of discovering frequent patterns over continuous stream. Our approximation algorithm is intended to be applied to process a stream prior to the pattern discovery process. The results of approximate frequent pattern discovery have been reported in the paper.

Keywords: Frequent pattern discovery, Approximate algorithm, Data stream analysis.

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269 Alternative Splicingof an Arabidopsis Gene, At2g24600, Encoding Ankyrin-Repeat Protein

Authors: H. Sakamoto, S. Kurosawa, M. Suzuki, S. Oguri

Abstract:

In Arabidopsis, several genes encoding proteins with ankyrin repeats and transmembrane domains (AtANKTM) have been identified as mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. It has been known that the expression of an AtANKTM gene, At2g24600, is induced in response to abiotic stress and that there are four splicing variants derived from this locus. In this study, by RT-PCR and sequencing analysis, an unknown splicing variant of the At2g24600 transcript was identified. Based on differences in the predicted amino acid sequences, the five splicing variants are divided into three groups. The three predicted proteins are highly homologous, yet have different numbers of ankyrinrepeats and transmembrane domains. It is generally considered that ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interaction and that the number oftransmembrane domains affects membrane topology of proteins. The protein variants derived from the At2g24600 locus may have different molecular functions each other.

Keywords: Alternative splicing, ankyrin repeats, transmembrane domains, Arabidopsis.

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268 A New Approach to the Approximate Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

Authors: Joe Imae, Kenjiro Shinagawa, Tomoaki Kobayashi, Guisheng Zhai

Abstract:

We propose a new approach on how to obtain the approximate solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. The process of the approximation consists of two steps. The first step is to transform the HJ equations into the virtual time based HJ equations (VT-HJ) by introducing a new idea of ‘virtual-time’. The second step is to construct the approximate solutions of the HJ equations through a computationally iterative procedure based on the VT-HJ equations. It should be noted that the approximate feedback solutions evolve by themselves as the virtual-time goes by. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approximation approach by means of simulations with linear and nonlinear control problems.

Keywords: Nonlinear Control, Optimal Control, Hamilton-Jacobi Equation, Virtual-Time

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267 The Fluid Limit of the Critical Processor Sharing Tandem Queue

Authors: Amal Ezzidani, Abdelghani Ben Tahar, Mohamed Hanini

Abstract:

A sequence of finite tandem queue is considered for this study. Each one has a single server, which operates under the egalitarian processor sharing discipline. External customers arrive at each queue according to a renewal input process and having a general service times distribution. Upon completing service, customers leave the current queue and enter to the next. Under mild assumptions, including critical data, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of the fluid solution. For asymptotic behavior, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the invariant state and the convergence to this invariant state. In the end, we establish the convergence of a correctly normalized state process to a fluid limit characterized by a system of algebraic and integral equations.

Keywords: Fluid Limit, fluid model, measure valued process, processor sharing, tandem queue.

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266 An Approximate Solution of the Classical Van der Pol Oscillator Coupled Gyroscopically to a Linear Oscillator Using Parameter-Expansion Method

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Samad Kheybari

Abstract:

In this article, we are dealing with a model consisting of a classical Van der Pol oscillator coupled gyroscopically to a linear oscillator. The major problem is analyzed. The regular dynamics of the system is considered using analytical methods. In this case, we provide an approximate solution for this system using parameter-expansion method. Also, we find approximate values for frequencies of the system. In parameter-expansion method the solution and unknown frequency of oscillation are expanded in a series by a bookkeeping parameter. By imposing the non-secularity condition at each order in the expansion the method provides different approximations to both the solution and the frequency of oscillation. One iteration step provides an approximate solution which is valid for the whole solution domain.

Keywords: Parameter-expansion method, classical Van der Pol oscillator.

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265 Approximate Range-Sum Queries over Data Cubes Using Cosine Transform

Authors: Wen-Chi Hou, Cheng Luo, Zhewei Jiang, Feng Yan

Abstract:

In this research, we propose to use the discrete cosine transform to approximate the cumulative distributions of data cube cells- values. The cosine transform is known to have a good energy compaction property and thus can approximate data distribution functions easily with small number of coefficients. The derived estimator is accurate and easy to update. We perform experiments to compare its performance with a well-known technique - the (Haar) wavelet. The experimental results show that the cosine transform performs much better than the wavelet in estimation accuracy, speed, space efficiency, and update easiness.

Keywords: DCT, Data Cube

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264 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Jana Kisková, Dana Gabriková

Abstract:

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4- repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance of specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e. g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism.

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263 Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow around Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, Meghdad Ebrahimi Sabet

Abstract:

In this paper, the 2-D unsteady viscous flow around two cam shaped cylinders in tandem arrangement is numerically simulated in order to study the characteristics of the flow in turbulent regimes. The investigation covers the effects of high subcritical and supercritical Reynolds numbers and L/D ratio on total drag coefficient. The equivalent diameter of cylinders is 27.6 mm The space between center to center of two cam shaped cylinders is define as longitudinal pitch ratio and it varies in range of 1.5< L/D<6. Reynolds number base on equivalent circular cylinder varies in range of 27×103< Re <166×103 Results show that drag coefficient of both cylinders depends on pitch ratio. However, drag coefficient of downstream cylinder is more dependent on the pitch ratio.

Keywords: Cam shaped, tandem, numerical, drag coefficient, turbulent.

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262 APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs

Authors: Zhijie Ma, Qinglin Zhao, Hongning Dai, Huan Zhang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11e, throughput guarantee, priority.

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261 Approximate Method of Calculation of Inviscid Hypersonic Flow

Authors: F. Sokhanvar, A. B. Khoshnevis

Abstract:

In the present work steady inviscid hypersonic flows are calculated by approximate Method. Maslens' inverse method is the chosen approximate method. For the inverse problem, parabolic shock shape is chosen for the two-dimensional flow, and the body shape and flow field are calculated using Maslen's method. For the axisymmetric inverse problem paraboloidal shock is chosen and the surface distribution of pressure is obtained.

Keywords: Hypersonic flow, Inverse problem method

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260 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, Depression, Wavelet entropy, Approximate entropy, Relative Wavelet energy, Multiresolution decomposition.

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259 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

Authors: John N. Haddad, Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Given a bivariate normal sample of correlated variables, (Xi, Yi), i = 1, . . . , n, an alternative estimator of Pearson’s correlation coefficient is obtained in terms of the ranges, |Xi − Yi|. An approximate confidence interval for ρX,Y is then derived, and a simulation study reveals that the resulting coverage probabilities are in close agreement with the set confidence levels. As well, a new approximant is provided for the density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. A mixture involving the proposed approximate density of R, denoted by hR(r), and a density function determined from a known approximation due to R. A. Fisher is shown to accurately approximate the distribution of R. Finally, nearly exact density approximants are obtained on adjusting hR(r) by a 7th degree polynomial.

Keywords: Sample correlation coefficient, density approximation, confidence intervals.

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258 On the Approximate Solution of a Nonlinear Singular Integral Equation

Authors: Nizami Mustafa, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this study, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of a nonlinear singular integral equation that is defined on a region in the complex plane is proven and a method is given for finding the solution.

Keywords: Approximate solution, Fixed-point principle, Nonlinear singular integral equations, Vekua integral operator

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257 Some Preconditioners for Block Pentadiagonal Linear Systems Based on New Approximate Factorization Methods

Authors: Xian Ming Gu, Ting Zhu Huang, Hou Biao Li

Abstract:

In this paper, getting an high-efficiency parallel algorithm to solve sparse block pentadiagonal linear systems suitable for vectors and parallel processors, stair matrices are used to construct some parallel polynomial approximate inverse preconditioners. These preconditioners are appropriate when the desired target is to maximize parallelism. Moreover, some theoretical results about these preconditioners are presented and how to construct preconditioners effectively for any nonsingular block pentadiagonal H-matrices is also described. In addition, the availability of these preconditioners is illustrated with some numerical experiments arising from two dimensional biharmonic equation.

Keywords: Parallel algorithm, Pentadiagonal matrix, Polynomial approximate inverse, Preconditioners, Stair matrix.

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256 Flow around Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, Hamidreza Bayat

Abstract:

In this paper flow around two cam shaped cylinders had been studied numerically. The equivalent diameter of cylinders is 27.6 mm. The space between center to center of two cam shaped cylinders is define as longitudinal pitch ratio and it varies in range of 2 varies in range of 50 both cylinders depends on pitch ratio. However drag coefficient of downstream cylinder is more dependent on the pitch ratio.

Keywords: Cam shaped, tandem cylinders, numerical, drag coefficient.

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255 A Special Algorithm to Approximate the Square Root of Positive Integer

Authors: Hsian Ming Goo

Abstract:

The paper concerns a special approximate algorithm of the square root of the specific positive integer, which is built by the use of the property of positive integer solution of the Pell’s equation, together with using some elementary theorems of matrices, and then takes it to compare with general used the Newton’s method and give a practical numerical example and error analysis; it is unexpected to find its special property: the significant figure of the approximation value of the square root of positive integer will increase one digit by one. It is well useful in some occasions.

Keywords: Special approximate algorithm, square root, Pell’s equation, Newton’s method, error analysis.

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254 Constructing a Simple Polygonalizations

Authors: V. Tereshchenko, V. Muravitskiy

Abstract:

We consider the methods of construction simple polygons for a set S of n points and applying them for searching the minimal area polygon. In this paper we propose the approximate algorithm, which generates the simple polygonalizations of a fixed set of points and finds the minimal area polygon, in O (n3) time and using O(n2) memory.

Keywords: simple polygon, approximate algorithm, minimal area polygon, polygonalizations

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253 Numerical Approximation to the Performance of CUSUM Charts for EMA (1) Process

Authors: K. Petcharat, Y. Areepong, S. Sukparungsri, G. Mititelu

Abstract:

These paper, we approximate the average run length (ARL) for CUSUM chart when observation are an exponential first order moving average sequence (EMA1). We used Gauss-Legendre numerical scheme for integral equations (IE) method for approximate ARL0 and ARL1, where ARL in control and out of control, respectively. We compared the results from IE method and exact solution such that the two methods perform good agreement.

Keywords: Cumulative Sum Chart, Moving Average Observation, Average Run Length, Numerical Approximations.

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252 An Approximation of Daily Rainfall by Using a Pixel Value Data Approach

Authors: Sarisa Pinkham, Kanyarat Bussaban

Abstract:

The research aims to approximate the amount of daily rainfall by using a pixel value data approach. The daily rainfall maps from the Thailand Meteorological Department in period of time from January to December 2013 were the data used in this study. The results showed that this approach can approximate the amount of daily rainfall with RMSE=3.343.

Keywords: Daily rainfall, Image processing, Approximation, Pixel value data.

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251 Heat Transfer of an Impinging Jet on a Plane Surface

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

A cold, thin film of liquid impinging on an isothermal hot, horizontal surface has been investigated. An approximate solution for the velocity and temperature distributions in the flow along the horizontal surface is developed, which exploits the hydrodynamic similarity solution for thin film flow. The approximate solution may provide a valuable basis for assessing flow and heat transfer in more complex settings.

Keywords: Flux, free impinging jet, solid-surface, uniform wall temperature.

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250 Application of He’s Parameter-Expansion Method to a Coupled Van Der Pol oscillators with Two Kinds of Time-delay Coupling

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Samad Kheybari

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamics of a system of two van der Pol oscillators with delayed position and velocity is studied. We provide an approximate solution for this system using parameterexpansion method. Also, we obtain approximate values for frequencies of the system. The parameter-expansion method is more efficient than the perturbation method for this system because the method is independent of perturbation parameter assumption.

Keywords: Parameter-expansion method, coupled van der pol oscillator, time-delay system.

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249 On the Solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

A linear system is called a fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) if quantities in this system are all fuzzy numbers. For the FFLS, we investigate its solution and develop a new approximate method for solving the FFLS. Observing the numerical results, we find that our method is accurate than the iterative Jacobi and Gauss- Seidel methods on approximating the solution of FFLS.

Keywords: Fully fuzzy linear equations, iterative method, homotopy perturbation method, approximate solutions.

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248 Using Interval Trees for Approximate Indexing of Instances

Authors: Khalil el Hindi

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple and effective method for approximate indexing of instances for instance based learning. The method uses an interval tree to determine a good starting search point for the nearest neighbor. The search stops when an early stopping criterion is met. The method proved to be very effective especially when only the first nearest neighbor is required.

Keywords: Instance based learning, interval trees, the knn algorithm, machine learning.

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247 Continuity of Defuzzification and Its Application to Fuzzy Control

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi, Kiyoshi Sawada, Yasunari Shidama

Abstract:

The mathematical framework for studying of a fuzzy approximate reasoning is presented in this paper. Two important defuzzification methods (Area defuzzification and Height defuzzification) besides the center of gravity method which is the best well known defuzzification method are described. The continuity of the defuzzification methods and its application to a fuzzy feedback control are discussed.

Keywords: Fuzzy approximate reasoning, defuzzification, area method, height method.

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