Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 395

Search results for: aerodynamic angles

395 Parameter Estimation using Maximum Likelihood Method from Flight Data at High Angles of Attack

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, A. K. Ghosh

Abstract:

The paper presents the modeling of nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics using flight data of Hansa-3 aircraft at high angles of attack near stall. The Kirchhoff-s quasi-steady stall model has been used to incorporate nonlinear aerodynamic effects in the aerodynamic model used to estimate the parameters, thereby, making the aerodynamic model nonlinear. The Maximum Likelihood method has been applied to the flight data (at high angles of attack) for the estimation of parameters (aerodynamic and stall characteristics) using the nonlinear aerodynamic model. To improve the accuracy level of the estimates, an approach of fixing the strong parameters has also been presented.

Keywords: Maximum Likelihood, nonlinear, parameters, stall.

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394 Diagnostic Investigation of Aircraft Performance at Different Winglet Cant Angles

Authors: Dinesh M., Kenny Mark V., Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, Santhosh Kumar B., Sree Radesh R., V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

Comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out to examine the best aerodynamic performance of subsonic aircraft at different winglet cant angles using a validated 3D k-ω SST model. In the parametric analytical studies NACA series of airfoils are selected. Basic design of the winglet is selected from the literature and flow features of the entire wing including the winglet tip effects have been examined with different cant angles varying from 150 to 600 at different angles of attack up to 140. We have observed, among the cases considered in this study that a case, with 150 cant angle the aerodynamics performance of the subsonic aircraft during takeoff was found better up to an angle of attack of 2.80 and further its performance got diminished at higher angles of attack. Analyses further revealed that increasing the winglet cant angle from 150 to 600 at higher angles of attack could negate the performance deterioration and additionally it could enhance the peak CL/CD on the order of 3.5%. The investigated concept of variable-cant-angle winglets appears to be a promising alternative for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft.

Keywords: Aerodynamic efficiency, Cant-angle, Drag reduction, Flexible Winglets.

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393 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, coefficient, cruise, improving, longitudinal, OpenVSP, solver, time.

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392 Aerodynamic Stall Control of a Generic Airfoil using Synthetic Jet Actuator

Authors: Basharat Ali Haider, Naveed Durrani, Nadeem Aizud, Salimuddin Zahir

Abstract:

The aerodynamic stall control of a baseline 13-percent thick NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil using a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is presented in this paper. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a hybrid grid using a commercial software to simulate the effects of a synthetic jet actuator located at 13% of the chord from the leading edge at a Reynolds number Re = 2.1x106 and incidence angles from 16 to 22 degrees. The experimental data for the pressure distribution at Re = 3x106 and aerodynamic coefficients at Re = 2.1x106 (angle of attack varied from -16 to 22 degrees) without SJA is compared with the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation as a baseline validation. A good agreement of the CFD simulations is obtained for aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution. A working SJA has been integrated with the baseline airfoil and initial focus is on the aerodynamic stall control at angles of attack from 16 to 22 degrees. The results show a noticeable improvement in the aerodynamic performance with increase in lift and decrease in drag at these post stall regimes.

Keywords: Active flow control, Aerodynamic stall, Airfoilperformance, Synthetic jet actuator.

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391 The Comparative Analysis of Two Typical Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Exhaust Nozzles on Aerodynamic Characteristics

Authors: Xin H. Zou, Qiang Wang

Abstract:

The comparisons of two typical fluidic thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles including two-dimensional(2-D) nozzle and axisymmetric nozzle on aerodynamic characteristics was presented by numerical simulation. The results show: the thrust vector angles increased with the increasing secondary flow but decreased with the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) increasing. With the same secondary flow and NPR, the thrust vector angles of 2-D nozzle were higher than the axisymmetric nozzle-s. So with the lower NPR and more secondary weight flow, the much higher thrust vector angle was caused by 2-D fluidic nozzle. And with the higher NPR and less secondary weight flow, there was not much difference in angular dimension between two nozzles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, fluidic nozzle, vector angle, thrust coefficient comparison.

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390 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien

Abstract:

ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: Aerodynamic lens AL, divergent nozzle DN, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach.

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389 Numerical Investigation of High Attack Angle Flow on 760/450 Double-Delta Wing in Incompressible Flow

Authors: Hesamodin Ebnodin Hamidi, Mojtaba Rahimi

Abstract:

Along with increasing development of generation of supersonic planes especially fighters and request for increasing the performance and maneuverability scientists and engineers suggested the delta and double delta wing design. One of the areas which was necessary to be researched, was the Aerodynamic review of this type of wings in high angles of attack at low speeds that was very important in landing and takeoff the planes and maneuvers. Leading Edges of the wings,cause the separation flow from wing surface and then formation of powerful vortex with high rotational speed which studing the mechanism and location of formation and also the position of the vortex breakdown in high angles of attack is very important. In this research, a double delta wing with 76o/45o sweep angles at high angle of attack in steady state and incompressible flow were numerically analyzed with Fluent software. With analaysis of the numerical results, we arrived the most important characteristic of the double delta wings which is keeping of lift at high angles of attacks.

Keywords: Double delta wing, high angle of attack, vortex breakdown, incompressible flow.

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388 Effect of Endplate Shape on Performance and Stability of Wings-in Ground (WIG) Craft

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Chol Ho Hong, Kwang Soo Kim, Juhee Lee

Abstract:

Numerical analysis for the aerodynamic characteristics of the WIG (wing-in ground effect) craft with highly cambered and aspect ratio of one is performed to predict the ground effect for the case of with- and without- lower-extension endplate. The analysis is included varying angles of attack from 0 to10 deg. and ground clearances from 5% of chord to 50%. Due to the ground effect, the lift by rising in pressure on the lower surface is increased and the influence of wing-tip vortices is decreased. These two significant effects improve the lift-drag ratio. On the other hand, the endplate prevents the high-pressure air escaping from the air cushion at the wing tip and causes to increase the lift and lift-drag ratio further. It is found from the visualization of computation results that two wing-tip vortices are generated from each surface of the wing tip and their strength are weak and diminished rapidly. Irodov-s criteria are also evaluated to investigate the static height stability. The comparison of Irodov-s criteria shows that the endplate improves the deviation of the static height stability with respect to pitch angles and heights. As the results, the endplate can improve the aerodynamic characteristics and static height stability of wings in ground effect, simultaneously.

Keywords: WIG craft, Endplate, Ground Effect, Aerodynamics, CFD, Lift-drag ratio, Static height stability.

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387 Computational Prediction of Complicated Atmospheric Motion for Spinning or non- Spinning Projectiles

Authors: Dimitrios N. Gkritzapis, Elias E. Panagiotopoulos, Dionissios P. Margaris, Dimitrios G. Papanikas

Abstract:

A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of high spin and fin-stabilized projectiles via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The projectiles is assumed to be both rigid (non-flexible), and rotationally symmetric about its spin axis launched at low and high pitch angles. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectiles maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to wind and gravity. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied from the tabulated database of McCoy-s book. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

Keywords: Constant-Variable aerodynamic coefficients, low and high pitch angles, wind.

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386 Aerodynamic Analysis of a Frontal Deflector for Vehicles

Authors: C. Malça, N. Alves, A. Mateus

Abstract:

This work was one of the tasks of the Manufacturing2Client project, whose objective was to develop a frontal deflector to be commercialized in the automotive industry, using new project and manufacturing methods. In this task, in particular, it was proposed to develop the ability to predict computationally the aerodynamic influence of flow in vehicles, in an effort to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles from class 3 to 8. With this aim, two deflector models were developed and their aerodynamic performance analyzed. The aerodynamic study was done using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software Ansys CFX and allowed the calculation of the drag coefficient caused by the vehicle motion for the different configurations considered. Moreover, the reduction of diesel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with the optimized deflector geometry could be assessed.

Keywords: Aerodynamic analysis, CFD, CO2 emissions, Drag coefficient, Frontal deflector, Fuel consumption.

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385 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav

Abstract:

Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, dynamic stall, low Reynolds, Mars, Titan.

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384 Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation

Authors: Attapon Charoenpon, Ekkarach Pankeaw

Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Characteristic Equation, Angle ofAttack, Polynomial interpolation, Trajectories

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383 Analysis of Euler Angles in a Simple Two-Axis Gimbals Set

Authors: Ma Myint Myint Aye

Abstract:

Any rotation of a 3-dimensional object can be performed by three consecutive rotations over Euler angles. Intrinsic rotations produce the same result as extrinsic rotations in transformation. Euler rotations are the movement obtained by changing one of the Euler angles while leaving the other two constant. These Euler rotations are applied in a simple two-axis gimbals set mounted on an automotives. The values of Euler angles are [π/4, π/4, π/4] radians inside the angles ranges for a given coordinate system and these actual orientations can be directly measured from these gimbals set of moving automotives but it can occur the gimbals lock in application at [π/2.24, 0, 0] radians. In order to avoid gimbals lock, the values of quaternion must be [π/4.8, π/8.2, 0, π/4.8] radians. The four-gimbals set can eliminate gimbals lock.

Keywords: Intrinsic rotations, extrinsic rotations, Euler rotations, rotation matrices, quaternion.

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382 Multi-Objective Optimization of an Aerodynamic Feeding System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jan Busch, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Considering the challenges of short product life cycles and growing variant diversity, cost minimization and manufacturing flexibility increasingly gain importance to maintain a competitive edge in today’s global and dynamic markets. In this context, an aerodynamic part feeding system for high-speed industrial assembly applications has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. The aerodynamic part feeding system outperforms conventional systems with respect to its process safety, reliability, and operating speed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation of the aerodynamic feeding system regarding the orientation rate, the feeding velocity, and the required nozzle pressure is presented.

Keywords: Aerodynamic feeding system, genetic algorithm, multi-objective optimization.

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381 Application of the Total Least Squares Estimation Method for an Aircraft Aerodynamic Model Identification

Authors: Zaouche Mohamed, Amini Mohamed, Foughali Khaled, Aitkaid Souhila, Bouchiha Nihad Sarah

Abstract:

The aerodynamic coefficients are important in the evaluation of an aircraft performance and stability-control characteristics. These coefficients also can be used in the automatic flight control systems and mathematical model of flight simulator. The study of the aerodynamic aspect of flying systems is a reserved domain and inaccessible for the developers. Doing tests in a wind tunnel to extract aerodynamic forces and moments requires a specific and expensive means. Besides, the glaring lack of published documentation in this field of study makes the aerodynamic coefficients determination complicated. This work is devoted to the identification of an aerodynamic model, by using an aircraft in virtual simulated environment. We deal with the identification of the system, we present an environment framework based on Software In the Loop (SIL) methodology and we use MicrosoftTM Flight Simulator (FS-2004) as the environment for plane simulation. We propose The Total Least Squares Estimation technique (TLSE) to identify the aerodynamic parameters, which are unknown, variable, classified and used in the expression of the piloting law. In this paper, we define each aerodynamic coefficient as the mean of its numerical values. All other variations are considered as modeling uncertainties that will be compensated by the robustness of the piloting control.

Keywords: Aircraft aerodynamic model, Microsoft flight simulator, MQ-1 Predator, total least squares estimation, piloting the aircraft.

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380 Identification of an Unstable Nonlinear System: Quadrotor

Authors: Mauricio Pe˜na, Adriana Luna, Carol Rodr´ıguez

Abstract:

In the following article we begin from a multi-parameter unstable nonlinear model of a Quadrotor. We design a control to stabilize and assure the attitude of the device, starting off a linearized system at the equilibrium point of the null angles of Euler (hover), which provides us a control with limited capacities at small angles of rotation of the vehicle in three dimensions. In order to clear this obstacle, we propose the identification of models in different angles by means of simulations and the design of a controller specifically implemented for the identification task, that in future works will allow the development of controllers according to fast and agile angles of Euler for Quadrotor.

Keywords: Quadrotor, model, control, identification.

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379 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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378 Application of Artificial Neural Network for the Prediction of Pressure Distribution of a Plunging Airfoil

Authors: F. Rasi Maezabadi, M. Masdari, M. R. Soltani

Abstract:

Series of experimental tests were conducted on a section of a 660 kW wind turbine blade to measure the pressure distribution of this model oscillating in plunging motion. In order to minimize the amount of data required to predict aerodynamic loads of the airfoil, a General Regression Neural Network, GRNN, was trained using the measured experimental data. The network once proved to be accurate enough, was used to predict the flow behavior of the airfoil for the desired conditions. Results showed that with using a few of the acquired data, the trained neural network was able to predict accurate results with minimal errors when compared with the corresponding measured values. Therefore with employing this trained network the aerodynamic coefficients of the plunging airfoil, are predicted accurately at different oscillation frequencies, amplitudes, and angles of attack; hence reducing the cost of tests while achieving acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: Airfoil, experimental, GRNN, Neural Network, Plunging.

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377 Aerodynamic Models for the Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs)

Authors: T. Brahimi, F. Saeed, I. Paraschivoiu

Abstract:

This paper details the progress made in the development of the different state-of-the-art aerodynamic tools for the analysis of vertical axis wind turbines including the flow simulation around the blade, viscous flow, stochastic wind, and dynamic stall effects. The paper highlights the capabilities of the developed wind turbine aerodynamic codes over the last thirty years which are currently being used in North America and Europe by Sandia Laboratories, FloWind, IMST Marseilles, and Hydro-Quebec among others. The aerodynamic codes developed at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada, represent valuable tools for simulating the flow around wind turbines including secondary effects. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental data have shown good agreement. The strength of the aerodynamic codes based on Double-Multiple Stream tube model (DMS) lies in its simplicity, accuracy, and ability to analyze secondary effects that interfere with wind turbine aerodynamic calculations.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wind turbines, VAWT, CARDAAV, Darrieus, dynamic stall.

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376 Quantification of Aerodynamic Variables Using Analytical Technique and Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Adil Loya, Kamran Maqsood, Muhammad Duraid

Abstract:

Aerodynamic stability coefficients are necessary to be known before any unmanned aircraft flight is performed. This requires expertise on aerodynamics and stability control of the aircraft. To enable efficacious performance of aircraft requires that a well-defined flight path and aerodynamics should be defined beforehand. This paper presents a study on the aerodynamics of an unmanned aero vehicle (UAV) during flight conditions. Current research holds comparative studies of different parameters for flight aerodynamic, measured using two different open source analytical software programs. These software packages are DATCOM and XLRF5, which help in depicting the flight aerodynamic variables. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was also used to perform aerodynamic analysis for which Star CCM+ was used. Output trends of the study demonstrate high accuracies between the two software programs with that of CFD. It can be seen that the Coefficient of Lift (CL) obtained from DATCOM and XFLR is similar to CL of CFD simulation. In the similar manner, other potential aerodynamic stability parameters obtained from analytical software are in good agreement with CFD.

Keywords: XFLR5, DATCOM, computational fluid dynamic, unmanned aero vehicle.

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375 Transonic Flutter Analysis Using Euler Equation and Reduced Order Modeling Technique

Authors: D. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, T. Kim

Abstract:

A new method identifies coupled fluid-structure system with a reduced set of state variables is presented. Assuming that the structural model is known a priori either from an analysis or a test and using linear transformations between structural and aeroelastic states, it is possible to deduce aerodynamic information from sampled time histories of the aeroelastic system. More specifically given a finite set of structural modes the method extracts generalized aerodynamic force matrix corresponding to these mode shapes. Once the aerodynamic forces are known, an aeroelastic reduced-order model can be constructed in discrete-time, state-space format by coupling the structural model and the aerodynamic system. The resulting reduced-order model is suitable for constant Mach, varying density analysis.

Keywords: ROM (Reduced-Order Model), aero elasticity, AGARD 445.6 wing.

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374 Stabilization and Control of a UAV Flight Attitude Angles using the Backstepping Method

Authors: Mihai Lungu

Abstract:

The paper presents the design of a mini-UAV attitude controller using the backstepping method. Starting from the nonlinear dynamic equations of the mini-UAV, by using the backstepping method, the author of this paper obtained the expressions of the elevator, rudder and aileron deflections, which stabilize the UAV, at each moment, to the desired values of the attitude angles. The attitude controller controls the attitude angles, the angular rates, the angular accelerations and other variables that describe the UAV longitudinal and lateral motions. To design the nonlinear controller, by using the backstepping technique, the nonlinear equations and the Lyapunov analysis have been directly used. The designed controller has been implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment and its effectiveness has been tested with a campaign of numerical simulations using data from the UAV flight tests. The obtained results are very good and they are better than the ones found in previous works.

Keywords: Attitude angles, Backstepping, Controller, UAV.

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373 Advantages of Neural Network Based Air Data Estimation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Angelo Lerro, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Alberto Brandl

Abstract:

Redundancy requirements for UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) are hardly faced due to the generally restricted amount of available space and allowable weight for the aircraft systems, limiting their exploitation. Essential equipment as the Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (ADAHRS) require several external probes to measure significant data as the Angle of Attack or the Sideslip Angle. Previous research focused on the analysis of a patented technology named Smart-ADAHRS (Smart Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System) as an alternative method to obtain reliable and accurate estimates of the aerodynamic angles. This solution is based on an innovative sensor fusion algorithm implementing soft computing techniques and it allows to obtain a simplified inertial and air data system reducing external devices. In fact, only one external source of dynamic and static pressures is needed. This paper focuses on the benefits which would be gained by the implementation of this system in UAV applications. A simplification of the entire ADAHRS architecture will bring to reduce the overall cost together with improved safety performance. Smart-ADAHRS has currently reached Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. Real flight tests took place on ultralight aircraft equipped with a suitable Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI). The output of the algorithm using the flight test measurements demonstrates the capability for this fusion algorithm to embed in a single device multiple physical and virtual sensors. Any source of dynamic and static pressure can be integrated with this system gaining a significant improvement in terms of versatility.

Keywords: Neural network, aerodynamic angles, virtual sensor, unmanned aerial vehicle, air data system, flight test.

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372 A Numerical Framework to Investigate Intake Aerodynamics Behavior in Icing Conditions

Authors: Ali Mirmohammadi, Arash Taheri, Meysam Mohammadi-Amin

Abstract:

One of the major parts of a jet engine is air intake, which provides proper and required amount of air for the engine to operate. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be considered in design, such as distortion, pressure recovery, etc. In this research, the effects of lip ice accretion on pitot intake performance are investigated. For ice accretion phenomenon, two supervised multilayer neural networks (ANN) are designed, one for ice shape prediction and another one for ice roughness estimation based on experimental data. The Fourier coefficients of transformed ice shape and parameters include velocity, liquid water content (LWC), median volumetric diameter (MVD), spray time and temperature are used in neural network training. Then, the subsonic intake flow field is simulated numerically using 2D Navier-Stokes equations and Finite Volume approach with Hybrid mesh includes structured and unstructured meshes. The results are obtained in different angles of attack and the variations of intake aerodynamic parameters due to icing phenomenon are discussed. The results show noticeable effects of ice accretion phenomenon on intake behavior.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Ice Accretion, IntakeAerodynamics, Design Parameters, Finite Volume Method.

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371 The Adsorption of SDS on Ferro-Precipitates

Authors: R.Marsalek

Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (ν ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ν <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Keywords: ferro-precipitate, adsorption, SDS, zeta potential

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370 Numerical Study of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle based on Blunted Waverider

Authors: Liu Jian-xia, Hou Zhong-xi, Chen Xiao-qing

Abstract:

The waverider is proved to be a remarkably useful configuration for hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) in terms of the high lift-to-drag ratio. Due to the severe aerodynamic heating and the processing technical restriction, the sharp leading edge of waverider should be blunted, and then the flow characteristics and the aerodynamic performance along the trajectory will change. In this paper, the flow characteristics of a HGV, including the rarefied gas effect and transition phenomenon, were studied based on a reference trajectory. A numerical simulation was carried out to study the performance of the HGV under a typical condition.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, CFD, Thermodynamic, Waverider

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369 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wind tunnel, turbulence model, lift, drag.

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368 Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Tip Devices on the Power Coefficient of a VAWT

Authors: Federico Amato, Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The aerodynamic performances of vertical axis wind turbines are highly affected by tip vortexes. In the present work, different tip devices are considered and simulated against a baseline rotor configuration, with the aim of identifying the best tip architecture. Three different configurations are tested: winglets, an elliptic termination and an aerodynamic bulkhead. A comparative analysis on the most promising architectures is conducted, focusing also on blade torque evolution during a full revolution of the rotor blade. The most promising technology is concluded to be a well designed winglet.

Keywords: Darrieus Wind Turbine, Tip Devices, Tip Vortexes, Winglet, Elliptic Termination, Aerodynamic Bulkhead

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367 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Cessna, Citation X, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP.

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366 A Retrospective of High-Lift Device Technology

Authors: Andrea Dal Monte, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the most adopted technical solutions for the enhancement of the lift force of a wing. In fact, during several flight conditions (such as take off and landing), the lift force needs to be dramatically enhanced. Both trailing edge devices (such as flaps) and leading edge ones (such as slats) are described. Finally, the most advanced aerodynamic solutions to avoid the separation of the boundary layer from aircraft wings at high angles of attack are reviewed.

Keywords: High lift devices, Trailing Edge devices, Leading Edge devices, Boundary Layer Control devices

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