Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 197

Search results for: Young-Seok Choi

47 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to find the effect of load ratio on probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack size and to confirm the good probability distribution in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: Load ratio, fatigue crack propagation life, Magnesium alloys, probability distribution.

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46 A Study on a Discrete Event Simulation Model for Availability Analysis of Weapon Systems

Authors: Hye Lyeong Kim, Sang Yeong Choi

Abstract:

This paper discusses a discrete event simulation model for the availability analysis of weapon systems. This model incorporates missions, operational tasks and system reliability structures to analyze the availability of a weapon system. The proposed simulation model consists of 5 modules: Simulation Engine, Maintenance Organizations, System, its Mission Profile and RBD which are based on missions and operational tasks. Simulation Engine executes three kinds of discrete events in chronological order. The events are mission events generated by Mission Profile, failure events generated by System, and maintenance events executed by Maintenance Organization. Finally, this paper shows the case study of a system's availability analysis and mission reliability using the simulation model.

Keywords: MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), MTTR (Mean Time To Repair), Availability, Reliability, RBD (Reliability Block Diagram)

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45 Finite-Horizon Tracking Control for Repetitive Systems with Uncertain Initial Conditions

Authors: Sung Wook Yun, Yun Jong Choi, Kyong-min Lee, Poogyeon Park*

Abstract:

Repetitive systems stand for a kind of systems that perform a simple task on a fixed pattern repetitively, which are widely spread in industrial fields. Hence, many researchers have been interested in those systems, especially in the field of iterative learning control (ILC). In this paper, we propose a finite-horizon tracking control scheme for linear time-varying repetitive systems with uncertain initial conditions. The scheme is derived both analytically and numerically for state-feedback systems and only numerically for output-feedback systems. Then, it is extended to stable systems with input constraints. All numerical schemes are developed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A distinguished feature of the proposed scheme from the existing iterative learning control is that the scheme guarantees the tracking performance exactly even under uncertain initial conditions. The simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Finite time horizon, linear matrix inequality (LMI), repetitive system, uncertain initial condition.

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44 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: Slit circular shear panel damper, Hysteresis Characteristics, Slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis.

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43 Analysis of Driving Conditions and Preferred Media on Diversion

Authors: Yoon-Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

Studies on the distribution of traffic demands have been proceeding by providing traffic information for reducing greenhouse gases and reinforcing the road's competitiveness in the transport section, however, since it is preferentially required the extensive studies on the driver's behavior changing routes and its influence factors, this study has been developed a discriminant model for changing routes considering driving conditions including traffic conditions of roads and driver's preferences for information media. It is divided into three groups depending on driving conditions in group classification with the CART analysis, which is statistically meaningful. And the extent that driving conditions and preferred media affect a route change is examined through a discriminant analysis, and it is developed a discriminant model equation to predict a route change. As a result of building the discriminant model equation, it is shown that driving conditions affect a route change much more, the entire discriminant hit ratio is derived as 64.2%, and this discriminant equation shows high discriminant ability more than a certain degree.

Keywords: CART analysis, Diversion, Discriminant model, Driving conditions, and preferred media

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42 Optical and Structural Properties of a ZnS Buffer Layer Fabricated with Deposition Temperature of RF Magnetron Sputtering System

Authors: Won Song, Bo-Ra Koo, Seok Eui Choi, Yong-Taeg Oh, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

Optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnS thin films were investigated as potential replacements for CBD(chemical bath deposition) CdS buffer layers in the application of CIGS solar cells. ZnS thin films were fabricated on glass substrates at RT, 150oC, 200oC, and 250oC with 50 sccm Ar gas using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The crystal structure of the thin film is found to be zinc blende (cubic) structure. Lattice parameter of ZnS is slightly larger than CdS on the plane and thus better matched with that of CIGS. Within a 400-800 nm wavelength region, the average transmittance was larger than 75%. When the deposition temperature of the thin film was increased, the blue shift phenomenon was enhanced. Band gap energy of the ZnS thin film tended to increase as the deposition temperature increased. ZnS thin film is a promising material system for the CIGS buffer layer, in terms of ease of processing, low cost, environmental friendliness, higher transparency, and electrical properties

Keywords: ZnS thin film, Buffer layer, CIGS, Solar cell.

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41 Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Jung Kyu Choi, Yong Ju Kwak, Oh Hyeon Jeon, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.

Keywords: Basalt fiber reinforced polymer, buckling performance, FEM analysis, sandwich infill panel.

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40 Methods for Manufacture of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminates

Authors: Jeongho Choi, Krishna Shankar, Alan Fien, Andrew Neely

Abstract:

Corrugated wire mesh laminates (CWML) are a class of engineered open cell structures that have potential for applications in many areas including aerospace and biomedical engineering. Two different methods of fabricating corrugated wire mesh laminates from stainless steel, one using a high temperature Lithobraze alloy and the other using a low temperature Eutectic solder for joining the corrugated wire meshes are described herein. Their implementation is demonstrated by manufacturing CWML samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel (SST). It is seen that due to the facility of employing wire meshes of different densities and wire diameters, it is possible to create CWML laminates with a wide range of effective densities. The fabricated laminates are tested under uniaxial compression. The variation of the compressive yield strength with relative density of the CWML is compared to the theory developed by Gibson and Ashby for open cell structures [22]. It is shown that the compressive strength of the corrugated wire mesh laminates can be described using the same equations by using an appropriate value for the linear coefficient in the Gibson-Ashby model.

Keywords: cellular solids, corrugation, foam, open-cell, metal mesh, laminate, stainless steel

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39 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee, Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of this study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment. The results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: Multiphase pump, Numerical analysis, Experiment, Performance evaluation, Reliability verification.

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38 Effect of the Cross-Sectional Geometry on Heat Transfer and Particle Motion of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser for CO2 Capture

Authors: Seungyeong Choi, Namkyu Lee, Dong Il Shim, Young Mun Lee, Yong-Ki Park, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Effect of the cross-sectional geometry on heat transfer and particle motion of circulating fluidized bed riser for CO2 capture was investigated. Numerical simulation using Eulerian-eulerian method with kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to analyze gas-solid flow consisting in circulating fluidized bed riser. Circular, square, and rectangular cross-sectional geometry cases of the same area were carried out. Rectangular cross-sectional geometries were analyzed having aspect ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, and 1:16. The cross-sectional geometry significantly influenced the particle motion and heat transfer. The downward flow pattern of solid particles near the wall was changed. The gas-solid mixing degree of the riser with the rectangular cross section of the high aspect ratio was the lowest. There were differences in bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient according to rectangular geometry with different aspect ratios.

Keywords: Bed geometry, computational fluid dynamics, circulating fluidized bed riser, heat transfer.

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37 A Materialized View Approach to Support Aggregation Operations over Long Periods in Sensor Networks

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Julee Choi, Sookyung Song

Abstract:

The increasing interest on processing data created by sensor networks has evolved into approaches to implement sensor networks as databases. The aggregation operator, which calculates a value from a large group of data such as computing averages or sums, etc. is an essential function that needs to be provided when implementing such sensor network databases. This work proposes to add the DURING clause into TinySQL to calculate values during a specific long period and suggests a way to implement the aggregation service in sensor networks by applying materialized view and incremental view maintenance techniques that is used in data warehouses. In sensor networks, data values are passed from child nodes to parent nodes and an aggregation value is computed at the root node. As such root nodes need to be memory efficient and low powered, it becomes a problem to recompute aggregate values from all past and current data. Therefore, applying incremental view maintenance techniques can reduce the memory consumption and support fast computation of aggregate values.

Keywords: Aggregation, Incremental View Maintenance, Materialized view, Sensor Network.

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36 Emergency Response Plan Establishment and Computerization through the Analysis of the Disasters Occurring on Long-Span Bridges by Type

Authors: Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park, Dooyong Cho, Jinwoong Choi

Abstract:

In this paper, a strategy for long-span bridge disaster response was developed, divided into risk analysis, business impact analysis, and emergency response plan. At the risk analysis stage, the critical risk was estimated. The critical risk was “car accident."The critical process by critical-risk classification was assessed at the business impact analysis stage. The critical process was the task related to the road conditions and traffic safety. Based on the results of the precedent analysis, an emergency response plan was established. By making the order of the standard operating procedures clear, an effective plan for dealing with disaster was formulated. Finally, a prototype software was developed based on the research findings. This study laid the foundation of an information-technology-based disaster response guideline and is significant in that it computerized the disaster response plan to improve the plan-s accessibility.

Keywords: Emergency response; Long-span bridge; Disaster management; Standard operating procedure; Ubiquitous.

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35 Development of Synthetic Jet Air Blower for Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Jongpil Choi, Eon-Soo Lee, Jae-Huk Jang, Young Ho Seo, Byeonghee Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a synthetic jet air blower actuated by PZT for air blowing for air-breathing micro PEM fuel cell. The several factors to affect the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cell such as air flow rate, opening ratio and cathode open type in the cathode side were studied. Especially, an air flow rate is critical condition to improve its performance. In this paper, we developed a synthetic jet air blower to supply a high stoichiometric air flow. The synthetic jet mechanism is a zero mass flux device that converts electrical energy into the momentum. The synthetic jet actuation is usually generated by a traditional PZT actuator, which consists of a small cylindrical cavity, in/outlet channel and PZT diaphragms. The flow rate of the fabricated synthetic jet air blower was 400cc/min at 550Hz and its power consumption was very low under 0.3W. The proposed air-breathing PEM fuel cell which installed synthetic jet air blower was higher performance and stability during continuous operation than the air-breathing fuel cell without auxiliary device to supply the air. The results showed that the maximum power density was 188mW/cm2 at 400mA/cm2. This maximum power density and durability were improved more than 40% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell, Synthetic jet air blower, Opening ratio, Power consumption.

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34 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Sung-yong Choi, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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33 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-Tai Jung, Sung-Yong Choi, Young-Hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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32 Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Animal Farming Aquatic Environments and Meats in a Peri-Urban Community in South Korea

Authors: Hyunjin Rho, Bongjin Shin, Okbok Lee, Yu-Hyun Choi, Jiyoung Lee, Jaerang Rho

Abstract:

The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (~ 26.04 %) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial resistance, Multi-resistance

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31 An Experimental Study on Behavior of Transverse Connection Appropriate for Modular Girder Bridge

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Woong Choi, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the behavior of integral and segmental specimens through static and cyclic tests. Integral specimens were made with the same size to be compared with segmental specimens that were made by connected precast members. To evaluate its bending performance and serviceability, 1 integral and 3 segmental specimens were tested under static load. And 1 integral and 2 segmental specimens were tested under cyclic load, respectively. Different load ranges were considered in the cyclic tests to evaluate the safety and serviceability. The test results showed that under static loading, segmental specimens had about 94% of the integral specimen's maximum moment, averagely. Under cyclic loading, the segmental specimens showed that had enough safety in the range of higher than service load and enough serviceability. In conclusion, the maximum crack width (0.16mm) satisfied the allowable crack width (0.30mm) in the range of service load.

Keywords: Modular bridge, Transverse connection, Precast concrete, Static and cyclic test.

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30 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia

Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo

Abstract:

Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.

Keywords: Dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer.

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29 Minimizing Risk Costs through Optimal Responses in NPD Projects

Authors: Chan-Sik Kim, Jong-Seong Kim, Se Won Lee, Hoo-Gon Choi

Abstract:

In rapidly changing market environment, firms are investing a lot of time and resources into new product development (NPD) projects to make profit and to obtain competitive advantage. However, failure rate of NPD projects is becoming high due to various internal and external risks which hinder successful NPD projects. To reduce the failure rate, it is critical that risks have to be managed effectively and efficiently through good strategy, and treated by optimal responses to minimize risk cost. Four strategies are adopted to handle the risks in this study. The optimal responses are characterized by high reduction of risk costs with high efficiency. This study suggests a framework to decide the optimal responses considering the core risks, risk costs, response efficiency and response costs for successful NPD projects. Both binary particles warm optimization (BPSO) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) methods are mainly used in the framework. Although several limitations exist in use for real industries, the frame work shows good strength for handling the risks with highly scientific ways through an example.

Keywords: NPD projects, risk cost, strategy, optimal responses, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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28 Bond Strength between Concrete and AR-Glass Roving with Variables of Development Length

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the climate change is the one of the main problems. This abnormal phenomenon is consisted of the scorching heat, heavy rain and snowfall, and cold wave that will be enlarged abnormal climate change repeatedly. Accordingly, the width of temperature change is increased more and more by abnormal climate, and it is the main factor of cracking in the reinforced concrete. The crack of the reinforced concrete will affect corrosion of steel re-bar which can decrease durability of the structure easily. Hence, the elimination of the durability weakening factor (steel re-bar) is needed. Textile which weaves the carbon, AR-glass and aramid fiber has been studied actively for exchanging the steel re-bar in the Europe for about 15 years because of its good durability. To apply textile as the concrete reinforcement, the bond strength between concrete and textile will be investigated closely. Therefore, in this paper, pull-out test was performed with change of development length of textile. Significant load and stress was increasing at D80. But, bond stress decreased by increasing development length.

Keywords: Bond strength, climate change, pull-out test, replacement of reinforcement material, textile.

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27 A Noble Flow Rate Control based on Leaky Bucket Method for Multi-Media OBS Networks

Authors: Kentaro Miyoko, Yoshihiko Mori, Yugo Ikeda, Yoshihiro Nishino, Yong-Bok Choi, Hiromi Okada

Abstract:

Optical burst switching (OBS) has been proposed to realize the next generation Internet based on the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network technologies. In the OBS, the burst contention is one of the major problems. The deflection routing has been designed for resolving the problem. However, the deflection routing becomes difficult to prevent from the burst contentions as the network load becomes high. In this paper, we introduce a flow rate control methods to reduce burst contentions. We propose new flow rate control methods based on the leaky bucket algorithm and deflection routing, i.e. separate leaky bucket deflection method, and dynamic leaky bucket deflection method. In proposed methods, edge nodes which generate data bursts carry out the flow rate control protocols. In order to verify the effectiveness of the flow rate control in OBS networks, we show that the proposed methods improve the network utilization and reduce the burst loss probability through computer simulations.

Keywords: Optical burst switching, OBS, flow rate control.

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26 Classification Algorithms in Human Activity Recognition using Smartphones

Authors: Mohd Fikri Azli bin Abdullah, Ali Fahmi Perwira Negara, Md. Shohel Sayeed, Deok-Jai Choi, Kalaiarasi Sonai Muthu

Abstract:

Rapid advancement in computing technology brings computers and humans to be seamlessly integrated in future. The emergence of smartphone has driven computing era towards ubiquitous and pervasive computing. Recognizing human activity has garnered a lot of interest and has raised significant researches- concerns in identifying contextual information useful to human activity recognition. Not only unobtrusive to users in daily life, smartphone has embedded built-in sensors that capable to sense contextual information of its users supported with wide range capability of network connections. In this paper, we will discuss the classification algorithms used in smartphone-based human activity. Existing technologies pertaining to smartphone-based researches in human activity recognition will be highlighted and discussed. Our paper will also present our findings and opinions to formulate improvement ideas in current researches- trends. Understanding research trends will enable researchers to have clearer research direction and common vision on latest smartphone-based human activity recognition area.

Keywords: Classification algorithms, Human Activity Recognition (HAR), Smartphones

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25 Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Echo Suppression for Barge-in Speech Recognition

Authors: Jong Han Joo, Jeong Hun Lee, Young Sun Kim, Jae Young Kang, Seung Ho Choi

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a novel technique for acoustic echo suppression (AES) during speech recognition under barge-in conditions. Conventional AES methods based on spectral subtraction apply fixed weights to the estimated echo path transfer function (EPTF) at the current signal segment and to the EPTF estimated until the previous time interval. However, the effects of echo path changes should be considered for eliminating the undesired echoes. We describe a new approach that adaptively updates weight parameters in response to abrupt changes in the acoustic environment due to background noises or double-talk. Furthermore, we devised a voice activity detector and an initial time-delay estimator for barge-in speech recognition in communication networks. The initial time delay is estimated using log-spectral distance measure, as well as cross-correlation coefficients. The experimental results show that the developed techniques can be successfully applied in barge-in speech recognition systems.

Keywords: Acoustic echo suppression, barge-in, speech recognition, echo path transfer function, initial delay estimator, voice activity detector.

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24 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. The structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that their load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of traditional steel moment-resisting systems. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEMs) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections even if there are access holes.

Keywords: Unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation, access holes.

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23 Behavior Analysis Based On Nine Degrees-of-Freedom Sensor for Emergency Rescue Evacuation Support System

Authors: Maeng-Hwan Hyun, Dae-Man Do, Young-Bok Choi

Abstract:

Around the world, there are frequent incidents of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and snowstorms, as well as manmade disasters such as fires, arsons, and acts of terror. These diverse and unpredictable adversities have resulted in a number of fatalities and injuries. If disaster occurrence can be assessed quickly and information such as the exact location of the disaster and evacuation routes can be provided, victims can promptly move to safe locations, minimizing losses. This paper proposes a behavior analysis method based on a nine degrees-of-freedom (9-DOF) sensor that is effective for the emergency rescue evacuation support system (ERESS), which is being researched with an objective of providing evacuation support during disasters. Based on experiments performed using the acceleration sensor and the gyroscope sensor in the 9-DOF sensor, data are analyzed for human behavior regarding stationary position, walking, running, and during emergency situation to suggest guidelines for system judgment. Using the results of the experiments performed to determine disaster occurrence, it was confirmed that the proposed method quickly determines whether a disaster has occurred.

Keywords: Behavior Analysis, Nine degrees-of-freedom sensor, Emergency rescue.

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22 Advanced Micromanufacturing for Ultra Precision Part by Soft Lithography and Nano Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Andy Tirta, Yus Prasetyo, Eung-Ryul. Baek, Chul-Jin. Choi , Hye-Moon. Lee

Abstract:

Recently, the advanced technologies that offer high precision product, relative easy, economical process and also rapid production are needed to realize the high demand of ultra precision micro part. In our research, micromanufacturing based on soft lithography and nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The silicone metal pattern with ultra thick and high aspect ratio succeeds to fabricate Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro mold. The process followed by nanopowder injection molding (PIM) by a simple vacuum hot press. The 17-4ph nanopowder with diameter of 100 nm, succeed to be injected and it forms green sample microbearing with thickness, microchannel and aspect ratio is 700μm, 60μm and 12, respectively. Sintering process was done in 1200 C for 2 hours and heating rate 0.83oC/min. Since low powder load (45% PL) was applied to achieve green sample fabrication, ~15% shrinkage happen in the 86% relative density. Several improvements should be done to produce high accuracy and full density sintered part.

Keywords: Micromanufacturing, Nano PIM, PDMS micro mould.

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21 Optimal Retrofit Design of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Infill Wall Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Se Woon Choi, Yousok Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

Various retrofit techniques for reinforced concrete frame with infill wall have been steadily developed. Among those techniques, strengthening methodology based on diagonal FRP strips (FRP bracings) has numerous advantages such as feasibility of implementing without interrupting the building under operation, reduction of cost and time, and easy application. Considering the safety of structure and retrofit cost, the most appropriate retrofit solution is needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to suggest pareto-optimal solution for existing building using FRP bracings. To find pareto-optimal solution analysis, NSGA-II is applied. Moreover, the seismic performance of retrofit building is evaluated. The example building is 5-storey, 3-bay RC frames with infill wall. Nonlinear static pushover analyses are performed with FEMA 356. The criterion of performance evaluation is inter-story drift ratio at the performance level IO, LS, CP. Optimal retrofit solutions is obtained for 32 individuals and 200 generations. Through the proposed optimal solutions, we confirm the improvement of seismic performance of the example building.

Keywords: Retrofit, FRP bracings, reinforced concrete frame with infill wall, seismic performance evaluation, NSGA-II.

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20 Characteristics of Hemodynamics in a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve using an Implicit FSI Method

Authors: Tae-Hyub Hong, Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim

Abstract:

Human heart valves diseased by congenital heart defects, rheumatic fever, bacterial infection, cancer may cause stenosis or insufficiency in the valves. Treatment may be with medication but often involves valve repair or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are widely implanted to replace the diseased heart valves, but still suffer from complications such as hemolysis, platelet activation, tissue overgrowth and device failure. These complications are closely related to both flow characteristics through the valves and leaflet dynamics. In this study, the physiological flow interacting with the moving leaflets in a bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is simulated with a strongly coupled implicit fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method which is newly organized based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (remeshing) of FLUENT. The simulated results are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. This study shows the applicability of the present FSI model to the complicated physics interacting between fluid flow and moving boundary.

Keywords: Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve, Fluid- Structure Interaction.

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19 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes.

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18 A Study on Performance-Based Design Analysis for Vertical Extension of Apartment Units

Authors: Minsun Kim, Ki-Sun Choi, Hyun-Jee Lee, Young-Chan You

Abstract:

There is no reinforcement example for the renovation of the vertical and horizontal extension to existing building structures which is a shear wall type in apartment units in Korea. Among these existing structures, the structures which are shear wall type are rare overseas, while Korea has many shear wall apartment units. Recently, in Korea, a few researchers are trying to confirm the possibility of the vertical extension in existing building with shear walls. This study evaluates the possibility of the renovation by applying performance-based seismic design to existing buildings with shear walls in the analysis phase of the structure. In addition, force-based seismic design, used by general structural engineers in Korea, is carried out to compare the amount of reinforcement of walls, which is a main component of wall structure. As a result, we suggest that performance-based design obtains more economical advantages than force-based seismic design.

Keywords: Vertical extension, performance-based design, renovation, shear wall structure, structural analysis.

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