Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 143

Search results for: Wrist Pulse Segment

143 Outlier Pulse Detection and Feature Extraction for Wrist Pulse Analysis

Authors: Bhaskar Thakker, Anoop Lal Vyas

Abstract:

Wrist pulse analysis for identification of health status is found in Ancient Indian as well as Chinese literature. The preprocessing of wrist pulse is necessary to remove outlier pulses and fluctuations prior to the analysis of pulse pressure signal. This paper discusses the identification of irregular pulses present in the pulse series and intricacies associated with the extraction of time domain pulse features. An approach of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) has been utilized for the identification of outlier pulses in the wrist pulse series. The ambiguity present in the identification of pulse features is resolved with the help of first derivative of Ensemble Average of wrist pulse series. An algorithm for detecting tidal and dicrotic notch in individual wrist pulse segment is proposed.

Keywords: Wrist Pulse Segment, Ensemble Average, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), Pulse Similarity Vector.

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142 Bowden Cable Based Powered Ball and Socket Wrist Actuator

Authors: Samee Ahmad, Adnan Masood, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

A 2-Degrees of freedom powered prosthetic wrist actuator has been proposed that can provide the Abduction/Adduction & Flexion/Extension movements of the human wrist. The basic structure of the actuator is a Ball and Socket joint and the force is transmitted from the DC geared servo motors to the joint through the Bowden cables. The proposed design is capable of providing the required DOF in both axes i.e. 85° & 90° in flexion extension axis. The size and weight of the actuator lies within the ranges of an average human being-s wrist.

Keywords: Actuator, Ball & Socket, Bowden Cable, Prosthetic, Wrist

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141 An Iterative Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics of 5-DOF Manipulator with Offset Wrist

Authors: Juyi Park, Jung-Min Kim, Hee-Hwan Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Gye-Hyung Kang, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents an iterative algorithm to find a inverse kinematic solution of 5-DOF robot. The algorithm is to minimize the iteration number. Since the 5-DOF robot cannot give full orientation of tool. Only z-direction of tool is satisfied while rotation of tool is determined by kinematic constraint. This work therefore described how to specify the tool direction and let the tool rotation free. The simulation results show that this algorithm effectively worked. Using the proposed iteration algorithm, error due to inverse kinematics converged to zero rapidly in 5 iterations. This algorithm was applied in real welding robot and verified through various practical works.

Keywords: 5-DOF manipulator, Inverse kinematics, Iterative algorithm, Wrist offset.

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140 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son, Rozita Borhan

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: Amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, Frequency Divider, Pulse Generator.

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139 Analysis of Nonlinear Pulse Propagation Characteristics in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Different Input Pulse Shapes

Authors: Suchi Barua, Narottam Das, Sven Nordholm, Mohammad Razaghi

Abstract:

This paper presents nonlinear pulse propagation characteristics for different input optical pulse shapes with various input pulse energy levels in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For simulation of nonlinear pulse propagation, finite-difference beam propagation method is used to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this equation, gain spectrum dynamics, gain saturation are taken into account which depends on carrier depletion, carrier heating, spectral-hole burning, group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation and two photon absorption. From this analysis, we obtained the output waveforms and spectra for different input pulse shapes as well as for different input energies. It shows clearly that the peak position of the output waveforms are shifted toward the leading edge which due to the gain saturation of the SOA for higher input pulse energies. We also analyzed and compared the normalized difference of full-width at half maximum for different input pulse shapes in the SOA.

Keywords: Finite-difference beam propagation method, pulse shape, pulse propagation, semiconductor optical amplifier.

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138 Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Rohollah. Abdollahi, Alireza. Jalilian

Abstract:

This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

Keywords: AC–DC converter, star-connected autotransformer, power quality, 24 pulse rectifier, Pulse Doubling, direct torquecontrolled induction motor drive (DTCIMD).

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137 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: Calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

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136 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: F. Isada, Y. Isada

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: Empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern.

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135 Designing and Manufacturing High Voltage Pulse Generator with Adjustable Pulse and Monitoring Current and Voltage: Food Processing Application

Authors: H. Mirzaee, A. Pourzaki

Abstract:

Using strength Pulse Electrical Field (PEF) in food industries is a non-thermal process that can deactivate microorganisms and increase penetration in plant and animals tissues without serious impact on food taste and quality. In this paper designing and fabricating of a PEF generator has been presented. Pulse generation methods have been surveyed and the best of them selected. The equipment by controller set can generate square pulse with adjustable parameters such as amplitude 1-5kV, frequency 0.1-10Hz, pulse width 10-100s, and duty cycle 0-100%. Setting the number of pulses, and presenting the output voltage and current waveforms on the oscilloscope screen are another advantages of this equipment. Finally, some food samples were tested that yielded the satisfactory results. PEF applying had considerable effects on potato, banana and purple cabbage. It caused increase Brix factor from 0.05 to 0.15 in potato solution. It is also so effective in extraction color material from purple cabbage. In the last experiment effects of PEF voltages on color extraction of saffron scum were surveyed (about 6% increasing yield).

Keywords: PEF, Capacitor, Switch, IGBT

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134 Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Han-Sheng Tseng

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation from 0 to 600 W.

Keywords: Pulse width modulation, feedback dithering, linear quadratic control, inverter.

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133 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari

Abstract:

Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycle present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: Current density, Duty cycle, Microstructure, Nickel, Pulse frequency.

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132 Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Satish Kumar Peddapelli

Abstract:

This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have became popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analyzed.

Keywords: Five-level inverter, Space vector pulse wide modulation, diode clamped inverter.

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131 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: Pulse-shaping filters, jitter, inter-symbol interference, symmetric FIR filters, QAM

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130 Comparison of Valuation Techniques for Bone Age Assessment

Authors: N. Olarte L, A. Rubiano F, A. Mejía F.

Abstract:

This comparison of valuation techniques for bone age assessment is a work carried out by the Telemedicine Research Group of the Military University - TIGUM, as a preliminary to the Design and development a treatment system of hand and wrist radiological images for children aged 0-6 years to bone age assessment . In this paper the techniques mentioned for decades have been the most widely used and the statistically significant. Althought, initially with the current project, it wants to work with children who have limit age, this comparison and evaluation techniques work will help in the future to expand the study subject in the system to bone age assessment, implementing more techniques, tools and deeper analysis to accomplish this purpose.

Keywords: Atlas, Bone Age Assessment, Hand and Wrist Radiograph, Image Processing

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129 Increase of Error Detection Effectiveness in the Data Transmission Channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation

Authors: Akram A. Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper an approaches for increasing the effectiveness of error detection in computer network channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM) has been proposed. Proposed approaches are based on consideration of special feature of errors, which are appearances in line with PAM. The first approach consists of CRC modification specifically for line with PAM. The second approach is base of weighted checksums using. The way for checksum components coding has been developed. It has been shown that proposed checksum modification ensure superior digital data control transformation reliability for channels with PAM in compare to CRC.

Keywords: Pulse-Amplitude Modulation, checksum, transmission, discrete.

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128 Modification of Anodized Mg Alloy Surface By Pulse Condition for Biodegradable Material

Authors: Y.K. Kim, Y.S. Jang, H.H. Park, J.H. Ji, I.S. Park, T.S. Bae, M.H. Lee

Abstract:

Magnesium is used implant material potentially for non-toxicity to the human body. Due to the excellent bio-compatibility, Mg alloys is applied to implants avoiding removal second surgery. However, it is found commercial magnesium alloys including aluminum has low corrosion resistance, resulting subcutaneous gas bubbles and consequently the approach as permanent bio-materials. Generally, Aluminum is known to pollution substance, and it raises toxicity to nervous system. Therefore especially Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy is prepared for new biodegradable materials in this study. And the pulsed power is used in constant-current mode of DC power kinds of anodization. Based on the aforementioned study, it examines corrosion resistance and biocompatibility by effect of current and frequency variation. The surface properties and thickness were compared using scanning electronic microscopy. Corrosion resistance was assessed via potentiodynamic polarization and the effect of oxide layer on the body was assessed cell viability. Anodized Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy has good biocompatibility in vitro by current and frequency variation.

Keywords: Biodegradable material, Mg, anodization, osteoblast cell, pulse power.

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127 Nearfield UWB Pulse Array Beamformer based on Multirate Filter Bank

Authors: Min Wang , Shuyuan Yang

Abstract:

The paper presents a method of designing ultrawide band (UWB) pulse array beamformer in the case of nearfield. Firstly the principle of space-time processing of UWB pulse array is discussed. The radical beampattern transform based on spherical coordinates is employed to solve the nearfield beamforming of UWB pulse array. The frequency invariant technology is considered for the frequency dependent beampattern of UWB pulse array. We use a multirate bank scheme of to implement the FI beamformer of UWB pulse array. By using multirate filters in each element channel, it can make the response of the UWB array to avoid distortion in the whole band. The simulation resultes are given to prove the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

Keywords: UWB pulse array, frequency invariant, multiratebank, nearfield beamformer, radical transform

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126 Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma

Authors: N. Kh. Gomidze, I. N. Jabnidze, K. A. Makharadze

Abstract:

The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.

Keywords: Collisional, cold plasma, rectangular pulse signal, impulse envelope.

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125 Pulsed Multi-Layered Image Filtering: A VLSI Implementation

Authors: Christian Mayr, Holger Eisenreich, Stephan Henker, René Schüffny

Abstract:

Image convolution similar to the receptive fields found in mammalian visual pathways has long been used in conventional image processing in the form of Gabor masks. However, no VLSI implementation of parallel, multi-layered pulsed processing has been brought forward which would emulate this property. We present a technical realization of such a pulsed image processing scheme. The discussed IC also serves as a general testbed for VLSI-based pulsed information processing, which is of interest especially with regard to the robustness of representing an analog signal in the phase or duration of a pulsed, quasi-digital signal, as well as the possibility of direct digital manipulation of such an analog signal. The network connectivity and processing properties are reconfigurable so as to allow adaptation to various processing tasks.

Keywords: Neural image processing, pulse computation application, pulsed Gabor convolution, VLSI pulse routing.

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124 Quadratic Pulse Inversion Ultrasonic Imaging(QPI): A Two-Step Procedure for Optimization of Contrast Sensitivity and Specificity

Authors: Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi

Abstract:

We have previously introduced an ultrasonic imaging approach that combines harmonic-sensitive pulse sequences with a post-beamforming quadratic kernel derived from a second-order Volterra filter (SOVF). This approach is designed to produce images with high sensitivity to nonlinear oscillations from microbubble ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) while maintaining high levels of noise rejection. In this paper, a two-step algorithm for computing the coefficients of the quadratic kernel leading to reduction of tissue component introduced by motion, maximizing the noise rejection and increases the specificity while optimizing the sensitivity to the UCA is presented. In the first step, quadratic kernels from individual singular modes of the PI data matrix are compared in terms of their ability of maximize the contrast to tissue ratio (CTR). In the second step, quadratic kernels resulting in the highest CTR values are convolved. The imaging results indicate that a signal processing approach to this clinical challenge is feasible.

Keywords: Volterra Filter, Pulse Inversion, Ultrasonic Imaging, Contrast Agent.

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123 Decoy-pulse Protocol for Frequency-coded Quantum Key Distribution

Authors: Sudeshna Bhattacharya, Pratyush Pandey, Pradeep Kumar K

Abstract:

We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.

Keywords: B92, decoy-pulse, frequency-coding, quantum key distribution.

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122 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: Ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber.

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121 Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter

Authors: B. M. Manjunatha, D. V. Ashok Kumar, M. Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV system. To improve the performance of the system the number of voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical results are verified using MATLAB.

Keywords: Diode Clamped, Pulse Width Modulation, total harmonic distortion, Z Source Inverter.

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120 Characterization of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of the Welded AISI 304L Using Pulsed and Non-Pulsed Current TIG Welding

Authors: A. A. Ugla

Abstract:

The present paper aims to investigate the effects of the welding process parameters and cooling state on the weld bead geometry, mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics for weldments of AISI 304L stainless steel. The welding process was carried out using TIG welding with pulsed/non-pulsed current techniques. The cooling state was introduced as an input parameter to investigate the main effects on the structure morphology and thereby the mechanical property. This paper clarifies microstructure- mechanical property relationship of the welded specimens. In this work, the selected pulse frequency levels were 5-500 Hz in order to study the effect of low and high frequencies on the weldment characteristics using filler metal of ER 308LSi. The key findings of this work clarified that the pulse frequency has a significant effect on the breaking of the dendrite arms during the welding process and so strongly influences on the tensile strength and microhardness. The cooling state also significantly affects on the microstructure texture and thereby, the mechanical properties. The most important factor affects the bead geometry and aspect ratio is the travel speed and pulse frequency.

Keywords: Microstructure, mechanical properties, pulse frequency, high pulse frequency, austenitic stainless steel, TIG welding.

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119 General Purpose Pulse Width Modulation Based Sliding Mode Controller for Buck DC-DC

Authors: M.Bensaada , A.Boudghene Stambouli , M.Bekhti, A. Bellar, L. Boukhris

Abstract:

This paper is a simple and systematic approaches to the design and analysis a pulse width modulation (PWM) based sliding mode controller for buck DC-DC Converters. Various aspects of the design, including the practical problems and the proposed solutions, are detailed. However, these control strategies can't compensate for large load current and input voltage variations. In this paper, a new control strategy by compromising both schemes advantages and avoiding their drawbacks is proposed, analyzed and simulated.

Keywords: Buck, DC/DC converters, sliding mode control, pulse width modulation.

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118 The Application of Hybrid Orthonomal Bernstein and Block-Pulse Functions in Finding Numerical Solution of Fredholm Fuzzy Integral Equations

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, Sanaz Torkaman

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a numerical method for solving fuzzy Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. In this method a combination of orthonormal Bernstein and Block-Pulse functions are used. In most cases, the proposed method leads to the exact solution. The advantages of this method are shown by an example and calculate the error analysis.

Keywords: Fuzzy Fredholm Integral Equation, Bernstein, Block-Pulse, Orthonormal.

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117 Estimation of Systolic and Diastolic Pressure using the Pulse Transit Time

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Gi-Ryon Kim, Dong-Keun Jung, Seong-wan Baik, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

In this paper, algorithm estimating the blood pressure was proposed using the pulse transit time (PTT) as a more convenient method of measuring the blood pressure. After measuring ECG and pressure pulse, and photoplethysmography, the PTT was calculated from the acquired signals. Thereafter, the system to indirectly measure the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure was composed using the statistic method. In comparison between the blood pressure indirectly measured by proposed algorithm estimating the blood pressure and real blood pressure measured by conventional sphygmomanometer, the systolic pressure indicates the mean error of ±3.24mmHg and the standard deviation of 2.53mmHg, while the diastolic pressure indicates the satisfactory result, that is, the mean error of ±1.80mmHg and the standard deviation of 1.39mmHg. These results are satisfied with the regulation of ANSI/AAMI for certification of sphygmomanometer that real measurement error value should be within the mean error of ±5mmHg and the standard deviation of 8mmHg. These results are suggest the possibility of applying to portable and long time blood pressure monitoring system hereafter.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Systolic, Diastolic, Pulse transit time.

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116 Pulse Skipping Modulated DC to DC Step Down Converter Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode

Authors: Ramamurthy S, Ranjan P V, Raghavendiran T A

Abstract:

Reduced switching loss favours Pulse Skipping Modulation mode of switching dc-to-dc converters at light loads. Under certain conditions the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Inductor current starts from zero in each switching cycle as the switching frequency is constant and not adequately high. A DC-to-DC buck converter is modelled and simulated in this paper under DCM. Effect of ESR of the filter capacitor in input current frequency components is studied. The converter is studied for its operation under input voltage and load variation. The operating frequency is selected to be close to and above audio range.

Keywords: Buck converter, Discontinuous conduction mode, Electromagnetic Interference, Pulse Skipping Modulation.

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115 Evaluation Using a Bidirectional Microphone as a Pressure Pulse Wave Meter

Authors: S. Fujiwara, T. Kaburagi, K. Kobayashi, K. Watanabe, Y. Kurihara

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel sensor device, a pressure pulse wave meter, which uses a bidirectional condenser microphone. The microphone work as a microphone as well as a sensor with high gain over a wide frequency range; they are also highly reliable and economic. Currently aging is becoming a serious social issue in Japan causing increased medical expenses in the country. Hence, it is important for elderly citizens to check health condition at home, and to care the health conditions through daily monitoring. Given this circumstances, we developed a novel pressure pulse wave meter based on a bidirectional condenser microphone: this device is used as a measuring instrument of health conditions.

Keywords: Bidirectional microphone, pressure pulse wave meter, health condition.

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114 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: 4-quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency, ATmega 32 microcontrollers.

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