Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2244

Search results for: World Wide Web

2244 Designing and Implementing an Innovative Course about World Wide Web, Based on the Conceptual Representations of Students

Authors: Andreanna K. Koufou, Dimitrios K. Tsolis, Marida I. Ergazaki, Vasilis I. Komis, Vasiliki P. Zogza

Abstract:

Internet is nowadays included to all National Curriculums of the elementary school. A comparative study of their goals leads to the conclusion that a complete curriculum should aim to student-s acquisition of the abilities to navigate and search for information and additionally to emphasize on the evaluation of the information provided by the World Wide Web. In a constructivistic knowledge framework the design of a course has to take under consideration the conceptual representations of students. The following paper presents the conceptual representation of students of eleven years old, attending the Sixth Grade of Greek Elementary School about World Wide Web and their use in the design and implementation of an innovative course.

Keywords: Conceptual representations, Constructivism, Internet Didactics, World Wide Web

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2243 The Semantic Web: a New Approach for Future World Wide Web

Authors: Sahar Nasrolahi, Mahdi Nikdast, Mehrdad Mahdavi Boroujerdi

Abstract:

The purpose of semantic web research is to transform the Web from a linked document repository into a distributed knowledge base and application platform, thus allowing the vast range of available information and services to be more efficiently exploited. As a first step in this transformation, languages such as OWL have been developed. Although fully realizing the Semantic Web still seems some way off, OWL has already been very successful and has rapidly become a defacto standard for ontology development in fields as diverse as geography, geology, astronomy, agriculture, defence and the life sciences. The aim of this paper is to classify key concepts of Semantic Web as well as introducing a new practical approach which uses these concepts to outperform Word Wide Web.

Keywords: Semantic Web, Ontology, OWL, Microformat, Word Wide Web.

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2242 Learning Objects: A New Paradigm for ELearning Resource Development for Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Authors: S. K. Lujara, M. M. Kissaka, E. P. Bhalalusesa, L. Trojer

Abstract:

The Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and the Wide World Web (WWW) have fundamentally altered the practice of teaching and learning world wide. Many universities, organizations, colleges and schools are trying to apply the benefits of the emerging ICT. In the early nineties the term learning object was introduced into the instructional technology vernacular; the idea being that educational resources could be broken into modular components for later combination by instructors, learners, and eventually computes into larger structures that would support learning [1]. However in many developing countries, the use of ICT is still in its infancy stage and the concept of learning object is quite new. This paper outlines the learning object design considerations for developing countries depending on learning environment.

Keywords: e-Learning resources, granularity, learning objects, secondary schools.

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2241 Improving Performance of World Wide Web by Adaptive Web Traffic Reduction

Authors: Achuthsankar S. Nair, J. S. Jayasudha

Abstract:

The ever increasing use of World Wide Web in the existing network, results in poor performance. Several techniques have been developed for reducing web traffic by compressing the size of the file, saving the web pages at the client side, changing the burst nature of traffic into constant rate etc. No single method was adequate enough to access the document instantly through the Internet. In this paper, adaptive hybrid algorithms are developed for reducing web traffic. Intelligent agents are used for monitoring the web traffic. Depending upon the bandwidth usage, user-s preferences, server and browser capabilities, intelligent agents use the best techniques to achieve maximum traffic reduction. Web caching, compression, filtering, optimization of HTML tags, and traffic dispersion are incorporated into this adaptive selection. Using this new hybrid technique, latency is reduced to 20 – 60 % and cache hit ratio is increased 40 – 82 %.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Congestion, Intelligent Agents, Prefetching, Web Caching.

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2240 Probabilistic Graphical Model for the Web

Authors: M. Nekri, A. Khelladi

Abstract:

The world wide web network is a network with a complex topology, the main properties of which are the distribution of degrees in power law, A low clustering coefficient and a weak average distance. Modeling the web as a graph allows locating the information in little time and consequently offering a help in the construction of the research engine. Here, we present a model based on the already existing probabilistic graphs with all the aforesaid characteristics. This work will consist in studying the web in order to know its structuring thus it will enable us to modelize it more easily and propose a possible algorithm for its exploration.

Keywords: Clustering coefficient, preferential attachment, small world, Web community.

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2239 Totally Integrated Smart Energy System through Data Acquisition via Remote Location

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Qadri, M. Irfan Anis, M. Nawaz Irshad Khan

Abstract:

This paper discusses the approach of real-time controlling of the energy management system using the data acquisition tool of LabVIEW. The main idea of this inspiration was to interface the Station (PC) with the system and publish the data on internet using LabVIEW. In this venture, controlling and switching of 3 phase AC loads are effectively and efficiently done. The phases are also sensed through devices. In case of any failure the attached generator starts functioning automatically. The computer sends command to the system and system respond to the request. The modern feature is to access and control the system world-wide using world wide web (internet). This controlling can be done at any time from anywhere to effectively use the energy especially in developing countries where energy management is a big problem. In this system totally integrated devices are used to operate via remote location.

Keywords: VI-server, Remote Access, Telemetry, Data Acquisition, web server.

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2238 Re-Engineering the Human: New Reproductive Technologies and the Specter of Frankenstein

Authors: Brian P. Bloomfield, Theo Vurdubakis

Abstract:

The virulent debates that have dogged research on, and the diffusion of, a wide range of technologies indicate a growing loss of confidence in what we might call, the techno-scientific endeavour to reshape the world. Utopian images of a world rendered ever more amenable to human desires are now closely shadowed by just as compelling dystopian visions of monstrosity and disaster that are nevertheless constructed from the same cultural material. The paper uses the case of the debates over developments in reproductive technology to offer some observations on the ways in which such technologies routinely become enmirred in cultural ambivalence.

Keywords: Culture, media, new reproductive technologies, society.

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2237 From I.A Richards to Web 3.0: Preparing Our Students for Tomorrow's World

Authors: Karen Armstrong

Abstract:

This paper offers suggestions for educators at all levels about how to better prepare our students for the future, by building on the past. The discussion begins with a summary of changes in the World Wide Web, especially as the term Web 3.0 is being heard. The bulk of the discussion is retrospective and concerned with an overview of traditional teaching and research approaches as they evolved during the 20th century beginning with those grounded in the Cartesian reality of IA Richards- (1929) Practical Criticism. The paper concludes with a proposal of five strategies which incorporate timeless elements from the past as well as cutting-edge elements from today, in order to better prepare our students for the future.

Keywords: Web 3.0, Web 2.0 IA Richards, literacy education, new literacies, technology, paradigm shifts.

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2236 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Roy Y. C. Huang, J. S. Kuang, Hamdolah Behnam

Abstract:

Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: Joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, seismic codes, wide beam-column joints.

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2235 Comparative Study of Universities’ Web Structure Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan

Abstract:

This paper is meant to analyze the ranking of University of Malaysia Terengganu, UMT’s website in the World Wide Web. There are only few researches have been done on comparing the ranking of universities’ websites so this research will be able to determine whether the existing UMT’s website is serving its purpose which is to introduce UMT to the world. The ranking is based on hub and authority values which are accordance to the structure of the website. These values are computed using two websearching algorithms, HITS and SALSA. Three other universities’ websites are used as the benchmarks which are UM, Harvard and Stanford. The result is clearly showing that more work has to be done on the existing UMT’s website where important pages according to the benchmarks, do not exist in UMT’s pages. The ranking of UMT’s website will act as a guideline for the web-developer to develop a more efficient website.

Keywords: Algorithm, ranking, website, web structure mining.

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2234 Comprehensive Analysis of Data Mining Tools

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi

Abstract:

Due to the fast and flawless technological innovation there is a tremendous amount of data dumping all over the world in every domain such as Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning, Spatial Data Mining, Image Analysis, Fraudulent Analysis, World Wide Web etc., This issue turns to be more essential for developing several tools for data mining functionalities. The major aim of this paper is to analyze various tools which are used to build a resourceful analytical or descriptive model for handling large amount of information more efficiently and user friendly. In this survey the diverse tools are illustrated with their extensive technical paradigm, outstanding graphical interface and inbuilt multipath algorithms in which it is very useful for handling significant amount of data more indeed.

Keywords: Classification, Clustering, Data Mining, Machine learning, Visualization.

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2233 Traditions of Theatrical Art in the Space of Nomadic Culture of the Kazakhs

Authors: Yeskendirov N.R., Karjaubaeva S.K., Ahmet A. K.

Abstract:

A number of theoretical and methodological problems connected with substantiation of a new approach and searches of a new research paradigm and the analysis of features of formation and development of the Kazakh stage are considered in the article. The wide spectrum of questions connected with genesis of the Kazakh stage art has caused necessity of consideration of world outlook and social cultural aspects which have affected formation of the given phenomenon in the Kazakh culture. But how can we define the form of expression and aesthetics of the national theatre? Probably, the answer to this question we will find if we apply to deep world view sources, and, as a consequence, it is necessary to study deeply the plot dramaturgy, which is based on myths, rites and eposes, mastering of symbolic gestures and mimics, allegory of a word, etc.

Keywords: Tradition, theater, art, culture, nomadic Kazakhs.

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2232 Usability Evaluation of Online News Websites: A User Perspective Approach

Authors: Qasem A. Al-Radaideh, Emad Abu-Shanab, Shaima Hamam, Hani Abu-Salem

Abstract:

Online news websites are one of the main and wide areas of Mass Media. Since the nineties several Jordanian newspapers were introduced to the World Wide Web to reach various and large numbers of audiances. Examples of these newspapers that have online version are Al-Rai, Ad-Dustor and AlGhad. Other pure online news websites include Ammon and Rum. The main aim of this study is to evaluate online newspaper websites using two assessment measures; usability and web content. This aim is achieved by using a questionnaire based evaluation which is based on the definition of usability and web content in the ISO document as the standard number 9241-part 11. The results are obtained based on 204 audiences- responses. The results of the research showed that the usability factor is relatively good for all Jordanian online newspapers whereas the web content factor is moderate.

Keywords: Communication and mass media, Jordanian online news websites, website content, website usability.

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2231 Data Gathering and Analysis for Arabic Historical Documents

Authors: Ali Dulla

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new dataset (and the methodology used to generate it) based on a wide range of historical Arabic documents containing clean data simple and homogeneous-page layouts. The experiments are implemented on printed and handwritten documents obtained respectively from some important libraries such as Qatar Digital Library, the British Library and the Library of Congress. We have gathered and commented on 150 archival document images from different locations and time periods. It is based on different documents from the 17th-19th century. The dataset comprises differing page layouts and degradations that challenge text line segmentation methods. Ground truth is produced using the Aletheia tool by PRImA and stored in an XML representation, in the PAGE (Page Analysis and Ground truth Elements) format. The dataset presented will be easily available to researchers world-wide for research into the obstacles facing various historical Arabic documents such as geometric correction of historical Arabic documents.

Keywords: Dataset production, ground truth production, historical documents, arbitrary warping, geometric correction.

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2230 Optimal Design of Flat – Gain Wide-Band Discrete Raman Amplifiers

Authors: Banaz Omer Rasheed, Parexan M. Aljaff

Abstract:

In this paper, a wide band gain–flattened discrete Raman amplifiers utilizing four optimum pump wavelengths is demonstrated.

Keywords: Fiber Raman Amplifiers, Optimization, WaveLength Division Multiplexing.

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2229 Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing

Authors: Rolf Katzenbach, Frithjof Clauss, Jie Zheng

Abstract:

The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. The average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government.

This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Retro-commissioning, Social Housing, Sustainability.

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2228 Intensifier as Changed from the Impolite Word in Thai

Authors: Methawee Yuttapongtada

Abstract:

Intensifier is the linguistic term and device that is generally found in different languages in order to enhance and give additional quantity, quality or emotion to the words of each language. In fact, each language in the world has both of the similar and dissimilar intensifying device. More specially, the wide variety of intensifying device is used for Thai language and one of those is usage of the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative as intensifier. The data collection in this study was done throughout the spoken language style by collecting from intensifiers regarded as impolite words because these words as employed in the other contexts will be held as the rude, swear words or the words with negative meaning. Then, backward study to the past was done in order to consider the historical change. Explanation of the original meaning and the contexts of words use from the past till the present time were done by use of both textual documents and dictionaries available in different periods. It was found that regarding the semantics and pragmatic aspects, subjectification also is the significant motivation that changed the impolite words to intensifiers. At last, it can explain pathway of the semantic change of these very words undoubtedly. Moreover, it is found that use tendency in the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative will more be increased and this phenomenon is commonly found in many languages in the world and results of this research may support to the belief that human language in the world is universal and the same still reflected that human has the fundamental thought as the same to each other basically.

Keywords: Impolite word, intensifier, Thai, semantic change.

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2227 The Internet and Small Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMES) in Jordan

Authors: Sattam Allahawiah, Haroon Altarawneh, Sameer Alamro

Abstract:

Because of its global reach, reduction of time restraints, and ability to reduce costs and increase sales, use of the Internet, the World Wide Web (WWW), and related technologies can be a competitive tool in the arsenal of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Countries the world over are interested in the successful adoption of the Internet by SMEs. Because a vast majority of jobs come from that sector, greater financial success of SMEs translates into greater job growth and, subsequently, higher tax revenue to the government. This research investigated the level of Internet usage for business solutions by small and medium enterprises in Jordan. Through the survey of a random sample of 100 firms with less than 500 employees and from data obtained from this survey that formed the basis for our study, we found that a majority of respondents use the Internet in business activities , the adoption of the Internet as a business tool is limited to a brochure where Web site which primarily provides one way. As such, there wasn't interactive information about the company and its products and services.

Keywords: Internet, SMEs, e-commerce, website, e-business, IT.

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2226 The Interpretation of World Order by Epistemic Communities in Security Studies

Authors: Gabriel A. Orozco

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to make an approach to the Security Studies, exposing their theories and concepts to understand the role that they have had in the interpretation of the changes and continuities of the world order and their impact on policies in facing the problems of the 21st century. The aim is to build a bridge between the security studies as a subfield and the meaning that has been given to the world order. The idea of epistemic communities serves as a methodological proposal for the different programs of research in security studies, showing their influence in the realities of States, intergovernmental organizations and transnational forces, moving to implement, perpetuate and project a vision of the world order.

Keywords: Epistemic communities, international relations, security studies.

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2225 Family-size Biogas Plant Using Manure and Urine Mixture at Ambient Temperature in Semi-arid Regions of Northwestern China

Authors: Wenguang Ding, Yang Wu, Xia Wang, Yayu Gao

Abstract:

Biogas, a clean renewable energy, is attracting a growing concern of researchers and professionals in many fields. Based on the natural and climatic conditions in semi-arid regions of northwestern China, the present study introduces a specifically-designed family-size biogas plant (with a digester of 10m3) with manure and urine of animals and humanity as raw materials. The biogas plant is applicable to areas with altitudes of more than 2000 meters in northwestern China. In addition to the installation cost, a little operational expenditure, structure, characteristics, benefits of this small-scale biogas plant, this article introduces a wide range of specific popularization methods such as training, financial support, guided tour to the biogas plant, community-based group study and delivery of operational manuals. The feasibility of the biogas plant is explored on the basis of the availability of the raw materials. Simple operations contained in the current work increase the possibility of the wide use of this small-scale biogas plant in similar regions of the world.

Keywords: biogas, family-size biogas plant, northwestern China, popularization

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2224 Toward An Agreement on Semantic Web Architecture

Authors: Haytham Al-Feel, M.A.Koutb, Hoda Suoror

Abstract:

There are many problems associated with the World Wide Web: getting lost in the hyperspace; the web content is still accessible only to humans and difficulties of web administration. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web which is considered to be the extension for the current web presents information in both human readable and machine processable form. The aim of this study is to reach new generic foundation architecture for the Semantic Web because there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these versions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers and technologies inside this architecture. This can be done depending on the idea of previous versions as well as Gerber-s evaluation method as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture.

Keywords: Semantic Web Architecture, XML, RDF and Ontology.

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2223 Mechanisms of Internet Security Attacks

Authors: J. Dubois, P. Jreije

Abstract:

Internet security attack could endanger the privacy of World Wide Web users and the integrity of their data. The attack can be carried out on today's most secure systems- browsers, including Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. There are too many types, methods and mechanisms of attack where new attack techniques and exploits are constantly being developed and discovered. In this paper, various types of internet security attack mechanisms are explored and it is pointed out that when different types of attacks are combined together, network security can suffer disastrous consequences.

Keywords: DoS, internet attacks, router attack, security, trojan, virus, worm, XSS.

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2222 Identifications and Monitoring of Power System Dynamics Based on the PMUs and Wavelet Technique

Authors: Samir Avdakovic, Amir Nuhanovic

Abstract:

Low frequency power oscillations may be triggered by many events in the system. Most oscillations are damped by the system, but undamped oscillations can lead to system collapse. Oscillations develop as a result of rotor acceleration/deceleration following a change in active power transfer from a generator. Like the operations limits, the monitoring of power system oscillating modes is a relevant aspect of power system operation and control. Unprevented low-frequency power swings can be cause of cascading outages that can rapidly extend effect on wide region. On this regard, a Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control Systems (WAMPCS) help in detecting such phenomena and assess power system dynamics security. The monitoring of power system electromechanical oscillations is very important in the frame of modern power system management and control. In first part, this paper compares the different technique for identification of power system oscillations. Second part analyzes possible identification some power system dynamics behaviors Using Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS) based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and wavelet technique.

Keywords: Power system oscillations, Modal analysis, Prony, Wavelet, PMU, Wide Area Monitoring System.

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2221 Energy Models for Analyzing the Economic Wide Impact of the Environmental Policies

Authors: Majdi M. Alomari, Nafesah I. Alshdaifat, Mohammad S. Widyan

Abstract:

Different countries have introduced different schemes and policies to counter global warming. The rationale behind the proposed policies and the potential barriers to successful implementation of the policies adopted by the countries were analyzed and estimated based on different models. It is argued that these models enhance the transparency and provide a better understanding to the policy makers. However, these models are underpinned with several structural and baseline assumptions. These assumptions, modeling features and future prediction of emission reductions and other implication such as cost and benefits of a transition to a low-carbon economy and its economy wide impacts were discussed. On the other hand, there are potential barriers in the form political, financial, and cultural and many others that pose a threat to the mitigation options.

Keywords: Economic wide impact, energy models, environmental policy instruments, mitigating CO2 emission.

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2220 Load Balancing in Heterogeneous P2P Systems using Mobile Agents

Authors: Neeraj Nehra, R. B. Patel, V. K. Bhat

Abstract:

Use of the Internet and the World-Wide-Web (WWW) has become widespread in recent years and mobile agent technology has proliferated at an equally rapid rate. In this scenario load balancing becomes important for P2P systems. Beside P2P systems can be highly heterogeneous, i.e., they may consists of peers that range from old desktops to powerful servers connected to internet through high-bandwidth lines. There are various loads balancing policies came into picture. Primitive one is Message Passing Interface (MPI). Its wide availability and portability make it an attractive choice; however the communication requirements are sometimes inefficient when implementing the primitives provided by MPI. In this scenario we use the concept of mobile agent because Mobile agent (MA) based approach have the merits of high flexibility, efficiency, low network traffic, less communication latency as well as highly asynchronous. In this study we present decentralized load balancing scheme using mobile agent technology in which when a node is overloaded, task migrates to less utilized nodes so as to share the workload. However, the decision of which nodes receive migrating task is made in real-time by defining certain load balancing policies. These policies are executed on PMADE (A Platform for Mobile Agent Distribution and Execution) in decentralized manner using JuxtaNet and various load balancing metrics are discussed.

Keywords: Mobile Agents, Agent host, Agent Submitter, PMADE.

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2219 Impacts of Global Warming on the World Food Market According to SRES Scenarios

Authors: J. Furuya, S. Kobayashi, S. D. Meyer

Abstract:

This research examines possible effects of climatic change focusing on global warming and its impacts on world agricultural product markets, by using a world food model developed to consider climate changes. GDP and population for each scenario were constructed by IPCC and climate data for each scenario was reported by the Hadley Center and are used in this research to consider results in different contexts. Production and consumption of primary agriculture crops of the world for each socio-economic scenario are obtained and investigated by using the modified world food model. Simulation results show that crop production in some countries or regions will have different trends depending on the context. These alternative contexts depend on the rate of GDP growth, population, temperature, and rainfall. Results suggest that the development of environment friendly technologies lead to more consumption of food in many developing countries. Relationships among environmental policy, clean energy development, and poverty elimination warrant further investigation.

Keywords: Global warming, SRES scenarios, World food model.

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2218 Energy Recovery Soft Switching Improved Efficiency Half Bridge Inverter for Electronic Ballast Applications

Authors: A. Yazdanpanah Goharrizi

Abstract:

An improved topology of a voltage-fed quasi-resonant soft switching LCrCdc series-parallel half bridge inverter with a constant-frequency for electronic ballast applications is proposed in this paper. This new topology introduces a low-cost solution to reduce switching losses and circuit rating to achieve high-efficiency ballast. Switching losses effect on ballast efficiency is discussed through experimental point of view. In this discussion, an improved topology in which accomplishes soft switching operation over a wide power regulation range is proposed. The proposed structure uses reverse recovery diode to provide better operation for the ballast system. A symmetrical pulse wide modulation (PWM) control scheme is implemented to regulate a wide range of out-put power. Simulation results are kindly verified with the experimental measurements obtained by ballast-lamp laboratory prototype. Different load conditions are provided in order to clarify the performance of the proposed converter.

Keywords: Electronic ballast, Pulse wide modulation (PWM) Reverse recovery diode, Soft switching.

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2217 Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça

Abstract:

The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: Ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability.

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2216 Method for Auto-Calibrate Projector and Color-Depth Systems for Spatial Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: R. Estrada, A. Henriquez, R. Becerra, C. Laguna

Abstract:

Spatial Augmented Reality is a variation of Augmented Reality where the Head-Mounted Display is not required. This variation of Augmented Reality is useful in cases where the need for a Head-Mounted Display itself is a limitation. To achieve this, Spatial Augmented Reality techniques substitute the technological elements of Augmented Reality; the virtual world is projected onto a physical surface. To create an interactive spatial augmented experience, the application must be aware of the spatial relations that exist between its core elements. In this case, the core elements are referred to as a projection system and an input system, and the process to achieve this spatial awareness is called system calibration. The Spatial Augmented Reality system is considered calibrated if the projected virtual world scale is similar to the real-world scale, meaning that a virtual object will maintain its perceived dimensions when projected to the real world. Also, the input system is calibrated if the application knows the relative position of a point in the projection plane and the RGB-depth sensor origin point. Any kind of projection technology can be used, light-based projectors, close-range projectors, and screens, as long as it complies with the defined constraints; the method was tested on different configurations. The proposed procedure does not rely on a physical marker, minimizing the human intervention on the process. The tests are made using a Kinect V2 as an input sensor and several projection devices. In order to test the method, the constraints defined were applied to a variety of physical configurations; once the method was executed, some variables were obtained to measure the method performance. It was demonstrated that the method obtained can solve different arrangements, giving the user a wide range of setup possibilities.

Keywords: Color depth sensor, human computer interface, interactive surface, spatial augmented reality.

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2215 Gender Dimension of Migrations Influenced by Genocide and Feminicides around the Globe

Authors: Lejla Mušić

Abstract:

Gender dimension of migration analyzes the intersection in between the world statistics on male and female migrations, around the world, involving the questions of youth migrations. Comparative analyses of world migration statistics as methodology offer the insight into the position of women in labor market around world. There are different forms of youth debris in contemporary world. The main problems are illegal migration, feminization of poverty, kidnapping the girls in Nigeria, femicides in Juarez and Mexico. Illegal migrations involve forced labor, rape and prostitution. Transgender youth share ideas through the online media (anti-bullying videos) and develop their own styles such as anarcho-punk, rave, or rock. Therefore, the stronger gender equality laws and laws for protection of women on work should be enforced.

Keywords: Hyper feminization, rape, gangs of girls, rent boys masculinities, Varoç in Istanbul.

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