Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1920

Search results for: Wireless power transfer

1890 Power Optimization Techniques in FPGA Devices: A Combination of System- and Low-Levels

Authors: Pawel P. Czapski, Andrzej Sluzek

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results regarding system-level power awareness for FPGA implementations in wireless sensor networks. Re-configurability of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) allows for significant flexibility in its applications to embedded systems. However, high power consumption in FPGA becomes a significant factor in design considerations. We present several ideas and their experimental verifications on how to optimize power consumption at high level of designing process while maintaining the same energy per operation (low-level methods can be used additionally). This paper demonstrates that it is possible to estimate feasible power consumption savings even at the high level of designing process. It is envisaged that our results can be also applied to other embedded systems applications, not limited to FPGA-based.

Keywords: Power optimization, FPGA, system-level designing, wireless sensor networks.

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1889 Development of Mathematical Model for Overall Oxygen Transfer Coefficient of an Aerator and Comparison with CFD Modeling

Authors: Shashank.B. Thakre, L.B. Bhuyar, Samir.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

The value of overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), which is the best measure of oxygen transfer in water through aeration, is obtained by a simple approach, which sufficiently explains the utility of the method to eliminate the discrepancies due to inaccurate assumption of saturation dissolved oxygen concentration. The rate of oxygen transfer depends on number of factors like intensity of turbulence, which in turns depends on the speed of rotation, size, and number of blades, diameter and immersion depth of the rotor, and size and shape of aeration tank, as well as on physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of water. An attempt is made in this paper to correlate the overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), as an independent parameter with other influencing parameters mentioned above. It has been estimated that the simulation equation developed predicts the values of KLa and power with an average standard error of estimation of 0.0164 and 7.66 respectively and with R2 values of 0.979 and 0.989 respectively, when compared with experimentally determined values. The comparison of this model is done with the model generated using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and both the models were found to be in good agreement with each other.

Keywords: CFD Model, Overall oxygen transfer coefficient, Power, Mathematical Model, Validation.

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1888 An Evaluation of Sag Detection Techniques for Fast Solid-State Electronic Transferring to Alternate Electrical Energy Sources

Authors: M. N. Moschakis, I. G. Andritsos, V. V. Dafopoulos, J. M. Prousalidis, E. S. Karapidakis

Abstract:

This paper deals with the evaluation of different detection strategies used in power electronic devices as a critical element for an effective mitigation of voltage disturbances. The effectiveness of those detection schemes in the mitigation of disturbances such as voltage sags by a Solid-State Transfer Switch is evaluated through simulations. All critical parameters affecting their performance is analytically described and presented. Moreover, the effect of fast detection of sags on the overall performance of STS is analyzed and investigated.

Keywords: Faults (short-circuits), industrial engineering, power electronics, power quality, static transfer switch, voltage sags (or dips).

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1887 On the AC-Side Interface Filter in Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter Systems

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

The proper selection of the AC-side passive filter interconnecting the voltage source converter to the power supply is essential to obtain satisfactory performances of an active power filter system. The use of the LCL-type filter has the advantage of eliminating the high frequency switching harmonics in the current injected into the power supply. This paper is mainly focused on analyzing the influence of the interface filter parameters on the active filtering performances. Some design aspects are pointed out. Thus, the design of the AC interface filter starts from transfer functions by imposing the filter performance which refers to the significant current attenuation of the switching harmonics without affecting the harmonics to be compensated. A Matlab/Simulink model of the entire active filtering system including a concrete nonlinear load has been developed to examine the system performances. It is shown that a gamma LC filter could accomplish the attenuation requirement of the current provided by converter. Moreover, the existence of an optimal value of the grid-side inductance which minimizes the total harmonic distortion factor of the power supply current is pointed out. Nevertheless, a small converter-side inductance and a damping resistance in series with the filter capacitance are absolutely needed in order to keep the ripple and oscillations of the current at the converter side within acceptable limits. The effect of change in the LCL-filter parameters is evaluated. It is concluded that good active filtering performances can be achieved with small values of the capacitance and converter-side inductance.

Keywords: Active power filter, LCL filter, Matlab/Simulinkmodeling, Passive filters, Transfer function.

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1886 Characterization of Indoor Power Lines as Data Communication Channels Experimental Details and Results

Authors: Sheroz Khan, A. F. Salami, W. A. Lawal, AHM Zahirul Alam, Shihab Abdel Hameed, M. J. E.Salami

Abstract:

In this paper, a multi-branch power line is modeled using ABCD matrix to show its worth as a communication channel. The model is simulated using MATLAB in an effort to investigate the effects of multiple loading, multipath, and those as a result of load mismatching. The channel transfer function is obtained and investigated using different cable lengths, and different number of bridge taps under given loading conditions.

Keywords: Power line Communication, Transfer Function, Channel Modeling, Signal Transmission.

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1885 Investigation of Inter Feeder Power Flow Regulator: Load Sharing Mode

Authors: Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Ahmed Elserougi, Ahmed Massoud, Shehab Ahmed

Abstract:

The Inter feeder Power Flow Regulator (IFPFR) proposed in this paper consists of several voltage source inverters with common dc bus; each inverter is connected in series with one of different independent distribution feeders in the power system. This paper is concerned with how to transfer power between the feeders for load sharing purpose. The power controller of each inverter injects the power (for sending feeder) or absorbs the power (for receiving feeder) via injecting suitable voltage; this voltage injection is simulated by voltage drop across series virtual impedance, the impedance value is selected to achieve the concept of power exchange between the feeders without perturbing the load voltage magnitude of each feeder. In this paper a new control scheme for load sharing using IFPFR is proposed.

Keywords: IFPFR, Load sharing, Power transfer

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1884 Evaluation of Optimal Transfer Capability in Power System Interconnection

Authors: Jin-O Kim, Hyun-Il Son

Abstract:

As the electrical power industry is restructured, the electrical power exchange is becoming extended. One of the key information used to determine how much power can be transferred through the network is known as available transfer capability (ATC). To calculate ATC, traditional deterministic approach is based on the severest case, but the approach has the complexity of procedure. Therefore, novel approach for ATC calculation is proposed using cost-optimization method in this paper, and is compared with well-being method and risk-benefit method. This paper proposes the optimal transfer capability of HVDC system between mainland and a separated island in Korea through these three methods. These methods will consider production cost, wheeling charge through HVDC system and outage cost with one depth (N-1 contingency)

Keywords: ATC, power system interconnection, well-being method, cost-optimization method, risk-benefit analysis, outage cost.

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1883 Optimization of Bit Error Rate and Power of Ad-hoc Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Anjana Choudhary

Abstract:

The ad hoc networks are the future of wireless technology as everyone wants fast and accurate error free information so keeping this in mind Bit Error Rate (BER) and power is optimized in this research paper by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The digital modulation techniques used for this paper are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-ary PSK), and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This work is implemented on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (WLAN). Then it is analyze which modulation technique is performing well to optimize the BER and power of WLAN.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Genetic Algorithm, Power, Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

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1882 110 MW Geothermal Power Plant Multiple Simulator, Using Wireless Technology

Authors: Guillermo Romero-Jiménez, Luis A. Jiménez-Fraustro, Mayolo Salinas-Camacho, Heriberto Avalos-Valenzuela

Abstract:

A geothermal power plant multiple simulator for operators training is presented. The simulator is designed to be installed in a wireless local area network and has a capacity to train one to six operators simultaneously, each one with an independent simulation session. The sessions must be supervised only by one instructor. The main parts of this multiple simulator are: instructor and operator-s stations. On the instructor station, the instructor controls the simulation sessions, establishes training exercises and supervises each power plant operator in individual way. This station is hosted in a Main Personal Computer (NS) and its main functions are: to set initial conditions, snapshots, malfunctions or faults, monitoring trends, and process and soft-panel diagrams. On the other hand the operators carry out their actions over the power plant simulated on the operator-s stations; each one is also hosted in a PC. The main software of instructor and operator-s stations are executed on the same NS and displayed in PCs through graphical Interactive Process Diagrams (IDP). The geothermal multiple simulator has been installed in the Geothermal Simulation Training Center (GSTC) of the Comisi├│n Federal de Electricidad, (Federal Commission of Electricity, CFE), Mexico, and is being utilized as a part of the training courses for geothermal power plant operators.

Keywords: Geothermal power plant, multiple simulator, training operator.

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1881 A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Wireless Network Attacks, Wireless Network Security.

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1880 The Effects of Multipath on OFDM Systems for Broadband Power-Line Communications a Case of Medium Voltage Channel

Authors: Justinian Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, C. Mwase, N.H. Mvungi

Abstract:

Power-line networks are widely used today for broadband data transmission. However, due to multipaths within the broadband power line communication (BPLC) systems owing to stochastic changes in the network load impedances, branches, etc., network or channel capacity performances are affected. This paper attempts to investigate the performance of typical medium voltage channels that uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) sub carriers. It has been observed that when the load impedances are different from line characteristic impedance channel performance decreases. Also as the number of branches in the link between the transmitter and receiver increases a loss of 4dB/branch is found in the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The information presented in the paper could be useful for an appropriate design of the BPLC systems.

Keywords: Communication channel model, Power-line communication, Transfer function, Multipath, Branched network, OFDM, QAM, performance evaluation

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1879 Natural Convection in Wavy-Wall Cavities Filled with Power-Law Fluid

Authors: Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho

Abstract:

This paper investigates the natural convection heat transfer performance in a complex-wavy-wall cavity filled with power-law fluid. In performing the simulations, the continuity, Cauchy momentum and energy equations are solved subject to the Boussinesq approximation using a finite volume method. The simulations focus specifically on the effects of the flow behavior index in the power-law model and the Rayleigh number on the flow streamlines, isothermal contours and mean Nusselt number within the cavity. The results show that pseudoplastic fluids have a better heat transfer performance than Newtonian or dilatant fluids. Moreover, it is shown that for Rayleigh numbers greater than Ra=103, the mean Nusselt number has a significantly increase as the flow behavior index is decreased.

Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Power-law fluid, Natural convection, Heat transfer enhancement, Cavity, Wavy wall.

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1878 Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Chun-Fong Wu

Abstract:

It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.

Keywords: Mini UAV, reconnaissance, wireless transmission, ZigBee modulus.

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1877 Problems of Innovation Development of Wireless Data Transfer Branch in the Cellular Market of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengeldy Kuanyshpayev

Abstract:

Now in some countries of the world the cellular market is on the point of saturation, in others - positive dynamics of development kept on. The reasons for it are also different, but there are united by their general susceptibility to innovation changes, if they are really innovative. If to take as an example the cellular market of Kazakhstan it is defined by the low percent of smart phones at consumers, the low population density, undercapacity of the 3G channel, and absence of universal access to the LTE technology that limits dynamical growth of this branch. These moments are aggravated by failures of starting commercial projects by private companies which prevent to be implemented and widely adopted to a new product among consumers. The object of the research is possible integration of wireless and program technologies at which introduction the idea can regenerate in an innovation. The analysis of existing projects in the market and the possible union of the technologies through a prism of theoretical bases of innovative activity shows that efficiency of the company by development and introduction of innovations is possible only thanks to strict observance of all terms and conditions of the innovative process which main term is profit. Despite that fact that on a global scale the innovativeness issue of companies is very popular, there are no researches about possibility of innovative breaks in the field of wireless access to the Internet in the cellular market of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Cellular market, commercialization, innovation, the effectiveness of company.

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1876 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: University-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies.

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1875 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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1874 Effective Security Method for Wireless LAN using Life-Cycle of Wireless Access Point

Authors: Soon-Tai Park, Haeryong Park, Myoung-sun Noh, Yoo-Jae Won

Abstract:

There are many expand of Wi-Fi zones provided mobile careers and usage of wireless access point at home as increase of usage of wireless internet caused by the use of smart phone. This paper shows wireless local area network status, security threats of WLAN and functionality of major wireless access point in Korea. We propose security countermeasures concerned with life cycle of access point from manufacturing to installation, using and finally disposal. There needed to releasing with configured secure at access point. Because, it is most cost effective resolution than stage of installation or other life cycle of access point.

Keywords: Wireless LAN Security, Wi-Fi Security, Wireless Access Point, Product Life-Cycle

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1873 A Simple Method for Tracing PV Curve of a Radial Transmission Line

Authors: Asfar Ali Khan

Abstract:

Analytical expression for maximum power transfer through a transmission line limited by voltage stability has been formulated using exact representation of transmission line with ABCD parameters. The expression has been used for plotting PV curve at different power factors of a radial transmission line. Limiting values of reactive power have been obtained.

Keywords: Power Transfer, PV Curve, Voltage Stability.

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1872 PoPCoRN: A Power-Aware Periodic Surveillance Scheme in Convex Region using Wireless Mobile Sensor Networks

Authors: A. K. Prajapati

Abstract:

In this paper, the periodic surveillance scheme has been proposed for any convex region using mobile wireless sensor nodes. A sensor network typically consists of fixed number of sensor nodes which report the measurements of sensed data such as temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., of its immediate proximity (the area within its sensing range). For the purpose of sensing an area of interest, there are adequate number of fixed sensor nodes required to cover the entire region of interest. It implies that the number of fixed sensor nodes required to cover a given area will depend on the sensing range of the sensor as well as deployment strategies employed. It is assumed that the sensors to be mobile within the region of surveillance, can be mounted on moving bodies like robots or vehicle. Therefore, in our scheme, the surveillance time period determines the number of sensor nodes required to be deployed in the region of interest. The proposed scheme comprises of three algorithms namely: Hexagonalization, Clustering, and Scheduling, The first algorithm partitions the coverage area into fixed sized hexagons that approximate the sensing range (cell) of individual sensor node. The clustering algorithm groups the cells into clusters, each of which will be covered by a single sensor node. The later determines a schedule for each sensor to serve its respective cluster. Each sensor node traverses all the cells belonging to the cluster assigned to it by oscillating between the first and the last cell for the duration of its life time. Simulation results show that our scheme provides full coverage within a given period of time using few sensors with minimum movement, less power consumption, and relatively less infrastructure cost.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Graph Theory, MSN, Communication.

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1871 Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

Authors: Wang Liguang, Zhang Xueqing

Abstract:

The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overall success of BOT projects. There will be many issues faced by both the public sector and private sector in the transfer stage of BOT projects, including project post-assessment, technology and documents transfer, personal training and staff transition, etc. and sometimes additional legislation is needed for future operation and management of facilities. However, most previous studies focused on the bidding, financing, and building and operation stages instead of transfer stage. This research identifies nine key issues in the transfer stage of BOT projects through a comprehensive study on three cases in China, and the expert interview and expert discussion meetings are held to validate the key issues and give detail analysis. A proposed framework of transfer management is prepared based on the experiences derived and lessons drawn from the case studies and expert interview and discussions, which is expected to improve the transfer management of BOT projects in practice.

Keywords: BOT project, key issues, transfer management transfer stage.

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1870 Developing a Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

Authors: Mansour A. Al Qubeissi

Abstract:

The current paper presents a numerical approach in solving the conjugate heat transfer problems. A heat conduction code is coupled internally with a computational fluid dynamics solver for developing a couple conjugate heat transfer solver. Methodology of treating non-matching meshes at interface has also been proposed. The validation results of 1D and 2D cases for the developed conjugate heat transfer code have shown close agreement with the solutions given by analysis.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Conjugate Heat transfer, Heat Conduction, Heat Transfer

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1869 A Direct Down-conversion Receiver for Low-power Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Gianluca Cornetta, Abdellah Touhafi, David J. Santos, Jose Manuel Vazquez

Abstract:

A direct downconversion receiver implemented in 0.13 μm 1P8M process is presented. The circuit is formed by a single-end LNA, an active balun for conversion into balanced mode, a quadrature double-balanced passive switch mixer and a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator. The receiver operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complies with IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) specifications. The circuit exhibits a very low noise figure of only 2.27 dB and dissipates only 14.6 mW with a 1.2 V supply voltage and is hence suitable for low-power applications.

Keywords: LNA, Active Balun, Passive Mixer, VCO, IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee).

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1868 On Asymptotic Laws and Transfer Processes Enhancement in Complex Turbulent Flows

Authors: A. Gorin

Abstract:

The lecture represents significant advances in understanding of the transfer processes mechanism in turbulent separated flows. Based upon experimental data suggesting the governing role of generated local pressure gradient that takes place in the immediate vicinity of the wall in separated flow as a result of intense instantaneous accelerations induced by large-scale vortex flow structures similarity laws for mean velocity and temperature and spectral characteristics and heat and mass transfer law for turbulent separated flows have been developed. These laws are confirmed by available experimental data. The results obtained were employed for analysis of heat and mass transfer in some very complex processes occurring in technological applications such as impinging jets, heat transfer of cylinders in cross flow and in tube banks, packed beds where processes manifest distinct properties which allow them to be classified under turbulent separated flows. Many facts have got an explanation for the first time.

Keywords: impinging jets, packed beds, turbulent separatedflows, 'two-thirds power law'

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1867 Improving Survivability in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Seyed Ali Sadat Noori, Elham Sahebi Bazaz

Abstract:

Topological changes in mobile ad hoc networks frequently render routing paths unusable. Such recurrent path failures have detrimental effects on quality of service. A suitable technique for eliminating this problem is to use multiple backup paths between the source and the destination in the network. This paper proposes an effective and efficient protocol for backup and disjoint path set in ad hoc wireless network. This protocol converges to a highly reliable path set very fast with no message exchange overhead. The paths selection according to this algorithm is beneficial for mobile ad hoc networks, since it produce a set of backup paths with more high reliability. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in terms of route numbers in the path set and its reliability. In order to acquire link reliability estimates, we use link expiration time (LET) between two nodes.

Keywords: Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Reliability, Routing, Disjoint Path

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1866 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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1865 Supporting Technology Transfer with Communities and Social Software Solutions

Authors: G. Schuh, S. Aghassi

Abstract:

In order to bridge the gap between research and industry, promoting technology and knowledge transfer becomes increasingly important. Especially small- and medium-sized enterprises, having only little R&D resources themselves, depend on external technology development activities for remaining innovative. Academia research on the other hand needs potential industrial partners, who are capable and willing to commercialize their technologies as most public funding programs require some sort of technology transfer or dissemination activities. Modern web technologies offer more and more “social” functionalities and open up new ways of user interaction. In the past years several technology transfer platforms were developed, making use of modern web technologies in order to enable and support technology transfer. In this paper we report on the results of a state-of-the art analyses of existing technology transfer platforms, point out their advantages and deficits and give a perspective to the development of an improved technology transfer platform.

Keywords: Knowledge transfer, social software, technology management, technology transfer.

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1864 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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1863 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: Nanofluid; heat transfer oil; mixed convection; inclined tube; laminar flow.

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1862 Intelligent Agent Approach to the Control of Critical Infrastructure Networks

Authors: James D. Gadze, Niki Pissinou, Kia Makki

Abstract:

In this paper we propose an intelligent agent approach to control the electric power grid at a smaller granularity in order to give it self-healing capabilities. We develop a method using the influence model to transform transmission substations into information processing, analyzing and decision making (intelligent behavior) units. We also develop a wireless communication method to deliver real-time uncorrupted information to an intelligent controller in a power system environment. A combined networking and information theoretic approach is adopted in meeting both the delay and error probability requirements. We use a mobile agent approach in optimizing the achievable information rate vector and in the distribution of rates to users (sensors). We developed the concept and the quantitative tools require in the creation of cooperating semiautonomous subsystems which puts the electric grid on the path towards intelligent and self-healing system.

Keywords: Mobile agent, power system operation and control, real time, wireless communication.

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1861 Impact of Implementing VPN to Secure Wireless LAN

Authors: H. Bourdoucen, A. Al Naamany, A. Al Kalbani

Abstract:

Many corporations are seriously concerned about security of networks and therefore, their network supervisors are still reluctant to install WLANs. In this regards, the IEEE802.11i standard was developed to address the security problems, even though the mistrust of the wireless LAN technology is still existing. The thought was that the best security solutions could be found in open standards based technologies that can be delivered by Virtual Private Networking (VPN) being used for long time without addressing any security holes for the past few years. This work, addresses this issue and presents a simulated wireless LAN of IEEE802.11g protocol, and analyzes impact of integrating Virtual Private Network technology to secure the flow of traffic between the client and the server within the LAN, using OPNET WLAN utility. Two Wireless LAN scenarios have been introduced and simulated. These are based on normal extension to a wired network and VPN over extension to a wired network. The results of the two scenarios are compared and indicate the impact of improving performance, measured by response time and load, of Virtual Private Network over wireless LAN.

Keywords: IEEE802.11, VPN, Networking, Secure Wireless, WLAN, Opnet.

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