Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Vocal tract

59 Comparison of Fricative Vocal Tract Transfer Functions Derived using Two Different Segmentation Techniques

Authors: K. S. Subari, C. H. Shadle, A. Barney, R. I. Damper

Abstract:

The acoustic and articulatory properties of fricative speech sounds are being studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic recordings from a single subject. Area functions were derived from a complete set of axial and coronal MR slices using two different methods: the Mermelstein technique and the Blum transform. Area functions derived from the two techniques were shown to differ significantly in some cases. Such differences will lead to different acoustic predictions and it is important to know which is the more accurate. The vocal tract acoustic transfer function (VTTF) was derived from these area functions for each fricative and compared with measured speech signals for the same fricative and same subject. The VTTFs for /f/ in two vowel contexts and the corresponding acoustic spectra are derived here; the Blum transform appears to show a better match between prediction and measurement than the Mermelstein technique.

Keywords: Area functions, fricatives, vocal tract transferfunction, MRI, speech.

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58 Comparative Study of Filter Characteristics as Statistical Vocal Correlates of Clinical Psychiatric State in Human

Authors: Thaweesak Yingthawornsuk, Chusak Thanawattano

Abstract:

Acoustical properties of speech have been shown to be related to mental states of speaker with symptoms: depression and remission. This paper describes way to address the issue of distinguishing depressed patients from remitted subjects based on measureable acoustics change of their spoken sound. The vocal-tract related frequency characteristics of speech samples from female remitted and depressed patients were analyzed via speech processing techniques and consequently, evaluated statistically by cross-validation with Support Vector Machine. Our results comparatively show the classifier's performance with effectively correct separation of 93% determined from testing with the subjectbased feature model and 88% from the frame-based model based on the same speech samples collected from hospital visiting interview sessions between patients and psychiatrists.

Keywords: Depression, SVM, Vocal Extract, Vocal Tract

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57 Extracting Tongue Shape Dynamics from Magnetic Resonance Image Sequences

Authors: María S. Avila-García, John N. Carter, Robert I. Damper

Abstract:

An important problem in speech research is the automatic extraction of information about the shape and dimensions of the vocal tract during real-time speech production. We have previously developed Southampton dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (SDMRI) as an approach to the solution of this problem.However, the SDMRI images are very noisy so that shape extraction is a major challenge. In this paper, we address the problem of tongue shape extraction, which poses difficulties because this is a highly deforming non-parametric shape. We show that combining active shape models with the dynamic Hough transform allows the tongue shape to be reliably tracked in the image sequence.

Keywords: Vocal tract imaging, speech production, active shapemodels, dynamic Hough transform, object tracking.

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56 An Approach for Vocal Register Recognition Based on Spectral Analysis of Singing

Authors: Aleksandra Zysk, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Recognizing and controlling vocal registers during singing is a difficult task for beginner vocalist. It requires among others identifying which part of natural resonators is being used when a sound propagates through the body. Thus, an application has been designed allowing for sound recording, automatic vocal register recognition (VRR), and a graphical user interface providing real-time visualization of the signal and recognition results. Six spectral features are determined for each time frame and passed to the support vector machine classifier yielding a binary decision on the head or chest register assignment of the segment. The classification training and testing data have been recorded by ten professional female singers (soprano, aged 19-29) performing sounds for both chest and head register. The classification accuracy exceeded 93% in each of various validation schemes. Apart from a hard two-class clustering, the support vector classifier returns also information on the distance between particular feature vector and the discrimination hyperplane in a feature space. Such an information reflects the level of certainty of the vocal register classification in a fuzzy way. Thus, the designed recognition and training application is able to assess and visualize the continuous trend in singing in a user-friendly graphical mode providing an easy way to control the vocal emission.

Keywords: Classification, singing, spectral analysis, vocal emission, vocal register.

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55 Vocal Communication in Sooty-headed Bulbul; Pycnonotus aurigaster

Authors: Surakan Payakkhabut

Abstract:

Studies of vocal communication in Sooty-headed Bulbul were carried out from January to December 2011. Vocal recordings and behavioral observations were made in their natural habitats at some localities of Lampang, Thailand. After editing, cuts of high quality recordings were analyzed with the help of Avisoft- SASLab Pro (version 4.40) software. More than one thousand element repertoires in five groups were found within two vocal structures. The two structures were short sounds with single element and phrases composed of elements, the frequency ranged from 1-10 kHz. Most phrases were composed of 2 to 5 elements that were often dissimilar in structure, however, these phrases were not as complex as song phrases. The elements and phrases were combined to form many patterns. The species used ten types of calls; i.e. alert, alarm, aggressive, begging, contact, courtship, distress, exciting, flying and invitation. Alert and contact calls were used more frequently than other calls. Aggressive, alarm and distress calls could be used for interspecific communication among some other bird species in the same habitats.

Keywords: Vocal communication, Call, Bird, Sooty-headed Bulbul

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54 Vocal Training and Practice Methods: A Glimpse on the South Indian Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

Abstract:

Music is one of the supreme arts of expressions, next to the speech itself. Its evolution over centuries has paved the way with a variety of training protocols and performing methods. Indian classical music is one of the most elaborate and refined systems with immense emphasis on the voice culture related to range, breath control, quality of the tone, flexibility and diction. Several exercises namely saraliswaram, jantaswaram, dhatuswaram, upper stayi swaram, alamkaras and varnams lay the required foundation to gain the voice culture and deeper understanding on the voice development and further on to the intricacies of the raga system. This article narrates a few of the Carnatic music training methods with an emphasis on the advanced practice methods for articulating the vocal skills, continuity in the voice, ability to produce gamakams, command in the multiple speeds of rendering with reasonable volume. The creativity on these exercises and their impact on the voice production are discussed. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods and vocal exercises bestow the optimum use of the natural human vocal system to not only enhance the signing quality but also to gain health benefits.

Keywords: Carnatic music, Saraliswaram, Varnam, Vocal training.

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53 The Appeal of Vocal Islamism in the West: The Case of Hizb ut-Tahrir vis-à-vis Its Competitors

Authors: Elisa Orofino

Abstract:

Islamism is a very debated topic in the West but almost exclusively explored in its violent forms. Nevertheless, a number of “vocal radical Islamist” groups exist in the West and legally operate because of their non-violent nature. Vocal radicals continually inspire individuals and lead them towards specific goals and priorities, sometimes even towards violence. This paper uses the long-living group Hizb ut-Tahrir (HT) to explore the elements that make the organization appealing to segments of Muslim community in the West. This paper uses three agency variables - reflexive monitoring, the rationalization of action and the motivations for actions – to analyze HT’s appeal vis-à-vis two other Islamist groups, Ikhwan al-Muslimun and Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI), having similar goals and the same high international profile. This paper concludes that HT’s uniqueness is given by its method, detailed vision of the caliphate, consistency over time and the emphasis placed on the caliphate as the leading force of HT’s unchanged motivation for action.

Keywords: Agency, Caliphate, Radicalization, Vocal Radicals.

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52 A New Rigid Fistulectomy Set for Minimally Invasive “Core-Out“ Excision of High Anal Fistulas

Authors: Siamak Najarian, Meysam Esmaeili, Mohsen Towliat Kashani

Abstract:

In this article, we propose a new surgical device for circumferentially excision of high anal fistulas in a minimally invasive manner. The new apparatus works on the basis of axially rotating and moving a tubular blade along a fistulous tract straightened using a rigid straight guidewire. As the blade moves along the tract, its sharp circular cutting edge circumferentially separates approximately 2.25 mm thickness of tract encircling the rigid guidewire. We used the new set to excise two anal fistulas in a 62-year-old male patient, an extrasphincteric type and a long tract with no internal opening. With regard to the results of this test, the new device can be considered as a sphincter preserving mechanism for treatment of high anal fistulas. Consequently, a major reduction in the risk of fecal incontinence, recurrence rate, convalescence period and patient morbidity may be achieved using the new device for treatment of fistula-in-ano.

Keywords: Fecal Incontinence, Fistulectomy, High Anal Fistula, Minimally Invasive.

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51 Voice Command Recognition System Based on MFCC and VQ Algorithms

Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Azizollah Taheri

Abstract:

The goal of this project is to design a system to recognition voice commands. Most of voice recognition systems contain two main modules as follow “feature extraction" and “feature matching". In this project, MFCC algorithm is used to simulate feature extraction module. Using this algorithm, the cepstral coefficients are calculated on mel frequency scale. VQ (vector quantization) method will be used for reduction of amount of data to decrease computation time. In the feature matching stage Euclidean distance is applied as similarity criterion. Because of high accuracy of used algorithms, the accuracy of this voice command system is high. Using these algorithms, by at least 5 times repetition for each command, in a single training session, and then twice in each testing session zero error rate in recognition of commands is achieved.

Keywords: MFCC, Vector quantization, Vocal tract, Voicecommand.

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50 Analysis of Vocal Fold Vibrations from High-Speed Digital Images Based On Dynamic Time Warping

Authors: A. I. A. Rahman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, K. Ahmad, K. Anuar

Abstract:

Analysis of vocal fold vibration is essential for understanding the mechanism of voice production and for improving clinical assessment of voice disorders. This paper presents a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based approach to analyze and objectively classify vocal fold vibration patterns. The proposed technique was designed and implemented on a Glottal Area Waveform (GAW) extracted from high-speed laryngeal images by delineating the glottal edges for each image frame. Feature extraction from the GAW was performed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC). Several types of voice reference templates from simulations of clear, breathy, fry, pressed and hyperfunctional voice productions were used. The patterns of the reference templates were first verified using the analytical signal generated through Hilbert transformation of the GAW. Samples from normal speakers’ voice recordings were then used to evaluate and test the effectiveness of this approach. The classification of the voice patterns using the technique of LPC and DTW gave the accuracy of 81%.

Keywords: Dynamic Time Warping, Glottal Area Waveform, Linear Predictive Coding, High-Speed Laryngeal Images, Hilbert Transform.

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49 Transformation of Vocal Characteristics: A Review of Literature

Authors: Dong-Yan Huang, Ee Ping Ong, Susanto Rahardja, Minghui Dong, Haizhou Li

Abstract:

The transformation of vocal characteristics aims at modifying voice such that the intelligibility of aphonic voice is increased or the voice characteristics of a speaker (source speaker) to be perceived as if another speaker (target speaker) had uttered it. In this paper, the current state-of-the-art voice characteristics transformation methodology is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on voice transformation methodology and issues for improving the transformed speech quality in intelligibility and naturalness are discussed. In particular, it is suggested to use the modulation theory of speech as a base for research on high quality voice transformation. This approach allows one to separate linguistic, expressive, organic and perspective information of speech, based on an analysis of how they are fused when speech is produced. Therefore, this theory provides the fundamentals not only for manipulating non-linguistic, extra-/paralinguistic and intra-linguistic variables for voice transformation, but also for paving the way for easily transposing the existing voice transformation methods to emotion-related voice quality transformation and speaking style transformation. From the perspectives of human speech production and perception, the popular voice transformation techniques are described and classified them based on the underlying principles either from the speech production or perception mechanisms or from both. In addition, the advantages and limitations of voice transformation techniques and the experimental manipulation of vocal cues are discussed through examples from past and present research. Finally, a conclusion and road map are pointed out for more natural voice transformation algorithms in the future.

Keywords: Voice transformation, Voice Quality, Emotion, Individuality, Speaking Style, Speech Production, Speech Perception.

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48 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai

Abstract:

Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: Digesta, goats, meal termination, reticulorumen fill.

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47 Improved Closed Set Text-Independent Speaker Identification by Combining MFCC with Evidence from Flipped Filter Banks

Authors: Sandipan Chakroborty, Anindya Roy, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

A state of the art Speaker Identification (SI) system requires a robust feature extraction unit followed by a speaker modeling scheme for generalized representation of these features. Over the years, Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) modeled on the human auditory system has been used as a standard acoustic feature set for SI applications. However, due to the structure of its filter bank, it captures vocal tract characteristics more effectively in the lower frequency regions. This paper proposes a new set of features using a complementary filter bank structure which improves distinguishability of speaker specific cues present in the higher frequency zone. Unlike high level features that are difficult to extract, the proposed feature set involves little computational burden during the extraction process. When combined with MFCC via a parallel implementation of speaker models, the proposed feature set outperforms baseline MFCC significantly. This proposition is validated by experiments conducted on two different kinds of public databases namely YOHO (microphone speech) and POLYCOST (telephone speech) with Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) as a Classifier for various model orders.

Keywords: Complementary Information, Filter Bank, GMM, IMFCC, MFCC, Speaker Identification, Speaker Recognition.

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46 SySRA: A System of a Continuous Speech Recognition in Arab Language

Authors: Samir Abdelhamid, Noureddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

We report in this paper the model adopted by our system of continuous speech recognition in Arab language SySRA and the results obtained until now. This system uses the database Arabdic-10 which is a corpus of word for the Arab language and which was manually segmented. Phonetic decoding is represented by an expert system where the knowledge base is translated in the form of production rules. This expert system transforms a vocal signal into a phonetic lattice. The higher level of the system takes care of the recognition of the lattice thus obtained by deferring it in the form of written sentences (orthographical Form). This level contains initially the lexical analyzer which is not other than the module of recognition. We subjected this analyzer to a set of spectrograms obtained by dictating a score of sentences in Arab language. The rate of recognition of these sentences is about 70% which is, to our knowledge, the best result for the recognition of the Arab language. The test set consists of twenty sentences from four speakers not having taken part in the training.

Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, lexical analyzer, phonetic decoding, phonetic lattice, vocal signal.

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45 Ultrasonic System for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Development, Verification and Clinical Trials

Authors: Eun-Geun Kim, Won-Pil Park, Dae-Gon Woo, Chang-Yong Ko, Yong-Heum Lee, Dohyung Lim, Tae-Min Shin, Han-Sung Kim, Gyoun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

Functional gastrointestinal disorders affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. There are, however, rare diagnostic methods for the functional gastrointestinal disorders because functional disorders show no evidence of organic and physical causes. Our research group identified recently that the gastrointestinal tract well in the patients with the functional gastrointestinal disorders becomes more rigid than healthy people when palpating the abdominal regions overlaying the gastrointestinal tract. Aim of this study is, therefore, to develop a diagnostic system for the functional gastrointestinal disorders based on ultrasound technique, which can quantify the characteristic above related to the rigidity of the gastrointestinal tract well. Ultrasound system was designed. The system consisted of transmitter, ultrasonic transducer, receiver, TGC, and CPLD, and verified via a phantom test. For the phantom test, ten soft-tissue specimens were harvested from porcine. Five of them were then treated chemically to mimic a rigid condition of gastrointestinal tract well, which was induced by functional gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, the specimens were tested mechanically to identify if the mimic was reasonable. The customized ultrasound system was finally verified through application to human subjects with/without functional gastrointestinal disorders (Normal and Patient Groups). It was identified from the mechanical test that the chemically treated specimens were more rigid than normal specimen. This finding was favorably compared with the result obtained from the phantom test. The phantom test also showed that ultrasound system well described the specimen geometric characteristics and detected an alteration in the specimens. The maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic reflective signal in the rigid specimens (0.2±0.1Vp-p) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly higher than that in the normal specimens (0.1±0.0Vp-p). Clinical tests using our customized ultrasound system for human subject showed that the maximum amplitudes of the ultrasonic reflective signals near to the gastrointestinal tract well for the patient group (2.6±0.3Vp-p) were generally higher than those in normal group (0.1±0.2Vp-p). Here, maximum reflective signals was appeared at 20mm depth approximately from abdominal skin for all human subjects, corresponding to the location of the boundary layer close to gastrointestinal tract well. These results suggest that newly designed diagnostic system based on ultrasound technique may diagnose enough the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, DiagnosticSystem, Phantom Test, Ultrasound System.

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44 Microbiological Profile of UTI along with Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern with Special Reference to Nitrofurantoin

Authors: Rupinder Bakshi, Geeta Walia, Anita Gupta

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections are considered as one of the most common bacterial infections with an estimated annual global incidence of 150 million. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to wide spread usage of uncontrolled antibiotics. In this study, a total number of 9149 urine samples were collected from R.H Patiala and processed in the Department of Microbiology G. M. C Patiala (January 2013 to December 2013). Urine samples were inoculated on MacConkey’s and blood agar plates and incubated at 370C for 24 hrs. The organisms were identified by colony characters, Gram’s staining, and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined against various antimicrobial agents (Hi – Media Mumbai India) by Kirby Bauer DISK diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. Maximum patients were in the age group of 21-30 yrs followed by 31-40 yrs. Males (34%) are less prone to urinary tract infections than females (66%). Culture was positive in 25% of the samples. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate 60.3% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.5%, Proteus spp. 9% and Staphylococcus aureus 7.6%. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to, carbepenems, Aztreonam, Amikacin, and Piperacillin + Tazobactum. All the isolates showed a good sensitivity towards Nitrofurantoin (82%). ESBL production was found to be 70.6% in Escherichia coli and 29.4% in Klebsiella pneumonia. Susceptibility of ESBL producers to Imipenem, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were found to be 100%, 76%, and 75% respectively. Uropathogens are increasingly showing resistance to many antibiotics making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin should not be used in empiric treatment. Nitrofurantoin could be used in lower urinary tract infection. Knowledge of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a geographical region will help in appropriate and judicious antibiotic usage in a health care setup.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, UTI, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, ESBL.

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43 Suggestion of Ultrasonic System for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Finite Difference Analysis, Development and Clinical Trials

Authors: Won-Pil Park, Qyoun-Jung Lee, Dae-Gon Woo, Chang-Yong Ko, Eun-Geun Kim, Dohyung Lim, Yong-Heum Lee, Tae-Min Shin, Han-Sung Kim

Abstract:

The disaster from functional gastrointestinal disorders has detrimental impact on the quality of life of the effected population and imposes a tremendous social and economic burden. There are, however, rare diagnostic methods for the functional gastrointestinal disorders. Our research group identified recently that the gastrointestinal tract well in the patients with the functional gastrointestinal disorders becomes more rigid than healthy people when palpating the abdominal regions overlaying the gastrointestinal tract. Objective of current study is, therefore, identify feasibility of a diagnostic system for the functional gastrointestinal disorders based on ultrasound technique, which can quantify the characteristics above. Two-dimensional finite difference (FD) models (one normal and two rigid model) were developed to analyze the reflective characteristic (displacement) on each soft-tissue layer responded after application of ultrasound signals. The FD analysis was then based on elastic ultrasound theory. Validation of the model was performed via comparison of the characteristic of the ultrasonic responses predicted by FD analysis with that determined from the actual specimens for the normal and rigid conditions. Based on the results from FD analysis, ultrasound system for diagnosis of the functional gastrointestinal disorders was developed and clinically tested via application of it to 40 human subjects with/without functional gastrointestinal disorders who were assigned to Normal and Patient Groups. The FD models were favorably validated. The results from FD analysis showed that the maximum displacement amplitude in the rigid models (0.12 and 0.16) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly less than that in the normal model (0.29). The results from actual specimens showed that the maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic reflective signal in the rigid models (0.2±0.1Vp-p) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly higher than that in the normal model (0.1±0.2 Vp-p). Clinical tests using our customized ultrasound system showed that the maximum amplitudes of the ultrasonic reflective signals near to the gastrointestinal tract well for the patient group (2.6±0.3 Vp-p) were generally higher than those in normal group (0.1±0.2 Vp-p). Here, maximum reflective signals was appeared at 20mm depth approximately from abdominal skin for all human subjects, corresponding to the location of the boundary layer close to gastrointestinal tract well. These findings suggest that our customized ultrasound system using the ultrasonic reflective signal may be helpful to the diagnosis of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Finite Difference (FD) Analysis, FunctionalGastrointestinal Disorders, Gastrointestinal Tract, UltrasonicResponses.

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42 Exploring the Safety of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitors at the Imperial College London Diabetes Centre, UAE

Authors: Raad Nari, Maura Moriaty, Maha T. Barakat

Abstract:

Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic drugs with a unique mechanism of action. They are used to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. In the UAE, there has been certainly an increased use of these medications. As with any new medication, there are safety considerations related to their use in patients with type two diabetes. A retrospective study was conducted at the three main centres of the Imperial College London Diabetes Centre. Methodology: All patients in electronic database (Diamond) from October 2014 to October 2017 were included with a minimum of six months usage of sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors that comprise canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. There were 15 paired sample biochemical and clinical correlations. The analysis was done at the start of the study, three months and six months apart. SPSS version 24 was used for this study. Conclusion: This study of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors used showed significant reductions in weight, glycated haemoglobin A1C, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. As the case with systematic reviews, there were similar changes in liver enzymes, raised total cholesterol, low density lipopoptein and high density lipoprotein. There was slight improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate too. Our analysis also showed that they increased in the incidence of urinary tract symptoms and incidence of urinary tract infections.

Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitors dapagliflozin empagliflozin canagliflozin, adverse effects, amputation diabetic ketoacidosis DKA, urinary tract infection.

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41 Influence of Supplemental Glutamine on Nutrient Digestibility and Utilization, Small Intestinal Morphology and Gastrointestinal Tract and Immune Organ Developments of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sutisa Khempaka, Supattra Okrathok, Laddawan Hokking, Buntita Thukhanon, Wittawat Molee

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the optimum levels of glutamine (Gln) supplementation in broiler diets. A total of 32 one-day-old male chicks with initial body weight 41.5 g were segregated into 4 groups (8 chicks per group) and subsequently distributed to individual cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Four dietary treatments were as follows: control and supplemented Gln at 1, 2 and 3%, respectively. The results found that the addition Gln had no negative effects on dry matter, organic matter, ash digestibility or nitrogen retention. Birds fed with 1% Gln had significantly higher villi wide and villi height : crypt depth ratio in duodenum than the control chicks and 2 and 3% Gln chicks. It is suggested that the addition of Gln at 1% indicated a beneficial effect on improving small intestinal morphology, in addition Gln may stimulate immune organ development of broiler chickens.

Keywords: broiler chicken, digestibility, gastrointestinal tract glutamine, glutamine

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40 Prevention of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Catheter by Coating Enzymes/ Gentamycin/ EDTA

Authors: Niraj A. Ghanwate, P V Thakare, P R Bhise, Ashish Dhanke, Shubhangi Apotikar

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) account for an estimated 25-40% nosocomial infection, out of which 90% are associated with urinary catheter, called Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The microbial populations within CAUTI frequently develop as biofilms. In the present study, microbial contamination of indwelling urinary catheters was investigated. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates was determined by tissue culture plate method. Prevention of biofilm formation in the urinary catheter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined by coating the catheter with some enzymes, gentamycin and EDTA. It was found that 64% of the urinary catheters get contaminated during the course of catheterization. Of the total 6 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 100% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, 90% in Enterococci, 80% in Klebsiella and 66% in S. aureus. It was noted that the biofilm production by Pseudomonas was prolonged by 7 days in amylase, 8 days in protease, 6 days in lysozyme, 7days in gentamycin and 5 days in EDTA treated catheter.

Keywords: CAUTI, biofilm, enzymes, EDTA, Pseudomonas.

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39 The Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract of the African Lung Fish Protopterus annectens in River Niger at Agenebode, Nigeria

Authors: Marian Agbugui

Abstract:

The West African Lung fishes are fishes rich in protein and serve as an important source of food supply for man. The kind of food ingested by this group of fishes is dependent on the alimentary canal as well as the fish’s digestive processes which provide suitable modifications for maximum utilization of food taken. A study of the alimentary canal of P. annectens will expose the best information on the anatomy and histology of the fish. Samples of P. annectens were dissected to reveal the liver, pancreas and entire gut wall. Digital pictures of the mouth, jaws and the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) were taken. The entire gut was identified, sectioned and micro graphed. P. annectens was observed to possess a terminal mouth that opens up to 10% of its total body length, an adaptive feature to enable the fish to swallow the whole of its pry. Its dentition is made up of incisors- scissor-like teeth which also help to firmly grip, seize and tear through the skin of prey before swallowing. A short, straight and longitudinal GIT was observed in P. annectens which is known to be common feature in lungfishes, though it is thought to be a primitive characteristic similar to the lamprey. The oesophagus is short and distensible similar to other predatory and carnivorous species. Food is temporarily stored in the stomach before it is passed down into the intestine. A pyloric aperture is seen at the end of the double folded pyloric valve which leads into an intestine that makes up 75% of the whole GIT. The intestine begins at the posterior end of the pyloric aperture and winds down in six coils through the whole length intestine and ends at the cloaca. From this study it is concluded that P. annectens possess a composite GIT with organs similar to other lung fishes; it is a detritor with carnivorous abilities.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal tract, incisors scissor-like teeth, intestine, mucus, Protopterus annectens, serosa.

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38 A New Spectral-based Approach to Query-by-Humming for MP3 Songs Database

Authors: Leon Fu, Xiangyang Xue

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new approach to query-by-humming, focusing on MP3 songs database. Since MP3 songs are much more difficult in melody representation than symbolic performance data, we adopt to extract feature descriptors from the vocal sounds part of the songs. Our approach is based on signal filtering, sub-band spectral processing, MDCT coefficients analysis and peak energy detection by ignorance of the background music as much as possible. Finally, we apply dual dynamic programming algorithm for feature similarity matching. Experiments will show us its online performance in precision and efficiency.

Keywords: DP, MDCT, MP3, QBH.

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37 Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Chronic Toxicity

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Irina M. Korulkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

In article the data of chronic toxicity for pre-clinical researches of Ramon preparation is described. Ramon effects to hormone system and gastrointestinal tract; local irritative effect, allergic, pyrogenic properties and reaction to the immune system were studied.

Keywords: Cancer, toxicity, antitumor activity, pre-clinical testing, anthraquinones, phytopreparation, Ramon.

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36 Ontology for a Voice Transcription of OpenStreetMap Data: The Case of Space Apprehension by Visually Impaired Persons

Authors: Said Boularouk, Didier Josselin, Eitan Altman

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vocal ontology of OpenStreetMap data for the apprehension of space by visually impaired people. Indeed, the platform based on produsage gives a freedom to data producers to choose the descriptors of geocoded locations. Unfortunately, this freedom, called also folksonomy leads to complicate subsequent searches of data. We try to solve this issue in a simple but usable method to extract data from OSM databases in order to send them to visually impaired people using Text To Speech technology. We focus on how to help people suffering from visual disability to plan their itinerary, to comprehend a map by querying computer and getting information about surrounding environment in a mono-modal human-computer dialogue.

Keywords: Ontology, OpenStreetMap, visually impaired people, TTS, taxonomy.

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35 A System of Automatic Speech Recognition based on the Technique of Temporal Retiming

Authors: Samir Abdelhamid, Noureddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

We report in this paper the procedure of a system of automatic speech recognition based on techniques of the dynamic programming. The technique of temporal retiming is a technique used to synchronize between two forms to compare. We will see how this technique is adapted to the field of the automatic speech recognition. We will expose, in a first place, the theory of the function of retiming which is used to compare and to adjust an unknown form with a whole of forms of reference constituting the vocabulary of the application. Then we will give, in the second place, the various algorithms necessary to their implementation on machine. The algorithms which we will present were tested on part of the corpus of words in Arab language Arabdic-10 [4] and gave whole satisfaction. These algorithms are effective insofar as we apply them to the small ones or average vocabularies.

Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, temporal retiming, phonetic decoding, algorithms, vocal signal, dynamic programming.

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34 A Neural Model of Object Naming

Authors: Alessio Plebe

Abstract:

One astonishing capability of humans is to recognize thousands of different objects visually, and to learn the semantic association between those objects and words referring to them. This work is an attempt to build a computational model of such capacity,simulating the process by which infants learn how to recognize objects and words through exposure to visual stimuli and vocal sounds.One of the main fact shaping the brain of a newborn is that lights and colors come from entities of the world. Gradually the visual system learn which light sensations belong to same entities, despite large changes in appearance. This experience is common between humans and several other mammals, like non-human primates. But humans only can recognize a huge variety of objects, most manufactured by himself, and make use of sounds to identify and categorize them. The aim of this model is to reproduce these processes in a biologically plausible way, by reconstructing the essential hierarchy of cortical circuits on the visual and auditory neural paths.

Keywords: Auditory cortex, object recognition, self-organizingmaps

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33 Analysis of Plasmids and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals- AL Jouf Region- KSA

Authors: Samy A. Selim, Nashwa I. Hagag

Abstract:

Abstract–The objectives of the current study are to determine the prevalence, etiological agents, drug susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI) at Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1890 patients had developed infection during hospital admission and were included in the study. Among those who developed nosocomial infections, 15(9.4), 10(2.7) and 118 (12.7) had respiratory tract infection (RTI), blood stream infections (BSI) and urinary tract (UTI) respectively. A total of 268 bacterial isolates were isolated from nosocomial infection. S. aureus was reported in 23.5% for of the total isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), E. coli (17.2%), P. aeruginosa (11.9%), coagulase negative staphylococcus (9%), A. baumannii (7.1%), Enterobacter spp. (3.4%), Citrobacter freundii (3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.6%), and Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcous faecalis (0.7%). Isolated organisms are multi-drug resistant, predominantly Gram-positive pathogens with a high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, extended spectrum beta lactamase and vancomycin resistant enterococci organisms. The RFLP (Fragment Length Polymorphisms) patterns of plasmid preparations from isolated A. baumannii isolates had altered RFLP patterns, possibly due to the presence of plasmid(s). Five A. baumannii isolates harbored plasmids all of which were not less than 2.71kbp in molecular weight. Hence, it showed that the gene coding for the isolates were located on the plasmid DNA while the remaining isolates which have no plasmid might showed gene coding for antibiotic resistance being located on chromosomal DNA. Nosocomial infections represent a current problem in Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Problems associated with SSI include infection with multidrug resistant pathogens which are difficult to treat and are associated with increased mortality.

Keywords: Hospital-Acquired Infections, Acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, plasmid profile, RFLP patterns, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia

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32 Bleeding Detection Algorithm for Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Automatic detection of bleeding is of practical importance since capsule endoscopy produces an extremely large number of images. Algorithm development of bleeding detection in the digestive tract is difficult due to different contrasts among the images, food dregs, secretion and others. In this study, were assigned weighting factors derived from the independent features of the contrast and brightness between bleeding and normality. Spectral analysis based on weighting factors was fast and accurate. Results were a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 90% when the accuracy was determined for each pixel out of 42 endoscope images.

Keywords: bleeding, capsule endoscopy, image analysis, weighted spectrum

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31 Voice Disorders Identification Using Hybrid Approach: Wavelet Analysis and Multilayer Neural Networks

Authors: L. Salhi, M. Talbi, A. Cherif

Abstract:

This paper presents a new strategy of identification and classification of pathological voices using the hybrid method based on wavelet transform and neural networks. After speech acquisition from a patient, the speech signal is analysed in order to extract the acoustic parameters such as the pitch, the formants, Jitter, and shimmer. Obtained results will be compared to those normal and standard values thanks to a programmable database. Sounds are collected from normal people and patients, and then classified into two different categories. Speech data base is consists of several pathological and normal voices collected from the national hospital “Rabta-Tunis". Speech processing algorithm is conducted in a supervised mode for discrimination of normal and pathology voices and then for classification between neural and vocal pathologies (Parkinson, Alzheimer, laryngeal, dyslexia...). Several simulation results will be presented in function of the disease and will be compared with the clinical diagnosis in order to have an objective evaluation of the developed tool.

Keywords: Formants, Neural Networks, Pathological Voices, Pitch, Wavelet Transform.

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30 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (0.16 mM) and Ki (0.03 mM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60oC both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: Bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase.

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