Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 384

Search results for: Transportation

294 Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data

Authors: Ayudhia P. Gusti, Semin

Abstract:

It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.

Keywords: Maritime Transportation, speed optimization, reducing fuel, shipping log data

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293 Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2

Authors: Lawrence I. Onyeji, Girish M. Kale, M. Bijan Kermani

Abstract:

Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.

Keywords: Microstructures, corrosion behavior, carbon dioxide corrosion, micro-alloyed steel

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292 Quantification of E-Waste: A Case Study in Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Authors: Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman, Andressa S. T. Gomes, Luiza A. Souza

Abstract:

The segregation of waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the generating source, its characterization (quali-quantitative) and identification of origin, besides being integral parts of classification reports, are crucial steps to the success of its integrated management. The aim of this paper was to count WEEE generation at the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Brazil, as well as to define sources, temporary storage sites, main transportations routes and destinations, the most generated WEEE and its recycling potential. Quantification of WEEE generated at the University in the years between 2010 and 2015 was performed using data analysis provided by UFES’s sector of assets management. EEE and WEEE flow in the campuses information were obtained through questionnaires applied to the University workers. It was recorded 6028 WEEEs units of data processing equipment disposed by the university between 2010 and 2015. Among these waste, the most generated were CRT screens, desktops, keyboards and printers. Furthermore, it was observed that these WEEEs are temporarily stored in inappropriate places at the University campuses. In general, these WEEE units are donated to NGOs of the city, or sold through auctions (2010 and 2013). As for recycling potential, from the primary processing and further sale of printed circuit boards (PCB) from the computers, the amount collected could reach U$ 27,839.23. The results highlight the importance of a WEEE management policy at the University.

Keywords: Waste Management, Solid Waste, waste of electric and electronic equipment, institutional generation of solid waste

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291 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulraaof H. Alqaili

Abstract:

Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: Climate, Materials Properties, Riyadh, traffic characteristics, Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide

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290 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Rheology, CFD, viscosity, crude oil, natural surfactant

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289 A Reinforcement Learning Approach for Evaluation of Real-Time Disaster Relief Demand and Network Condition

Authors: Ali Nadi, Ali Edrissi

Abstract:

Relief demand and transportation links availability is the essential information that is needed for every natural disaster operation. This information is not in hand once a disaster strikes. Relief demand and network condition has been evaluated based on prediction method in related works. Nevertheless, prediction seems to be over or under estimated due to uncertainties and may lead to a failure operation. Therefore, in this paper a stochastic programming model is proposed to evaluate real-time relief demand and network condition at the onset of a natural disaster. To address the time sensitivity of the emergency response, the proposed model uses reinforcement learning for optimization of the total relief assessment time. The proposed model is tested on a real size network problem. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model performs well in the case of collecting real-time information.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Reinforcement Learning, real-time demand, relief demand

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288 Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites

Authors: Yuko Hiramatsu, Fumihiro Sato, Atsushi Ito, Hiroyuki Hatano, Mie Sato, Yu Watanabe, Akira Sasaki

Abstract:

This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.

Keywords: world heritage site, smartphone application, BLE beacon, Zeigarnik effect, school trip

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287 Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads

Authors: Mahdi Taghipour Masoumi, Ali Abdi Kordani, Mahmoud Nazirizad

Abstract:

Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two types of soil: Clayey and sandy containing non-reinforced and reinforced soil. The samples comprised three types of geotextiles with different characteristics (150, 200, 300 g/m2) and depths (H= 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm), and were grouped into two forms, one-layered and two-layered, based on the sample materials in order to perform defined tests. The results showed that the soil bearing characteristics increased when one layer of geotextile was used in clayey and sandy samples reinforced by geotextile. However, the bearing capacity of the soil, in the presence of a geotextile layer material with depth of more than 30 mm, had no remarkable effect. Furthermore, when the two-layered geotextile was applied in material samples, although it increased the soil resistance, it also showed that through the addition of a number or weights of geotextile into samples, the natural composition of the soil changed and the results are unreliable.

Keywords: Geosynthetics, Reinforced Soil, geotextile, transportation capacity, CBR experiments

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286 Environmental Decision Making Model for Assessing On-Site Performances of Building Subcontractors

Authors: Buket Metin

Abstract:

Buildings cause a variety of loads on the environment due to activities performed at each stage of the building life cycle. Construction is the first stage that affects both the natural and built environments at different steps of the process, which can be defined as transportation of materials within the construction site, formation and preparation of materials on-site and the application of materials to realize the building subsystems. All of these steps require the use of technology, which varies based on the facilities that contractors and subcontractors have. Hence, environmental consequences of the construction process should be tackled by focusing on construction technology options used in every step of the process. This paper presents an environmental decision-making model for assessing on-site performances of subcontractors based on the construction technology options which they can supply. First, construction technologies, which constitute information, tools and methods, are classified. Then, environmental performance criteria are set forth related to resource consumption, ecosystem quality, and human health issues. Finally, the model is developed based on the relationships between the construction technology components and the environmental performance criteria. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method is used for weighting the environmental performance criteria according to environmental priorities of decision-maker(s), while the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is used for ranking on-site environmental performances of subcontractors using quantitative data related to the construction technology components. Thus, the model aims to provide an insight to decision-maker(s) about the environmental consequences of the construction process and to provide an opportunity to improve the overall environmental performance of construction sites.

Keywords: Decision Making, Construction Technology, Environmental Performance, Construction Process, subcontractors

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285 Impact Analysis of Transportation Modal Shift on Regional Energy Consumption and Environmental Level: Focused on Electric Automobiles

Authors: Hong Bae Kim, Chang Ho Hur

Abstract:

Many governments have tried to reduce CO2 emissions which are believed to be the main cause for global warming. The deployment of electric automobiles is regarded as an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. The Korean government has planned to deploy about 200,000 electric automobiles. The policy for the deployment of electric automobiles aims at not only decreasing gasoline consumption but also increasing electricity production. However, if an electricity consuming regions is not consistent with an electricity producing region, the policy generates environmental problems between regions. Hence, this paper has established the energy multi-region input-output model to specifically analyze the impacts of the deployment of electric automobiles on regional energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Finally, the paper suggests policy directions regarding the deployment of electric automobiles.

Keywords: Co2 Emissions, electric automobiles, regional imbalances in electricity production and consumption, energy multi-region input-output model

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284 Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation

Authors: Constantin Z. Leshan

Abstract:

Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must 'jump' continually and 'vibrate' due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic 'walls' in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic 'walls' due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to 'trace' a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime 'boils' continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called 'random jumps': after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.

Keywords: border of the Universe, causality violation, perfect isolation, quantum jumps

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283 Offline Parameter Identification and State-of-Charge Estimation for Healthy and Aged Electric Vehicle Batteries Based on the Combined Model

Authors: Saeid Habibi, Xiaowei Zhang, Min Xu, Fengjun Yan, Ryan Ahmed

Abstract:

Recently, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have received extensive consideration since they offer a more sustainable and greener transportation alternative compared to fossil-fuel propelled vehicles. Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly being deployed in EVs because of their high energy density, high cell-level voltage, and low rate of self-discharge. Since Li-ion batteries represent the most expensive component in the EV powertrain, accurate monitoring and control strategies must be executed to ensure their prolonged lifespan. The Battery Management System (BMS) has to accurately estimate parameters such as the battery State-of-Charge (SOC), State-of-Health (SOH), and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In order for the BMS to estimate these parameters, an accurate and control-oriented battery model has to work collaboratively with a robust state and parameter estimation strategy. Since battery physical parameters, such as the internal resistance and diffusion coefficient change depending on the battery state-of-life (SOL), the BMS has to be adaptive to accommodate for this change. In this paper, an extensive battery aging study has been conducted over 12-months period on 5.4 Ah, 3.7 V Lithium polymer cells. Instead of using fixed charging/discharging aging cycles at fixed C-rate, a set of real-world driving scenarios have been used to age the cells. The test has been interrupted every 5% capacity degradation by a set of reference performance tests to assess the battery degradation and track model parameters. As battery ages, the combined model parameters are optimized and tracked in an offline mode over the entire batteries lifespan. Based on the optimized model, a state and parameter estimation strategy based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the relatively new Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF) have been applied to estimate the SOC at various states of life.

Keywords: Lithium-Ion Batteries, genetic algorithm optimization, battery aging test, and parameter identification

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282 The Ecological Footprint of Tourism in Jalapão/TO/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

The development of tourism causes negative impacts on the environment. It is in this context, through the Ecological Footprint (EF) method that this study aimed to characterize the impacts of ecotourism on the community of Mateiros, Jalapão, Brazil. The EF, which consisted in its original a method to construct a land use matrix, considering some major categories of human consumption such as food, housing, transportation, consumer goods and services, and six other categories from the main land use which are divided into the topics: land use, degraded environment, gardens, fertile land, pasture and forests protected by the government. The main objective of this index is to calculate the land area required for the production and maintenance of goods and services consumed by a community. The field research was conducted throughout the year of 2014 until July 2015. After the calculations of each category, these components were added according to the presented method in order to determine the annual EF of the tourism sector in Mateiros. The results show that the EF resulting from tourism in Mateiros is 2,194.22 hectares of land required for tourism activities in the region. The EF of tourism was considered high, nevertheless, if it is added the total of hectares needed annually for tourism activities, the result found would be 2,194.22 hectares needed to absorb the CO2 emissions generated in the region directly from the tourism sector.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, tourism ecological footprint, Jalapão/TO/Brazil

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281 Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.

Keywords: Non-Destructive Testing, Composite Material, IR thermography, thermal stimulation

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280 Design and Implementation of a Counting and Differentiation System for Vehicles through Video Processing

Authors: Derlis Gregor, Kevin Cikel, Mario Arzamendia, Raúl Gregor

Abstract:

This paper presents a self-sustaining mobile system for counting and classification of vehicles through processing video. It proposes a counting and classification algorithm divided in four steps that can be executed multiple times in parallel in a SBC (Single Board Computer), like the Raspberry Pi 2, in such a way that it can be implemented in real time. The first step of the proposed algorithm limits the zone of the image that it will be processed. The second step performs the detection of the mobile objects using a BGS (Background Subtraction) algorithm based on the GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), as well as a shadow removal algorithm using physical-based features, followed by morphological operations. In the first step the vehicle detection will be performed by using edge detection algorithms and the vehicle following through Kalman filters. The last step of the proposed algorithm registers the vehicle passing and performs their classification according to their areas. An auto-sustainable system is proposed, powered by batteries and photovoltaic solar panels, and the data transmission is done through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)eliminating the need of using external cable, which will facilitate it deployment and translation to any location where it could operate. The self-sustaining trailer will allow the counting and classification of vehicles in specific zones with difficult access.

Keywords: video processing, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Object Detection, vehicle classification, road traffic, vehicle counting

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279 Sustainable Development Variables to Assess Transport Infrastructure in Remote Destinations

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

The assessment variables of the accessibility and the sustainability of access infrastructure for remote regions may vary significant by location and a wide range of factors may affect the decision process. In this paper, the environmental disturbance implications of transportation system to key demand and supply variables impact the economic system in remote destination are descripted. According to a systemic approach, the key sustainability variables deals with decision making process that have to be included in strategic plan for the critical transport infrastructure development and their relationship to regional socioeconomic system are presented. The application deals with the development of railway in remote destinations, where the traditional CBA not include the external cost generated by the environmental impacts that may have a range of diverse impacts on transport infrastructure and services. The analysis output provides key messages to decision and policy makers towards sustainable development of transport infrastructure, especially for remote destinations where accessibility is a key factor of regional economic development and social stability. The key conclusion could be essential useful for relevant applications in remote regions in the same latitude.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, Transport Infrastructure, sustainable development in remote regions, sustainability variables

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278 Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

Abstract:

We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model, feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, endocrine system, Stability Analysis, ordinary differential equations

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277 Development of Total Maximum Daily Load Using Water Quality Modelling as an Approach for Watershed Management in Malaysia

Authors: H. Kim, S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. Wan Ishak, M. A. Azman, M. A. Ramli

Abstract:

River is one of important water sources for many activities including industrial and domestic usage such as daily usage, transportation, power supply and recreational activities. However, increasing activities in a river has grown the sources of pollutant enters the water bodies, and degraded the water quality of the river. It becomes a challenge to develop an effective river management to ensure the water sources of the river are well managed and regulated. In Malaysia, several approaches for river management have been implemented such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) program for coordinating the management of resources in a natural environment based on river basin to ensure their sustainability lead by Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID), Malaysia. Nowadays, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is one of the best approaches for river management in Malaysia. TMDL implementation is regulated and implemented in the United States. A study on the development of TMDL in Malacca River has been carried out by doing water quality monitoring, the development of water quality model by using Environmental Fluid Dynamic Codes (EFDC), and TMDL implementation plan. The implementation of TMDL will help the stakeholders and regulators to control and improve the water quality of the river. It is one of the good approaches for river management in Malaysia.

Keywords: River Management, TMDL, EFDC, water quality modelling

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276 Entrepreneurship Cure for Economic Under-Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical Perspective

Authors: Kurotimi Maurice Fems, Abara Onu, Francis W. D. Poazi

Abstract:

Scholars and development economists believe that the development of an economy depends largely on the creative and innovative ingenuity of its entrepreneurs. Others however, are of the opinion that the lack of entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial activities is not a constraint to economic development in any economy, particularly Nigeria. This paper sets out to explore the connectivity between entrepreneurship and economic development from a theoretical point of view, principally in Nigeria. A desk research approach was adopted where a conglomerate of literatures was reviewed on how entrepreneurship can spur economic growth or otherwise. The findings reveal that entrepreneurship is vital to the development of Nigeria and that, universities and other Higher Education Institutions must play the vital role of educating the people on entrepreneurship skills and competences. However, the problems and difficulties entrepreneurs face in Nigeria and the same problems suffocating the growth and development of its economy. Therefore, entrepreneurship cannot be said to be the sole cure for economic under-development in Nigeria but rather other factors such as empowering and granting the institutions autonomy and the provision of infrastructural capability, such as consistent electricity generation and supply, good system of transportation, implementing proposed economic policies in an effective and efficient manner etc., the cultural beliefs and mindset of the citizenry, was also found to be key in the development of any economy.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial, SMEs, economic underdevelopment, infrastructural under-development, oil boom, unemployable

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275 Risk Based Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Urban Infrastructure Transportation Project

Authors: Debasis Sarkar

Abstract:

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a holistic documentation process for operational visualization, design coordination, estimation and project scheduling. BIM software defines objects parametrically and it is a tool for virtual reality. Primary advantage of implementing BIM is the visual coordination of the building structure and systems such as Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) and it also identifies the possible conflicts between the building systems. This paper is an attempt to develop a risk based BIM model which would highlight the primary advantages of application of BIM pertaining to urban infrastructure transportation project. It has been observed that about 40% of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) companies use BIM but primarily for their outsourced projects. Also, 65% of the respondents agree that BIM would be used quiet strongly for future construction projects in India. The 3D models developed with Revit 2015 software would reduce co-ordination problems amongst the architects, structural engineers, contractors and building service providers (MEP). Integration of risk management along with BIM would provide enhanced co-ordination, collaboration and high probability of successful completion of the complex infrastructure transportation project within stipulated time and cost frame.

Keywords: Project Risk Management, building information modeling (BIM), infrastructure transportation, underground metro rail

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274 Non-Linear Numerical Modeling of the Interaction of Twin Tunnels-Structure

Authors: A. Bayoumi, M. Abdallah, F. Hage Chehade

Abstract:

Structures on the ground surface bear impact from the tunneling-induced settlement, especially when twin tunnels are constructed. The tunneling influence on the structure is considered as a critical issue based on the construction procedure and relative position of tunnels. Lebanon is suffering from a traffic phenomenon caused by the lack of transportation systems. After several traffic counts and geotechnical investigations in Beirut city, efforts aim for the construction of tunneling systems. In this paper, we present a non-linear numerical modeling of the effect of the twin tunnels constructions on the structures located at soil surface for a particular site in Beirut. A parametric study, which concerns the geometric configuration of tunnels, the distance between their centers, the construction order, and the position of the structure, is performed. The tunnel-soil-structure interaction is analyzed by using the non-linear finite element modeling software PLAXIS 2D. The results of the surface settlement and the bending moment of the structure reveal significant influence when the structure is moved away, especially in vertical aligned tunnels.

Keywords: Soil, Bending Moment, twin tunnels, elastic modulus, structure location, surface settlement, construction procedure, relative position

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273 Application of Transportation Models for Analysing Future Intercity and Intracity Travel Patterns in Kuwait

Authors: Srikanth Pandurangi, Basheer Mohammed, Nezar Al Sayegh

Abstract:

In order to meet the increasing demand for housing care for Kuwaiti citizens, the government authorities in Kuwait are undertaking a series of projects in the form of new large cities, outside the current urban area. Al Mutlaa City located to the north-west of the Kuwait Metropolitan Area is one such project out of the 15 planned new cities. The city accommodates a wide variety of residential developments, employment opportunities, commercial, recreational, health care and institutional uses. This paper examines the application of comprehensive transportation demand modeling works undertaken in VISUM platform to understand the future intracity and intercity travel distribution patterns in Kuwait. The scope of models developed varied in levels of detail: strategic model update, sub-area models representing future demand of Al Mutlaa City, sub-area models built to estimate the demand in the residential neighborhoods of the city. This paper aims at offering model update framework that facilitates easy integration between sub-area models and strategic national models for unified traffic forecasts. This paper presents the transportation demand modeling results utilized in informing the planning of multi-modal transportation system for Al Mutlaa City. This paper also presents the household survey data collection efforts undertaken using GPS devices (first time in Kuwait) and notebook computer based digital survey forms for interviewing representative sample of citizens and residents. The survey results formed the basis of estimating trip generation rates and trip distribution coefficients used in the strategic base year model calibration and validation process.

Keywords: Transportation Infrastructure, traffic forecasts, GPS based household surveys, origin-destination trip matrices, transportation demand modeling, travel behavior patterns

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272 Status and Proposed Models of Backhauling System in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Tarathorn Podcharathitikull

Abstract:

Transportation cost is the highest cost in logistics cost of Thailand, and truck transportation is counted as about 90% of the overall transportation cost. The main problem of truck transportation is backhauling. Backhauling has become an attractive cost-saving approach in logistics. To explore such opportunities, this paper investigated the current backhauling systems in Thailand. It was found that the backhauling problem is attracted to both governmental agencies and private sector. They gave attempts to build backhauling systems. This paper investigated two systems built by governmental agencies and one by private sector. Moreover, based on the interviews with the system representatives and users, pros and cons of the systems were found. The obstacles and challenges were obtained. This paper finally proposed a conceptual model of to-be backhauling system in Thailand.

Keywords: Thailand, interview, backhauling system, backhauls

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271 Elasticity Model for Easing Peak Hour Demand for Metrorail Transport System

Authors: P. K. Sarkar, Amit Kumar Jain

Abstract:

The demand for Urban transportation is characterised by a large scale temporal and spatial variations which causes heavy congestion inside metro trains in peak hours near Centre Business District (CBD) of the city. The conventional approach to address peak hour congestion, metro trains has been to increase the supply by way of introduction of more trains, increasing the length of the trains, optimising the time table to increase the capacity of the system. However, there is a limitation of supply side measures determined by the design capacity of the systems beyond which any addition in the capacity requires huge capital investments. The demand side interventions are essentially required to actually spread the demand across the time and space. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the potential Transport Demand Management tools applicable to Urban Rail Transportation systems with a special focus on differential pricing. A conceptual price elasticity model has been developed to analyse the effect of various combinations of peak and nonpeak hoursfares on demands. The elasticity values for peak hour, nonpeak hour and cross elasticity have been assumed from the relevant literature available in the field. The conceptual price elasticity model so developed is based on assumptions which need to be validated with actual values of elasticities for different segments of passengers. Once validated, the model can be used to determine the peak and nonpeak hour fares with an objective to increase overall ridership, revenue, demand levelling and optimal utilisation of assets.

Keywords: Elasticity, Urban Transportation, congestion, transport demand management, differential pricing

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270 A Morphological Examination of Urban Renewal Processes: The Sample of Konya City

Authors: Muzaffer Ali Yaygın, Mehmet Topçu

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate morphological changes in urban patterns in urban renewal areas by using geographic information systems and to reveal pattern differences that occur before and after urban renewal processes by applying a morphological analysis. The concept of urban morphology is not involved in urban renewal and urban planning practices in Turkey. This situation destroys the structural characteristic of urban space which appears as a consequence of changes at city, street or plot level. Different approaches and renewal interventions to urban settlements, which are formed as a reflection of cultural issues, may have positive and negative results. A morphological analysis has been applied to an urban renewal area that covers 325 ha. in Konya, in which city urban renewal projects have gained speed with the increasing of economic investments in this study. The study mentions urban renewal and urban morphology relationship, varied academic approach on the urban morphology issue, urban morphology components, changes in lots pattern and numerical differences that occur on road, construction and green space ratios that are before and after the renewal project, and the results of the morphological analysis. It is seen that the built-up area has significant differences when compared to the previous situation. The amount of green areas decreased significantly in quantitative terms; the transportation systems has been changed completely; and the property ownership has been reconstructed without taking the previous situation into account. Findings show that urban renewal projects in Turkey are put into practice with a rent-oriented approach without making an in-depth analysis. The paper discusses the morphological dimension of urban renewal projects in Turkey through a case study from Konya city.

Keywords: Pattern, Urban Morphology, Konya, urban renewal

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269 Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain

Authors: M. Pushparani, A. Sagaya

Abstract:

Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.

Keywords: Embedded Systems, embedded business intelligence, weight comparison algorithm, oil palm plantation

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268 Bus Transit Demand Modeling and Fare Structure Analysis of Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada, Takuya Maruyama

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Minimum income inclined most of Kabul residents to use public transport, especially buses, although there is no proper bus system, beside that there is no proper fare exist in Kabul city Due to wars. From 1992 to 2001 during civil wars, Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transport system (e.g. Millie bus). This research is mainly focused on Kabul city’s transportation system. In this research, the data used have been gathered by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2008 and this data will be used to find demand and fare structure, additionally a survey was done in 2016 to find satisfaction level of Kabul residents for fare structure. Aim of this research is to observe the demand for Large Buses, compare to the actual supply from the government, analyze the current fare structure and compare it with the proposed fare (distance based fare) structure which has already been analyzed. Outcome of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residents for the public transport (Large Buses) exceeds from the current supply, so that current public transportation (Large Buses) is not sufficient to serve public transport in Kabul city, worth to be mentioned, that in order to overcome this problem, there is no need to build new roads or exclusive way for buses. This research proposes government to change the fare from fixed fare to distance based fare, invest on public transportation and increase the number of large buses so that the current demand for public transport is met.

Keywords: Planning, Transportation, public transport, Afghanistan, Kabul, large buses, fixed fare, distance based fare

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267 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: Cascade Control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control

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266 Sensor and Actuator Fault Detection in Connected Vehicles under a Packet Dropping Network

Authors: Z. Abdollahi Biron, P. Pisu

Abstract:

Connected vehicles are one of the promising technologies for future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). A connected vehicle system is essentially a set of vehicles communicating through a network to exchange their information with each other and the infrastructure. Although this interconnection of the vehicles can be potentially beneficial in creating an efficient, sustainable, and green transportation system, a set of safety and reliability challenges come out with this technology. The first challenge arises from the information loss due to unreliable communication network which affects the control/management system of the individual vehicles and the overall system. Such scenario may lead to degraded or even unsafe operation which could be potentially catastrophic. Secondly, faulty sensors and actuators can affect the individual vehicle’s safe operation and in turn will create a potentially unsafe node in the vehicular network. Further, sending that faulty sensor information to other vehicles and failure in actuators may significantly affect the safe operation of the overall vehicular network. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take these issues into consideration while designing the control/management algorithms of the individual vehicles as a part of connected vehicle system. In this paper, we consider a connected vehicle system under Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and propose a fault diagnosis scheme that deals with these aforementioned challenges. Specifically, the conventional CACC algorithm is modified by adding a Kalman filter-based estimation algorithm to suppress the effect of lost information under unreliable network. Further, a sliding mode observer-based algorithm is used to improve the sensor reliability under faults. The effectiveness of the overall diagnostic scheme is verified via simulation studies.

Keywords: Communication Network, Connected Vehicles, fault diagnostics, packet drop out, platoon

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265 Urban Corridor Management Strategy Based on Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Sukhvir Singh Jain, Gaurav V. Jain

Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the application of technology for developing a user–friendly transportation system for urban areas in developing countries. The goal of urban corridor management using ITS in road transport is to achieve improvements in mobility, safety, and the productivity of the transportation system within the available facilities through the integrated application of advanced monitoring, communications, computer, display, and control process technologies, both in the vehicle and on the road. This paper attempts to present the past studies regarding several ITS available that have been successfully deployed in urban corridors of India and abroad, and to know about the current scenario and the methodology considered for planning, design, and operation of Traffic Management Systems. This paper also presents the endeavor that was made to interpret and figure out the performance of the 27.4 Km long study corridor having eight intersections and four flyovers. The corridor consisting of 6 lanes as well as 8 lanes divided road network. Two categories of data were collected on February 2016 such as traffic data (traffic volume, spot speed, delay) and road characteristics data (no. of lanes, lane width, bus stops, mid-block sections, intersections, flyovers). The instruments used for collecting the data were video camera, radar gun, mobile GPS and stopwatch. From analysis, the performance interpretations incorporated were identification of peak hours and off peak hours, congestion and level of service (LOS) at mid blocks, delay followed by the plotting speed contours and recommending urban corridor management strategies. From the analysis, it is found that ITS based urban corridor management strategies will be useful to reduce congestion, fuel consumption and pollution so as to provide comfort and efficiency to the users. The paper presented urban corridor management strategies based on sensors incorporated in both vehicles and on the roads.

Keywords: Mobility, Safety, congestion, ITS strategies

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