Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 832

Search results for: Tang Yuan Chen

832 The Experimental Study of the Effect of Flow Pattern Geometry on Performance of Micro Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Tang Yuan Chen, Chang Hsin Chen, Chiun Hsun Chen

Abstract:

In this research, the flow pattern influence on performance of a micro PEMFC was investigated experimentally. The investigation focused on the impacts of bend angels and rib/channel dimensions of serpentine flow channel pattern on the performance and investigated how they improve the performance. The fuel cell employed for these experiments was a micro single PEMFC with a membrane of 1.44 cm2 Nafion NRE-212. The results show that 60° and 120° bend angles can provide the better performances at 20 and 40 sccm inlet flow rates comparing to that the conventional design. Additionally, wider channel with narrower rib spacing gives better performance. These results may be applied to develop universal heuristics for the design of flow pattern of micro PEMFC.

Keywords: Flow pattern, MEMS, PEMFC, Performance

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831 Applying Half-Circle Fuzzy Numbers to Control System: A Preliminary Study on Development of Intelligent System on Marine Environment and Engineering

Authors: Chen-Yuan Chen, Wan-I Lee, Yi-Chaio Sui, Cheng-Wu Chen

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development of triangular fuzzy numbers, the revising of triangular fuzzy numbers, and the constructing of a HCFN (half-circle fuzzy number) model which can be utilized to perform more plural operations. They are further transformed for trigonometric functions and polar coordinates. From half-circle fuzzy numbers we can conceive cylindrical fuzzy numbers, which work better in algebraic operations. An example of fuzzy control is given in a simulation to show the applicability of the proposed half-circle fuzzy numbers.

Keywords: triangular fuzzy number, half-circle fuzzy numbers, predictions, polar coordinates, Lyapunov method

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830 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: Defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering- gallery modes.

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829 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng Wei Hsu

Abstract:

Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Kuo Chih-Yuan, music analysis, piano works, Taiwanese traditional music.

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828 Applications of Support Vector Machines on Smart Phone Systems for Emotional Speech Recognition

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chien-Lung Li, Kun-Rong Hsie, Mingteh Chen

Abstract:

An emotional speech recognition system for the applications on smart phones was proposed in this study to combine with 3G mobile communications and social networks to provide users and their groups with more interaction and care. This study developed a mechanism using the support vector machines (SVM) to recognize the emotions of speech such as happiness, anger, sadness and normal. The mechanism uses a hierarchical classifier to adjust the weights of acoustic features and divides various parameters into the categories of energy and frequency for training. In this study, 28 commonly used acoustic features including pitch and volume were proposed for training. In addition, a time-frequency parameter obtained by continuous wavelet transforms was also used to identify the accent and intonation in a sentence during the recognition process. The Berlin Database of Emotional Speech was used by dividing the speech into male and female data sets for training. According to the experimental results, the accuracies of male and female test sets were increased by 4.6% and 5.2% respectively after using the time-frequency parameter for classifying happy and angry emotions. For the classification of all emotions, the average accuracy, including male and female data, was 63.5% for the test set and 90.9% for the whole data set.

Keywords: Smart phones, emotional speech recognition, socialnetworks, support vector machines, time-frequency parameter, Mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC).

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827 Development of a Small-Group Teaching Method for Enhancing the Learning of Basic Acupuncture Manipulation Optimized with the Theory of Motor Learning

Authors: Wen-Chao Tang, Tang-Yi Liu, Ming Gao, Gang Xu, Hua-Yuan Yang

Abstract:

This study developed a method for teaching acupuncture manipulation in small groups optimized with the theory of motor learning. Sixty acupuncture students and their teacher participated in our research. Motion videos were recorded of their manipulations using the lifting-thrusting method. These videos were analyzed using Simi Motion software to acquire the movement parameters of the thumb tip. The parameter velocity curves along Y axis was used to generate small teaching groups clustered by a self-organized map (SOM) and K-means. Ten groups were generated. All the targeted instruction based on the comparative results groups as well as the videos of teacher and student was provided to the members of each group respectively. According to the theory and research of motor learning, the factors or technologies such as video instruction, observational learning, external focus and summary feedback were integrated into this teaching method. Such efforts were desired to improve and enhance the effectiveness of current acupuncture teaching methods in limited classroom teaching time and extracurricular training.

Keywords: Acupuncture, group teaching, video instruction, observational learning, external focus, summary feedback.

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826 Influencing Attitude Change for Sustainability through Persuasion

Authors: Chia-Hsin Wu, Chen-Hao Wuang, Yu-Hung Chou, Chia-Chih Chen, Pei-Ju Chen, Hsiao-Chen You, Yi-Shin Deng

Abstract:

Food mileage is one of the important issues concerning environmental sustainability. In this research we have utilized a prototype platform with iterative user-centered testing. With these findings we successfully demonstrate the use of the context of persuasive methods to influence users- attitudes towards the sustainable concept.

Keywords: Behavior change, food mileage, persuasive technology, sustainability.

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825 Geovisualization of Tourist Activity Travel Patterns Using 3D GIS: An Empirical Study of Tamsui, Taiwan

Authors: Meng-Lung Lin, Chien-Min Chu, Chung-Hung Tsai, Chih-Cheng Chen, Chen-Yuan Chen

Abstract:

The study of tourist activities and the mapping of their routes in space and time has become an important issue in tourism management. Here we represent space-time paths for the tourism industry by visualizing individual tourist activities and the paths followed using a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS). Considerable attention has been devoted to the measurement of accessibility to shopping, eating, walking and other services at the tourist destination. I turns out that GIS is a useful tool for studying the spatial behaviors of tourists in the area. The value of GIS is especially advantageous for space-time potential path area measures, especially for the accurate visualization of possible paths through existing city road networks. This study seeks to apply space-time concepts with a detailed street network map obtained from Google Maps to measure tourist paths both spatially and temporally. These paths are further determined based on data obtained from map questionnaires regarding the trip activities of 40 individuals. The analysis of the data makes it possible to determining the locations of the more popular paths. The results can be visualized using 3D GIS to show the areas and potential activity opportunities accessible to tourists during their travel time.

Keywords: Tourist activity analysis, space-time path, GIS, geovisualization, activity-travel pattern.

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824 New Triangle-Ring UWB Bandpass Filter with Sharp Roll-Off and Dual Notched Bands

Authors: Hung-Wei Wu, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Fu Chen, Cheng-Yuan Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents a new ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with sharp roll-off and dual-notched bands. The filter consists of a triangle ring multi-mode resonator (MMR) with the stub-loaded resonator (SLR) for controlling the two transmission zeros at 2.8 / 11 GHz, the embedded open-circuited stub and the asymmetric tight coupled input/output (I/O) lines for introducing the dual notched bands at 5.2 / 6.8 GHz. The attenuation slope in the lower and higher passband edges of the proposed filter show 160- and 153-dB/GHz, respectively. This study mainly provides a simple method to design a UWB bandpass filter with high passband selectivity and dual-notched bands for satisfying the Federal Communications Commission (FCC-defined) indoor UWB specification

Keywords: steeply slopes transition band, bandpass filter, ultra-wideband (UWB), triangle-ring, multi-mode resonator, stub-loaded resonator.

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823 A Bayesian Network Reliability Modeling for FlexRay Systems

Authors: Kuen-Long Leu, Yung-Yuan Chen, Chin-Long Wey, Jwu-E Chen, Chung-Hsien Hsu

Abstract:

The increasing importance of FlexRay systems in automotive domain inspires unceasingly relative researches. One primary issue among researches is to verify the reliability of FlexRay systems either from protocol aspect or from system design aspect. However, research rarely discusses the effect of network topology on the system reliability. In this paper, we will illustrate how to model the reliability of FlexRay systems with various network topologies by a well-known probabilistic reasoning technology, Bayesian Network. In this illustration, we especially investigate the effectiveness of error containment built in star topology and fault-tolerant midpoint synchronization algorithm adopted in FlexRay communication protocol. Through a FlexRay steer-by-wire case study, the influence of different topologies on the failure probability of the FlexRay steerby- wire system is demonstrated. The notable value of this research is to show that the Bayesian Network inference is a powerful and feasible method for the reliability assessment of FlexRay systems.

Keywords: Bayesian Network, FlexRay, fault tolerance, network topology, reliability.

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822 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong

Abstract:

In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, avalanches, cross-correlation, prediction method.

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821 Model Parameters Estimating on Lyman–Kutcher–Burman Normal Tissue Complication Probability for Xerostomia on Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Tsair-Fwu Lee , Hui-Min Ting , Pei-Ju Chao, Jing-Chuan Jiang, Min-Yuan Chao, Wen-Cheng Chen, Long-Chang Chen, Jia-Ming Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to derive parameters estimating for the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model using analysis of scintigraphy assessments and quality of life (QoL) measurement questionnaires for the parotid gland (xerostomia). In total, 31 patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer were enrolled. Salivary excretion factor (SEF) and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires datasets are used for the NTCP modeling to describe the incidence of grade 4 xerostomia. Assuming that n= 1, NTCP fitted parameters are given as TD50= 43.6 Gy, m= 0.18 in SEF analysis, and as TD50= 44.1 Gy, m= 0.11 in QoL measurements, respectively. SEF and QoL datasets can validate the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines well, resulting in NPV-s of 100% for the both datasets and suggests that the QUANTEC 25/20Gy gland-spared guidelines are suitable for clinical used for the HN cohort to effectively avoid xerostomia.

Keywords: HN, NTCP, SEF, QoL, QUANTEC

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820 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu

Abstract:

Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: Biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger e-box-binding homeobox 1.

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819 Speckle Characterization in Laser Projector Display

Authors: Meifang Xu, Yunbo Shi, Guoxian Tang, Jun Liu, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Speckle phenomena results from when coherent radiation is reflected from a rough surface. Characterizing the speckle strongly depends on the measurement condition and experimental setup. In this paper we report the experimental results produced with different parameters in the setup. We investigated the factors which affects the speckle contrast, such as, F-number, gamma value and exposure time of the camera, rather than geometric factors like the distance between the projector lens to the screen, the viewing distance, etc. The measurement results show that the speckle contrast decreases by decreasing F-number, by increasing gamma value, and slightly affects by exposure time of the camera and the gain value of the camera.

Keywords: Characterization, laser projector, speckle

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818 The Vulnerability Analysis of Java Bytecode Based on Points-to Dataflow

Authors: Tang Hong, Zhang Lufeng, Chen Hua, Zhang Jianbo

Abstract:

Today many developers use the Java components collected from the Internet as external LIBs to design and develop their own software. However, some unknown security bugs may exist in these components, such as SQL injection bug may comes from the components which have no specific check for the input string by users. To check these bugs out is very difficult without source code. So a novel method to check the bugs in Java bytecode based on points-to dataflow analysis is in need, which is different to the common analysis techniques base on the vulnerability pattern check. It can be used as an assistant tool for security analysis of Java bytecode from unknown softwares which will be used as extern LIBs.

Keywords: Java bytecode, points-to dataflow, vulnerability analysis

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817 A Low Noise Microwave Filter with Minimum Distortion

Authors: Cheng Yuan Hung, Min Hang Weng, Siang Wen Lan, Wei Yu Chen, Hung Wei Wu, Chun Yueh Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, a low noise microwave bandpass filter (BPF) is presented. This filter is fabricated by modifying the conventional cross-coupled structure. The spurious response is improved by using the end open coupled lines, and the influence of the noise is minimized. Impedance matrix of the open end coupled circuit clarifies the characteristic of the suppression of the spurious response. The rejection of spurious suppression region of the proposed filter is greater than 20 dB from 3-13 GHz. The measured results of the fabricated filter confirm the concepts of the proposed design and exhibits high performance.

Keywords: Low noise, signal transmission, bandpass filter, end open coupled line, communication system.

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816 Study the Effect of Soft Errors on FlexRay-Based Automotive Systems

Authors: Yung-Yuan Chen, Kuen-Long Leu

Abstract:

FlexRay, as a communication protocol for automotive control systems, is developed to fulfill the increasing demand on the electronic control units for implementing systems with higher safety and more comfort. In this work, we study the impact of radiation-induced soft errors on FlexRay-based steer-by-wire system. We injected the soft errors into general purpose register set of FlexRay nodes to identify the most critical registers, the failure modes of the steer-by-wire system, and measure the probability distribution of failure modes when an error occurs in the register file.

Keywords: Soft errors, FlexRay, fault injection, steer-by-wirer

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815 Percolation Transition with Hidden Variables in Complex Networks

Authors: Zhanli Zhang, Wei Chen, Xin Jiang, Lili Ma, Shaoting Tang, Zhiming Zheng

Abstract:

A new class of percolation model in complex networks, in which nodes are characterized by hidden variables reflecting the properties of nodes and the occupied probability of each link is determined by the hidden variables of the end nodes, is studied in this paper. By the mean field theory, the analytical expressions for the phase of percolation transition is deduced. It is determined by the distribution of the hidden variables for the nodes and the occupied probability between pairs of them. Moreover, the analytical expressions obtained are checked by means of numerical simulations on a particular model. Besides, the general model can be applied to describe and control practical diffusion models, such as disease diffusion model, scientists cooperation networks, and so on.

Keywords: complex networks, percolation transition, hidden variable, occupied probability.

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814 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: Dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR.

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813 Half-Circle Fuzzy Number Threshold Determination via Swarm Intelligence Method

Authors: P.-W. Tsai, J.-W. Chen, C.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, many researchers are involved in the field of fuzzy theory. However, there are still a lot of issues to be resolved. Especially on topics related to controller design such as the field of robot, artificial intelligence, and nonlinear systems etc. Besides fuzzy theory, algorithms in swarm intelligence are also a popular field for the researchers. In this paper, a concept of utilizing one of the swarm intelligence method, which is called Bacterial-GA Foraging, to find the stabilized common P matrix for the fuzzy controller system is proposed. An example is given in in the paper, as well.

Keywords: Half-circle fuzzy numbers, predictions, swarm intelligence, Lyapunov method.

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812 A Source Point Distribution Scheme for Wave-Body Interaction Problem

Authors: Aichun Feng, Zhi-Min Chen, Jing Tang Xing

Abstract:

A two-dimensional linear wave-body interaction problem can be solved using a desingularized integral method by placing free surface Rankine sources over calm water surface and satisfying boundary conditions at prescribed collocation points on the calm water surface. A new free-surface Rankine source distribution scheme, determined by the intersection points of free surface and body surface, is developed to reduce numerical computation cost. Associated with this, a new treatment is given to the intersection point. The present scheme results are in good agreement with traditional numerical results and measurements.

Keywords: Source point distribution, panel method, Rankine source, desingularized algorithm.

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811 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication.

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810 Evaluation of Chiller Power Consumption Using Grey Prediction

Authors: Tien-Shun Chan, Yung-Chung Chang, Cheng-Yu Chu, Wen-Hui Chen, Yuan-Lin Chen, Shun-Chong Wang, Chang-Chun Wang

Abstract:

98% of the energy needed in Taiwan has been imported. The prices of petroleum and electricity have been increasing. In addition, facility capacity, amount of electricity generation, amount of electricity consumption and number of Taiwan Power Company customers have continued to increase. For these reasons energy conservation has become an important topic. In the past linear regression was used to establish the power consumption models for chillers. In this study, grey prediction is used to evaluate the power consumption of a chiller so as to lower the total power consumption at peak-load (so that the relevant power providers do not need to keep on increasing their power generation capacity and facility capacity). In grey prediction, only several numerical values (at least four numerical values) are needed to establish the power consumption models for chillers. If PLR, the temperatures of supply chilled-water and return chilled-water, and the temperatures of supply cooling-water and return cooling-water are taken into consideration, quite accurate results (with the accuracy close to 99% for short-term predictions) may be obtained. Through such methods, we can predict whether the power consumption at peak-load will exceed the contract power capacity signed by the corresponding entity and Taiwan Power Company. If the power consumption at peak-load exceeds the power demand, the temperature of the supply chilled-water may be adjusted so as to reduce the PLR and hence lower the power consumption.

Keywords: Gery system theory, grey prediction, chller.

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809 Tidal Flow Patterns Near A Coastal Headland

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Daoyi Chen

Abstract:

Experimental investigations were carried out in the Manchester Tidal flow Facility (MTF) to study the flow patterns in the region around and adjacent to a hypothetical headland in tidal (oscillatory) ambient flow. The Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used for visualization, with fluorescent dye released at specific points around the headland perimeter and in its adjacent recirculation zone. The flow patterns can be generalized into the acceleration, stable flow and deceleration stages for each halfcycle, with small variations according to location, which are more distinct for low Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) cases. Flow patterns in the mixing region are unstable and complex, especially in the recirculation zone. The flow patterns are in agreement with previous visualizations, and support previous results in steady ambient flow. It is suggested that the headland lee could be a viable location for siting of pollutant outfalls.

Keywords: Planar laser-induced Fluorescence, recirculation zone, tidal flow, wake flows

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808 Development of Machinable Ellipses by NURBS Curves

Authors: Yuan L. Lai, Jian H. Chen, Jui P. Hung

Abstract:

Owning to the high-speed feed rate and ultra spindle speed have been used in modern machine tools, the tool-path generation plays a key role in the successful application of a High-Speed Machining (HSM) system. Because of its importance in both high-speed machining and tool-path generation, approximating a contour by NURBS format is a potential function in CAD/CAM/CNC systems. It is much more convenient to represent an ellipse by parametric form than to connect points laboriously determined in a CNC system. A new approximating method based on optimum processes and NURBS curves of any degree to the ellipses is presented in this study. Such operations can be the foundation of tool-radius compensation interpolator of NURBS curves in CNC system. All operating processes for a CAD tool is presented and demonstrated by practical models.

Keywords: Ellipse, Approximation, NURBS, Optimum.

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807 The Distance between a Point and a Bezier Curveon a Bezier Surface

Authors: Wen-Haw Chen, Sheng-Gwo Chen

Abstract:

The distance between two objects is an important problem in CAGD, CAD and CG etc. It will be presented in this paper that a simple and quick method to estimate the distance between a point and a Bezier curve on a Bezier surface.

Keywords: Geodesic-like curve, distance, projection, Bezier.

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806 Uniform Heating during Focused Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

Authors: To-Yuan Chen, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hao-Li Liu, Kuen-Cheng Ju

Abstract:

The focal spot of a high intensity focused ultrasound transducer is small. To heat a large target volume, multiple treatment spots are required. If the power of each treatment spot is fixed, it could results in insufficient heating of initial spots and over-heating of later ones, which is caused by the thermal diffusion. Hence, to produce a uniform heated volume, the delivered energy of each treatment spot should be properly adjusted. In this study, we proposed an iterative, extrapolation technique to adjust the required ultrasound energy of each treatment spot. Three different scanning pathways were used to evaluate the performance of this technique. Results indicate that by using the proposed technique, uniform heating volume could be obtained.

Keywords: focused ultrasound, thermal therapy, uniform heating, iteration, extrapolation, scan

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805 Multiple Object Tracking using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Chen-Chien Hsu, Guo-Tang Dai

Abstract:

This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based approach for multiple object tracking based on histogram matching. To start with, gray-level histograms are calculated to establish a feature model for each of the target object. The difference between the gray-level histogram corresponding to each particle in the search space and the target object is used as the fitness value. Multiple swarms are created depending on the number of the target objects under tracking. Because of the efficiency and simplicity of the PSO algorithm for global optimization, target objects can be tracked as iterations continue. Experimental results confirm that the proposed PSO algorithm can rapidly converge, allowing real-time tracking of each target object. When the objects being tracked move outside the tracking range, global search capability of the PSO resumes to re-trace the target objects.

Keywords: multiple object tracking, particle swarm optimization, gray-level histogram, image

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804 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with the serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When convection dominates fluid mixing, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller centerline radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major segment repeating units with a larger centerline radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: Microfluidics, mixing, non-Newtonian fluids, curved channel, vortex.

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803 Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

Authors: Liangliang Tang, Chang Xu, Xingying Chen

Abstract:

GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Keywords: Thermophotovoltaic cell, GaSb, GaInAsSb, diffused emitters.

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