Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 476

Search results for: Speaking Style

476 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based On Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

Abstract:

The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: Speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students.

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475 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir

Abstract:

Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: Flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach, Transactional metering.

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474 Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult English Language Learners through ALM

Authors: Wichuda Kunnu, Aungkana Sukwises

Abstract:

Audio-lingual Method (ALM) is a teaching approach that is claimed that ineffective for teaching second/foreign languages. Because some linguists and second/foreign language teachers believe that ALM is a rote learning style. However, this study is done on a belief that ALM will be able to solve Thais’ English speaking problem. This paper aims to report the findings on teaching English speaking to adult learners with an “adapted ALM”, one distinction of which is to use Thai as the medium language of instruction. The participants are consisted of 9 adult learners. They were allowed to speak English more freely using both the materials presented in the class and their background knowledge of English. At the end of the course, they spoke English more fluently, more confidently, to the extent that they applied what they learnt both in and outside the class.

Keywords: Teaching English, Audio Lingual Method.

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473 Ultra-Light Overhead Conveyor Systems for Logistics Applications

Authors: Batin Latif Aylak, Bernd Noche

Abstract:

Overhead conveyor systems satisfy by their simple
construction, wide application range and their full compatibility with
other manufacturing systems, which are designed according to
international standards. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems are
rope-based conveying systems with individually driven vehicles. The
vehicles can move automatically on the rope and this can be realized
by energy and signals. Crossings are realized by switches. Overhead
conveyor systems are particularly used in the automotive industry but
also at post offices. Overhead conveyor systems always must be
integrated with a logistical process by finding the best way for a
cheaper material flow and in order to guarantee precise and fast
workflows. With their help, any transport can take place without
wasting ground and space, without excessive company capacity, lost
or damaged products, erroneous delivery, endless travels and without
wasting time. Ultra-light overhead conveyor systems provide optimal
material flow, which produces profit and saves time. This article
illustrates the advantages of the structure of the ultra-light overhead
conveyor systems in logistics applications and explains the steps of
their system design. After an illustration of the steps, currently
available systems on the market will be shown by means of their
technical characteristics. Due to their simple construction, demands
to an ultra-light overhead conveyor system will be illustrated.

Keywords: Logistics, material flow, overhead conveyor.

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472 In vitro and in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: M. G. Tadros, S. M. Ezzat, M. M. Salama, M. A. Farag

Abstract:

In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of
the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was
investigated and both samples showed significant activity. The major
constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column
chromatographies. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated
from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from
the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activities of
the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed
the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these
activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in
mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a
cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of
both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the
passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on
brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamineinduced
cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by
administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and
camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain
acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum
and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further
studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase
inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum basilicum, passive avoidance.

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471 Analyses of Socio-Cognitive Identity Styles by Slovak Adolescents

Authors: Blandína Šramová, Gabriel Bianchi, Barbara Lášticová, Katarína Fichnová, Anežka Hamranová

Abstract:

The contribution deals with analysis of identity style at adolescents (N=463) at the age from 16 to 19 (the average age is 17,7 years). We used the Identity Style Inventory by Berzonsky, distinguishing three basic, measured identity styles: informational, normative, diffuse-avoidant identity style and also commitment. The informational identity style influencing on personal adaptability, coping strategies, quality of life and the normative identity style, it means the style in which an individual takes on models of authorities at self-defining were found to have the highest representation in the studied group of adolescents by higher scores at girls in comparison with boys. The normative identity style positively correlates with the informational identity style. The diffuse-avoidant identity style was found to be positively associated with maladaptive decisional strategies, neuroticism and depressive reactions. There is the style, in which the individual shifts aside defining his personality. In our research sample the lowest score represents it and negatively correlates with commitment, it means with coping strategies, thrust in oneself and the surrounding world. The age of adolescents did not significantly differentiate representation of identity style. We were finding the model, in which informational and normative identity style had positive relationship and the informational and diffuseavoidant style had negative relationship, which were determinated with commitment. In the same time the commitment is influenced with other outside factors.

Keywords: Identity Style Inventory, Informational IdentityStyle, Normative Identity Style, Diffuse-Avoidant Style, IdentityCommitment.

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470 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

Abstract:

This research explorers the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is no one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: Leadership style, Lean Manufacturing, Teams, Cross-functional.

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469 Relationship between Transparency, Liquidity and Valuation

Authors: Zahra Lashgari, Naghmeh Sadat MaghamiTekiyeh

Abstract:

Recent evidences on liquidity and valuation of securities in the capital markets clearly show the importance of stock market liquidity and valuation of firms. In this paper, relationship between transparency, liquidity, and valuation is studied by using data obtained from 70 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during2003-2012. In this study, discriminatory earnings management, as a sign of lack of transparency and Tobin's Q, was used as the criteria of valuation. The results indicate that there is a significant and reversed relationship between earnings management and liquidity. On the other hand, there is a relationship between liquidity and transparency.The results also indicate a significant relationship between transparency and valuation. Transparency has an indirect effect on firm valuation alone or through the liquidity channel. Although the effect of transparency on the value of a firm was reduced by adding the variable of liquidity, the cumulative effect of transparency and liquidity increased.

Keywords: Firm valuation, Earnings management, Liquidity, Tobin's Q, Transparency.

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468 Transformation of Vocal Characteristics: A Review of Literature

Authors: Dong-Yan Huang, Ee Ping Ong, Susanto Rahardja, Minghui Dong, Haizhou Li

Abstract:

The transformation of vocal characteristics aims at modifying voice such that the intelligibility of aphonic voice is increased or the voice characteristics of a speaker (source speaker) to be perceived as if another speaker (target speaker) had uttered it. In this paper, the current state-of-the-art voice characteristics transformation methodology is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on voice transformation methodology and issues for improving the transformed speech quality in intelligibility and naturalness are discussed. In particular, it is suggested to use the modulation theory of speech as a base for research on high quality voice transformation. This approach allows one to separate linguistic, expressive, organic and perspective information of speech, based on an analysis of how they are fused when speech is produced. Therefore, this theory provides the fundamentals not only for manipulating non-linguistic, extra-/paralinguistic and intra-linguistic variables for voice transformation, but also for paving the way for easily transposing the existing voice transformation methods to emotion-related voice quality transformation and speaking style transformation. From the perspectives of human speech production and perception, the popular voice transformation techniques are described and classified them based on the underlying principles either from the speech production or perception mechanisms or from both. In addition, the advantages and limitations of voice transformation techniques and the experimental manipulation of vocal cues are discussed through examples from past and present research. Finally, a conclusion and road map are pointed out for more natural voice transformation algorithms in the future.

Keywords: Voice transformation, Voice Quality, Emotion, Individuality, Speaking Style, Speech Production, Speech Perception.

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467 Eco-Roof Systems in Subtropical Climates for Sustainable Development and Mitigation of Climate Change

Authors: M. O’Driscoll, M. Anwar, M. G. Rasul

Abstract:

The benefits of eco-roofs is quite well known, however there remains very little research conducted for the implementation of eco-roofs in subtropical climates such as Australia. There are many challenges facing Australia as it moves into the future, climate change is proving to be one of the leading challenges. In order to move forward with the mitigation of climate change, the impacts of rapid urbanization need to be offset. Eco-roofs are one way to achieve this; this study presents the energy savings and environmental benefits of the implementation of eco-roofs in subtropical climates. An experimental set-up was installed at Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University, where two shipping containers were converted into small offices, one with an eco-roof and one without. These were used for temperature, humidity and energy consumption data collection. In addition, a computational model was developed using Design Builder software (state-of-the-art building energy simulation software) for simulating energy consumption of shipping containers and environmental parameters, this was done to allow comparison between simulated and real world data. This study found that eco-roofs are very effective in subtropical climates and provide energy saving of about 13% which agrees well with simulated results. 

Keywords: Climate Change, Eco/Green roof, Energy savings, Subtropical climate.

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466 Destination Port Detection for Vessels: An Analytic Tool for Optimizing Port Authorities Resources

Authors: Lubna Eljabu, Mohammad Etemad, Stan Matwin

Abstract:

Port authorities have many challenges in congested ports to allocate their resources to provide a safe and secure loading/unloading procedure for cargo vessels. Selecting a destination port is the decision of a vessel master based on many factors such as weather, wavelength and changes of priorities. Having access to a tool which leverages Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages to monitor vessel’s movements and accurately predict their next destination port promotes an effective resource allocation process for port authorities. In this research, we propose a method, namely, Reference Route of Trajectory (RRoT) to assist port authorities in predicting inflow and outflow traffic in their local environment by monitoring AIS messages. Our RRo method creates a reference route based on historical AIS messages. It utilizes some of the best trajectory similarity measures to identify the destination of a vessel using their recent movement. We evaluated five different similarity measures such as Discrete Frechet Distance (DFD), Dynamic Time ´ Warping (DTW), Partial Curve Mapping (PCM), Area between two curves (Area) and Curve length (CL). Our experiments show that our method identifies the destination port with an accuracy of 98.97% and an f-measure of 99.08% using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) similarity measure.

Keywords: Spatial temporal data mining, trajectory mining, trajectory similarity, resource optimization.

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465 Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribution in the slab throughout the reheating furnace process by considering the heat exchange between the slab and its surroundings, including the radiant heat transfer among the slabs, the skids, the hot combustion gases and the furnace wall as well as the gas convective heat transfer in the furnace. With the introduction of the mathematical formulations validation of the present numerical model is conducted by calculating two example problems of blocked-off and nongray gas radiative heat transfer. After discussing the formation and growth of the scale on the slab surface, slab heating characteristics with scale is investigated in terms of temperature rise with time. 

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Scale, Steel Slab, Radiative Heat Transfer, WSGGM.

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464 Scholar Index for Research Performance Evaluation Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper aims to present an objective quantitative methodology on how to evaluate individual’s scholarly research output using multiple criteria decision analysis. A multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) methodological process is adopted to build a multiple criteria evaluation model. With the introduction of the scholar index, which gives significant information about a researcher's productivity and the scholarly impact of his or her publications in a single number (s is the number of publications with at least s citations); cumulative research citation index; the scholar index is included in the citation databases to cover the multidimensional complexity of scholarly research performance and to undertake objective evaluations with scholar index. The scholar index, one of publication activity indexes, is analyzed by considering it to be the most appropriate sciencemetric indicator which allows to smooth over many drawbacks of scholarly output assessment by mere calculation of the number of publications (quantity) and citations (quality). Hence, this study includes a set of indicators-based scholar index to be used for evaluating scholarly researchers. Google Scholar open science database was used to assess and discuss scholarly productivity and impact of researchers. Based on the experiment of computing the scholar index, and its derivative indexes for a set of researchers on open research database platform, quantitative methods of assessing scholarly research output were successfully considered to rank researchers. The proposed methodology considers the ranking, and the selection of data on which a scholarly research performance evaluation was based, the analysis of the data, and the presentation of the multiple criteria analysis results.

Keywords: Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA, Research Performance Evaluation, Scholar Index, h index, Science Citation Index, Science Efficiency, Cumulative Citation Index, Sciencemetrics

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463 Military Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Multiplicative Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Multiplicative multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) method is a systematic decision support system to aid decision makers reach appropriate decisions. The application of multiplicative MCDMA in the military aircraft selection problem is significant for proper decision making process, which is the decisive factor in minimizing expenditures and increasing defense capability and capacity. Nine military fighter aircraft alternatives were evaluated by ten decision criteria to solve the decision making problem. In this study, multiplicative MCDMA model aims to evaluate and select an appropriate military fighter aircraft for the Air Force fleet planning. The ranking results of multiplicative MCDMA model were compared with the ranking results of additive MCDMA, logarithmic MCDMA, and regrettive MCDMA models under the L2 norm data normalization technique to substantiate the robustness of the proposed method. The final ranking results indicate the military fighter aircraft Su-57 as the best available solution.

Keywords: Aircraft Selection, Military Fighter Aircraft Selection, Air Force Fleet Planning, Multiplicative MCDMA, Additive MCDMA, Logarithmic MCDMA, Regrettive MCDMA, Mean Weight, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis

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462 Feature-Driven Classification of Musical Styles

Authors: A. Buzzanca, G. Castellano, A.M. Fanelli

Abstract:

In this paper we address the problem of musical style classification, which has a number of applications like indexing in musical databases or automatic composition systems. Starting from MIDI files of real-world improvisations, we extract the melody track and cut it into overlapping segments of equal length. From these fragments, some numerical features are extracted as descriptors of style samples. We show that a standard Bayesian classifier can be conveniently employed to build an effective musical style classifier, once this set of features has been extracted from musical data. Preliminary experimental results show the effectiveness of the developed classifier that represents the first component of a musical audio retrieval system

Keywords: Musical style, Bayesian classifier.

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461 Preparing Project Managers to Achieve Project Success - Human Management Perspective

Authors: E. Muneera, A. Anuar, A. S. Zulkiflee

Abstract:

The evolution in project management was triggered by the changes in management philosophy and practices in order to maintain competitive advantage and continuous success in the field. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the practicality of cognitive style and unlearning approach in influencing the achievement of project success by project managers. It introduces the concept of planning, knowing and creating style from cognitive style field in the light of achieving time, cost, quality and stakeholders appreciation in project success context. Further it takes up a discussion of the unlearning approach as a moderator in enhancing the relationship between cognitive style and project success. The paper bases itself on literature review from established disciplines like psychology, sociology and philosophy regarding cognitive style, unlearning and project success in general. The analysis and synthesis of literature in the subject area a conceptual paper is utilized as the basis of future research to form a comprehensive framework for project managers in enhancing the project management competency.

Keywords: Cognitive Style, Project Managers, Project Success, Unlearning.

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460 A Contractor Iteration Method Using Eigenpairs for Positive Solutions of Nonlinear Elliptic Equation

Authors: Hailong Zhu, Zhaoxiang Li, Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

By means of Contractor Iteration Method, we solve and visualize the Lane-Emden(-Fowler) equation Δu + up = 0, in Ω, u = 0, on ∂Ω. It is shown that the present method converges quadratically as Newton’s method and the computation of Contractor Iteration Method is cheaper than the Newton’s method.

Keywords: Positive solutions, newton's method, contractor iteration method, Eigenpairs.

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459 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.

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458 Generalized Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Symmetric Arrow-head Matrices

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following inverse eigenvalue problem (IEP): Given X ∈ Rn×p and a diagonal matrix Λ ∈ Rp×p, find nontrivial real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A and B such that AXΛ = BX. We then consider an optimal approximation problem: Given real-valued symmetric arrow-head matrices A, ˜ B˜ ∈ Rn×n, find (A, ˆ Bˆ) ∈ SE such that Aˆ − A˜2 + Bˆ − B˜2 = min(A,B)∈SE (A−A˜2 +B −B˜2), where SE is the solution set of IEP. We show that the optimal approximation solution (A, ˆ Bˆ) is unique and derive an explicit formula for it.

Keywords: Partially prescribed spectral information, symmetric arrow-head matrix, inverse problem, optimal approximation.

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457 The Cultural and Anthropological Bases of Culture Ecology of the Turkic Peoples in Central Asia

Authors: S.Kaupenbayeva, A. Tashagil, A.Kanagatova, Zh. Suleimenova

Abstract:

this scientific article considers the peculiarities of ecology of culture and ecological outlook from cultural and anthropological aspect of Turkic languages speaking peoples in the Central Asia. The ecology of culture of Turkic languages speaking peoples in the Central Asia, formed under the influence of climatic, geographical, economic, religious, ethno cultural and political factors and defining the originality of traditions which have laid down in its basis and functioned, as its components, causes an interest and urgency simultaneously, representing the sample of life of the Person in the World by which it is necessary to be guided today.

Keywords: ecology of culture, civilization, the Eurasian civilization, Turkic languages speaking peoples, space-time characteristics, the Central Asia

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456 Exploring Performance-Based Music Attributes for Stylometric Analysis

Authors: Abdellghani Bellaachia, Edward Jimenez

Abstract:

Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and modern data mining techniques are applied to identify style markers in midi music for stylometric analysis and author attribution. Over 100 attributes are extracted from a library of 2830 songs then mined using supervised learning data mining techniques. Two attributes are identified that provide high informational gain. These attributes are then used as style markers to predict authorship. Using these style markers the authors are able to correctly distinguish songs written by the Beatles from those that were not with a precision and accuracy of over 98 per cent. The identification of these style markers as well as the architecture for this research provides a foundation for future research in musical stylometry.

Keywords: Music Information Retrieval, Music Data Mining, Stylometry.

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455 Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Children Is Attributable to Parenting Style, Not to Family Type and Child’s Gender

Authors: AKM Rezaul Karim, Tania Sharafat, Abu Yusuf Mahmud

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether cognitive emotion regulation in children varies with parenting style, family type and gender. Toward this end, cognitive emotion regulation and perceived parenting style of 206 school children were measured. Standard regression analyses of data revealed that the models were significant and explained 17.3% of the variance in adaptive emotion regulation (Adjusted =0.173; F=9.579, p<.001), and 7.1% of the variance in less adaptive emotion regulation (Adjusted =.071, F=4.135, p=.001). Results showed that children’s cognitive emotion regulation is functionally associated with parenting style, but not with family type and their gender. Amongst three types of parenting, authoritative parenting was the strongest predictor of the overall adaptive emotion regulation while authoritarian parenting was the strongest predictor of the overall less adaptive emotion regulation. Permissive parenting has impact neither on adaptive nor on less adaptive emotion regulation. The findings would have important implications for parents, caregivers, child psychologists, and other professionals working with children or adolescents.

Keywords: Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Adaptive, Less Adaptive, Parenting Style, Family Type.

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454 Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case

Authors: S. Bennoud, S. Hocine, H. Slme

Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets.

Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation.

The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling.

The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Keywords: Brayton cycle, Turbine Blades Cooling, Turbojet Cycle, turbojet performances.

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453 Strategic Decision Making Practice in Croatia – Which Decision Making Style is More Effective?

Authors: Ivana Bulog

Abstract:

Decision making is a vital part of the business world and any other field of human endeavor. Which way a business organization will take, and where that way will lead it, depends on broad range of decisions made by managers in the managerial structure. Strategic decisions are of the greatest importance for organizational success. Although much empirical research has been done trying to describe and explain its nature and effectiveness, knowledge about strategic decision making is still incomplete. This paper explores the nature of strategic decision making in particular setting - in Croatian companies. The main focus of this research is on the style that decision makers on strategic management level are following when making decisions of life importance for their companies. Two main decision making style that explain the way decision maker collects and processes available information and performs all the activities in strategic decision making process were empirical tested: rational and intuitive one. Besides analyzing their existence on strategic management level in Croatian companies, their effectiveness is analyzed as well. Results showed that decision makers at strategic management level are following both styles somewhat equally in order to function effectively, and that intuitive style is more effective when considering decisions outcomes.

Keywords: Decision making style, decision making effectiveness, strategic decisions.

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452 The Effect of Information vs. Reasoning Gap Tasks on the Frequency of Conversational Strategies and Accuracy in Speaking among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Hooriya Sadr Dadras, Shiva Seyed Erfani

Abstract:

Speaking skills merit meticulous attention both on the side of the learners and the teachers. In particular, accuracy is a critical component to guarantee the messages to be conveyed through conversation because a wrongful change may adversely alter the content and purpose of the talk. Different types of tasks have served teachers to meet numerous educational objectives. Besides, negotiation of meaning and the use of different strategies have been areas of concern in socio-cultural theories of SLA. Negotiation of meaning is among the conversational processes which have a crucial role in facilitating the understanding and expression of meaning in a given second language. Conversational strategies are used during interaction when there is a breakdown in communication that leads to the interlocutor attempting to remedy the gap through talk. Therefore, this study was an attempt to investigate if there was any significant difference between the effect of reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks on the frequency of conversational strategies used in negotiation of meaning in classrooms on one hand, and on the accuracy in speaking of Iranian intermediate EFL learners on the other. After a pilot study to check the practicality of the treatments, at the outset of the main study, the Preliminary English Test was administered to ensure the homogeneity of 87 out of 107 participants who attended the intact classes of a 15 session term in one control and two experimental groups. Also, speaking sections of PET were used as pretest and posttest to examine their speaking accuracy. The tests were recorded and transcribed to estimate the percentage of the number of the clauses with no grammatical errors in the total produced clauses to measure the speaking accuracy. In all groups, the grammatical points of accuracy were instructed and the use of conversational strategies was practiced. Then, different kinds of reasoning gap tasks (matchmaking, deciding on the course of action, and working out a time table) and information gap tasks (restoring an incomplete chart, spot the differences, arranging sentences into stories, and guessing game) were manipulated in experimental groups during treatment sessions, and the students were required to practice conversational strategies when doing speaking tasks. The conversations throughout the terms were recorded and transcribed to count the frequency of the conversational strategies used in all groups. The results of statistical analysis demonstrated that applying both the reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks significantly affected the frequency of conversational strategies through negotiation. In the face of the improvements, the reasoning gap tasks had a more significant impact on encouraging the negotiation of meaning and increasing the number of conversational frequencies every session. The findings also indicated both task types could help learners significantly improve their speaking accuracy. Here, applying the reasoning gap tasks was more effective than the information gap tasks in improving the level of learners’ speaking accuracy.

Keywords: Accuracy in speaking, conversational strategies, information gap tasks, reasoning gap tasks.

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451 Development of Cross Curricular Competences in University Classrooms - Public Speaking

Authors: M. T. Becerra, F. Martín, P. Gutiérrez, S. Cubo, E. Iglesias, A. A. Sáenz del Castillo, P. Cañamero

Abstract:

The consolidation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in universities has led to significant changes in student training. This paper, part of a Teaching Innovation Project, starts from new training requirements that are fit within Undergraduate Thesis Project, a subject that culminate student learning. Undergraduate Thesis Project is current assessment system that weigh the student acquired training in university education. Students should develop a range of cross curricular competences such as public presentation of ideas, problems and solutions both orally and writing in Undergraduate Thesis Project. Specifically, we intend with our innovation proposal to provide resources that enable university students from Teacher Degree in Education Faculty of University of Extremadura (Spain) to develop the cross curricular competence of public speaking.

Keywords: Interaction, Public Speaking, Student, University.

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450 Developing Kazakh Language Fluency Test in Nazarbayev University

Authors: Saule Mussabekova, Samal Abzhanova

Abstract:

The Kazakh Language Fluency Test, based on the IELTS exam, was implemented in 2012 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. We would like to share our experience in developing this exam and some exam results with other language instructors. In this paper, we will cover all these peculiarities and their related issues. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test is a young exam. During its development, we faced many difficulties. One of the goals of the university and the country is to encourage fluency in the Kazakh language for all citizens of the Republic. Nazarbayev University has introduced a Kazakh language program to assist in achieving this goal. This policy is one-step in ensuring that NU students have a thorough understanding of the Kazakh language through a fluency test based on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). The Kazakh Language Fluency Test exam aims to determine student’s knowledge of Kazakh language. The fact is that there are three types of students at Nazarbayev University: Kazakh-speaking heritage learners, Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. Unfortunately, we have Kazakh students who do not speak Kazakh. All students who finished school with Russian language instruction are given Kazakh Language Fluency Test in order to determine their Kazakh level. After the test exam, all students can choose appropriate Kazakh course: Basic Kazakh, Intermediate Kazakh and Upper-Intermediate Kazakh. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test consists of four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. They are taken on the same day in the abovementioned order.

Keywords: Diagnostic language test, Kazakh language, placement test, test result.

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449 Influence of Transformation Leadership Style on Employee Engagement among Generation Y

Authors: Z. D. Mansor, C. P. Mun, B. S. Nurul Farhana, Wan Aisyah Nasuha Wan Mohamed Tarmizi

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to determine the influence of transformation leadership style on employee engagement among Generation Y. The growing of Generation Y employees in Malaysia has raised concerns about how to engage and motivate this cohort. Transformation Leadership style is one of the key factors to increase employee engagement levels in the organization. This study has proven to be important for the researchers and the organization to properly understand the concept of employee engagement, transformation leadership style and their relationship. The samples in this study included 221 respondents of Generation Y who are currently working in Selangor and Klang Valley area in Malaysia. The data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results show that there is a significant relationship between the dimension of intellectual stimulation, inspiration motivation and individual consideration on employee engagement. In contrast, the results have revealed that there is no significant relationship between idealized influences of a leader on employee engagement among Generation Y.

Keywords: Employee engagement, gen Y, transformational leadership styles, survey.

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448 Learning Style and Learner Satisfaction in a Course Delivery Context

Authors: Paul David Henry

Abstract:

This paper describes the results and implications of a correlational study of learning styles and learner satisfaction. The relationship of these empirical concepts was examined in the context of traditional versus e-blended modes of course delivery in an introductory graduate research course. Significant results indicated that the visual side of the visual-verbal dimension of students- learning style(s) was positively correlated to satisfaction with themselves as learners in an e-blended course delivery mode and negatively correlated to satisfaction with the classroom environment in the context of a traditional classroom course delivery mode.

Keywords: Course delivery mode, e-blended, hybrid, learner satisfaction, learning style.

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447 Determinants of Knowledge-Based Improving Workflow and Communication within Surgical Team

Authors: J. Bartnicka

Abstract:

Surgical team consists of variety types of medical specialists possessing different kind of knowledge, motivations, personalities or abilities. This together with poor knowledge transfer, lack of information and communication technologies (ICT) implementations in hospitals can cause protraction of patient care processes and even jeopardize patient safety. There is presented in the article the outcomes of studies on communication and workflow in surgical team in the background of different collaboration levels in healthcare system. As a result the five determinants of improving workflow and communication within surgical team were indicated as well as knowledge-based tools and supporting information technology were proposed.

Keywords: Knowledge transfer, absorption abilities, knowledge representation, information and communication technologies, cooperation.

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