Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 487

Search results for: Smart roads

487 A Remote Sensing Approach to Calculate Population Using Roads Network Data in Lebanon

Authors: Kamel Allaw, Jocelyne Adjizian Gerard, Makram Chehayeb, Nada Badaro Saliba

Abstract:

In developing countries, such as Lebanon, the demographic data are hardly available due to the absence of the mechanization of population system. The aim of this study is to evaluate, using only remote sensing data, the correlations between the number of population and the characteristics of roads network (length of primary roads, length of secondary roads, total length of roads, density and percentage of roads and the number of intersections). In order to find the influence of the different factors on the demographic data, we studied the degree of correlation between each factor and the number of population. The results of this study have shown a strong correlation between the number of population and the density of roads and the number of intersections.

Keywords: Population, road network, statistical correlations, remote sensing.

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486 Comparison of Material Constitutive Models Used in FEA of Low Volume Roads

Authors: Lenka Ševelová, Aleš Florian

Abstract:

Appropriate and progressive tool for analyzing behavior of low volume roads are probabilistic models used in reliability analyses. The necessary part of the probabilistic model is the deterministic model of structural behavior. The FE model of low volume roads is created in the ANSYS software. It is able to determine the state of stress and deformation in any point of the structure and thus generate data required for the reliability analysis. The paper compares two material constitutive models used for modeling of unbound non-homogenous materials used in low volume roads. The first model is linear elastic model according to Hook theory (H model), the second one is nonlinear elastic-plastic Drucker-Prager model (D-P model).

Keywords: FEA, FEM, geotechnical materials, low volume roads, material constitutive models, pavement.

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485 Optical Road Monitoring of the Future Smart Roads – Preliminary Results

Authors: Maria Jokela, Matti Kutila, Jukka Laitinen, Florian Ahlers, Nicolas Hautière, TobiasSchendzielorz

Abstract:

It has been shown that in most accidents the driver is responsible due to being distracted or misjudging the situation. In order to solve such problems research has been dedicated to developing driver assistance systems that are able to monitor the traffic situation around the vehicle. This paper presents methods for recognizing several circumstances on a road. The methods use both the in-vehicle warning systems and the roadside infrastructure. Preliminary evaluation results for fog and ice-on-road detection are presented. The ice detection results are based on data recorded in a test track dedicated to tyre friction testing. The achieved results anticipate that ice detection could work at a performance of 70% detection with the right setup, which is a good foundation for implementation. However, the full benefit of the presented cooperative system is achieved by fusing the outputs of multiple data sources, which is the key point of discussion behind this publication.

Keywords: Smart roads, traffic monitoring, traffic scenedetection.

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484 The Protection and Enhancement of the Roman Roads in Algeria

Authors: T. Ninouh, A. Rouili

Abstract:

The Romain paths or roads offer a very interesting archaeological material, because they allow us to understand the history of human settlement and are also factors that increase territorial identity. Roman roads are one of the hallmarks of the Roman empire, which extends to North Africa. The objective of this investigation is to attract the attention of researchers of the importance of Roman roads and paths, which are found in Algeria, according to the quality of the materials and techniques used in this period our history, and to encourage other decision makers to protect and enhance these routes because the current urbanization, intensive agricultural practices, or simply forgotten, decreases the sustainability of this important historical heritage.

Keywords: Romain paths, material Materials, Property, Valuation.

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483 On the Optimal Number of Smart Dust Particles

Authors: Samee Ullah Khan, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Smart Dust particles, are small smart materials used for generating weather maps. We investigate question of the optimal number of Smart Dust particles necessary for generating precise, computationally feasible and cost effective 3–D weather maps. We also give an optimal matching algorithm for the generalized scenario, when there are N Smart Dust particles and M ground receivers.

Keywords: Remote sensing, smart dust, matching, optimization.

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482 Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Won-Gi Jeon, Byoung-Chul Song, Jae-Hong Park, Ki-Won Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.

Keywords: ESS, open framework, profile, PV, UPS.

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481 Smart Product-Service System Innovation with User Experience: A Case Study of Chunmi

Authors: Ying Yu, Wen-Chi Kuo, Tung-Jung Sung

Abstract:

The Product-Service System (PSS) has received widespread attention due to the increasing global competition in manufacturing and service markets. Today’s smart products and services are driven by Internet of things (IoT) technologies which will promote the transformation from traditional PSS to smart PSS. Although the smart PSS has some of technological achievements in businesses, it often ignores the real demands of target users when using products and services. Therefore, designers should know and learn the User Experience (UX) of smart products, services and systems. However, both of academia and industry still lack relevant development experience of smart PSS since it is an emerging field. In doing so, this is a case study of Xiaomi’s Chunmi, the largest IoT platform in the world, and addresses the two major issues: (1) why Chunmi should develop smart PSS strategies with UX; and (2) how Chunmi could successfully implement the strategic objectives of smart PSS through the design. The case study results indicated that: (1) the smart PSS can distinguish competitors by their unique UX which is difficult to duplicate; (2) early user engagement is crucial for the success of smart PSS; and (3) interaction, expectation, and enjoyment can be treated as a three-dimensional evaluation of UX design for smart PSS innovation. In conclusion, the smart PSS can gain competitive advantages through good UX design in the market.

Keywords: Design research, smart PSS, user experience, user engagement.

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480 Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

Authors: Imen Aouini, Lamia Ben Azzouz

Abstract:

The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of Smart Grids. In this paper, we present security issues of the Smart Grid architecture and we highlight open issues that will make the Smart Grid security a challenging research area in the future.

Keywords: Smart grids, smart meters, home area network, neighbor area network.

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479 Automatic Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Aerial and Satellite Images with Heavy Noise

Authors: Yan Li, Ronald Briggs

Abstract:

Aerial and satellite images are information rich. They are also complex to analyze. For GIS systems, many features require fast and reliable extraction of roads and intersections. In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithms to address some difficult issues that are commonly seen in high resolution aerial and satellite images, nonetheless not well addressed in existing solutions, such as blurring, broken or missing road boundaries, lack of road profiles, heavy shadows, and interfering surrounding objects. The new scheme is based on a new method, namely reference circle, to properly identify the pixels that belong to the same road and use this information to recover the whole road network. This feature is invariable to the shape and direction of roads and tolerates heavy noise and disturbances. Road extraction based on reference circles is much more noise tolerant and flexible than the previous edge-detection based algorithms. The scheme is able to extract roads reliably from images with complex contents and heavy obstructions, such as the high resolution aerial/satellite images available from Google maps.

Keywords: Automatic road extraction, Image processing, Feature extraction, GIS update, Remote sensing, Geo-referencing

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478 The Study on the Conversed Remediation between Old and New Media in Case of Smart Phone and PC in South Korea

Authors: Jinhwan Yu, Jooyeon Yook

Abstract:

After Apple's first introduction its smart phone, iPhone in the end of 2009 in Korea, the number of Korean smarphone users had been rapidly increasing so that the half of Korean population became smart phone users as of February, 2012. Currently, smart phones are positioned as a major digital media with powerful influences in Korea. And, now, Koreans are leaning new information, enjoying games and communicating other people every time and everywhere. As smart phone devices' performances increased, the number of usable services became more while adequate GUI developments are required to implement various functions with smart phones. The strategy to provide similar experiences on smart phones through familiar features based on employment of existing media's functions mostly contributed to smart phones' popularization in connection with smart phone devices' iconic GUIs. The spread of Smart phone increased mobile web accesses. Therefore, the attempts to implement PC's web in the smart phone's web are continuously made. The mobile web GUI provides familiar experiences to users through designs adequately utilizing the smart phone's GUIs. As the number of users familiarized to smart phones and mobile web GUIs, opposite to reversed remediation from many parts of PCs, PCs are starting to adapt smart phone GUIs. This study defines this phenomenon as the reversed remediation, and reviews the reversed remediation cases of Smart phone GUI' characteristics of PCs. For this purpose, the established study issues are as under: · what is the reversed remediation? · what are the smart phone GUI's characteristics? · what kind of interrelationship exist s between the smart phone and PC's web site? It is meaningful in the forecast of the future GUI's change by understanding of characteristics in the paradigm changes of PC and smart phone's GUI designs. This also will be helpful to establish strategies for digital devices' development and design.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, Remediation, Smart Phone, South Korea, Web Site

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477 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: Concrete, Czech Republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards.

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476 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: Normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume.

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475 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed

Abstract:

The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: Disturbance automation, electric power grid, smart grid, smart switch.

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474 Assessment of Green and Smart IT Level: A Case Study on Public Research Institute

Authors: Han-Gook Kim, Dong-Suk Hong

Abstract:

As the latest advancement and trend in IT field, Green & Smart IT has attracted more and more attentions from researchers. This study focuses on the development of assessing tools which can be used for evaluating Green & Smart IT level within an organization. In order to achieve meaningful results, a comprehensive review of relevant literature was performed in advance, then, Delphi survey and other processes were also employed to develop the assessment tools for Green & Smart IT level. Two rounds of Delphi questionnaire survey were conducted with 20 IT experts in public sector. The results reveal that the top five weighted KPIs to evaluate maturity of Green & Smart IT were: (1) electronic execution of business process; (2) shutdown of unused IT devices; (3) virtualization of severs; (4) automation of constant temperature and humidity; and (5) introduction of smart-work system. Finally, these tools were applied to case study of a public research institute in Korea. The findings presented in this study provide organizations with useful implications for the introduction and promotion of Green & Smart IT in the future

Keywords: Assessment, Case Study, Delphi, Green & Smart

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473 Issues in Deploying Smart Antennas in Mobile Radio Networks

Authors: Rameshwar Kawitkar

Abstract:

With the exponentially increasing demand for wireless communications the capacity of current cellular systems will soon become incapable of handling the growing traffic. Since radio frequencies are diminishing natural resources, there seems to be a fundamental barrier to further capacity increase. The solution can be found in smart antenna systems. Smart or adaptive antenna arrays consist of an array of antenna elements with signal processing capability, that optimize the radiation and reception of a desired signal, dynamically. Smart antennas can place nulls in the direction of interferers via adaptive updating of weights linked to each antenna element. They thus cancel out most of the co-channel interference resulting in better quality of reception and lower dropped calls. Smart antennas can also track the user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. This implies that they are more advantageous than other antenna systems. This paper focuses on few issues about the smart antennas in mobile radio networks.

Keywords: Smart/Adaptive Antenna, Multipath fading, Beamforming, Radio propagation.

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472 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

Abstract:

Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: Communication technology between appliances, demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances and smart grid.

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471 Traffic Flow on Road Junctions

Authors: Wah Wah Aung, Cho Cho San

Abstract:

The paper deals with a mathematical model for fluid dynamic flows on road networks which is based on conservation laws. This nonlinear framework is based on the conservation of cars. We focus on traffic circle, which is a finite number of roads that meet at some junctions. The traffic circle with junctions having either one incoming and two outgoing or two incoming and one outgoing roads. We describe the numerical schemes with the particular boundary conditions used to produce approximated solutions of the problem.

Keywords: boundary conditions, conservation laws, finite difference Schemes, traffic flow.

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470 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: Direct voice input, risk, security, technology and trust.

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469 Smart Grid Communication Architecture Modeling for Heterogeneous Network Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure

Authors: S. Prem Kumar, H. Thameemul Ansari, V. Saminadan

Abstract:

A smart grid is an emerging technology in the power delivery system which provides an intelligent, self-recovery and homeostatic grid in delivering power to the users. Smart grid communication network provides transmission capacity for information transformation within the connected nodes in the network, in favor of functional and operational needs. In the electric grids communication network delay is based on choosing the appropriate technology and the types of devices enforced. In distinction, the combination of IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX and IEEE 802.11 based WiFi technologies provides improved coverage and gives low delay performances to meet the smart grid needs. By incorporating this method in Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) the performance of the smart grid will be considerably improved. This work deals with the implementation of WiMAX-WLAN integrated network architecture for WAMS and AMI in the smart grid.

Keywords: WiMAX, WLAN, WAMS, Smart Grid, HetNet, AMI.

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468 Effects of Road Disturbance on Plant Biodiversity

Authors: Sheng-Lan Zeng, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yu Gao, Zu-Tao Ouyang, Jia-Kuan Chen, Bo Li, Bin Zhao

Abstract:

Urbanization and related anthropogenic modifications cause extent of habitat fragmentation and directly lead to decline of local biodiversity. Conservation biologists advocate corridor creation as one approach to rescue biodiversity. Here we examine the utility of roads as corridors in preserving plant diversity by investigating roadside vegetation in Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. We examined the spatio-temporal distribution pattern of plant species richness, diversity and composition along roadside. The results suggest that roads, as dispersal conduits, increase occurrence probability of new settlers to a new area, meanwhile, roads accumulate the greater propagule pressure and favourable survival condition during operation phase. As a result, more species, including native and alien plants, non- halophyte and halophyte species, threatened and cosmopolitic species, were found prosperous at roadside. Roadside may be a refuge for more species, and the pattern of vegetation distribution is affected by road age and the distance from road verge.

Keywords: Native and alien species, Plant diversity conservation, Road construction, Road disturbance

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467 Accelerating the Uptake of Smart City Applications through Cloud Computing

Authors: Panagiotis Tsarchopoulos, Nicos Komninos, Christina Kakderi

Abstract:

Smart cities are high on the political agenda around the globe. However, planning smart cities and deploying applications dealing with the complex problems of the urban environment is a very challenging task that is difficult to be undertaken solely by the cities. We argue that the uptake of smart city strategies is facilitated, first, through the development of smart city application repositories allowing re-use of already developed and tested software, and, second, through cloud computing which disengages city authorities from any resource constraints, technical or financial, and has a higher impact and greater effect at the city level The combination of these two solutions allows city governments and municipalities to select and deploy a large number of applications dedicated to different city functions, which collectively could create a multiplier effect with a greater impact on the urban environment.

Keywords: Smart cities, applications, cloud computing, migration to the cloud, application repositories.

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466 Verifying X.509 Certificates on Smart Cards

Authors: Olaf Henniger, Karim Lafou, Dirk Scheuermann, Bruno Struif

Abstract:

This paper presents a smart-card applet that is able to verify X.509 certificates and to use the public key contained in the certificate for verifying digital signatures that have been created using the corresponding private key, e.g. for the purpose of authenticating the certificate owner against the card. The approach has been implemented as an operating prototype on Java cards.

Keywords: Public key cryptographic applications, smart cards.

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465 Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home

Authors: Win Thandar Soe, Innocent Mpawenimana, Mathieu Di Fazio, Cécile Belleudy, Aung Ze Ya

Abstract:

Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.

Keywords: Energy management, load profile, smart plug, wireless sensor network.

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464 Smart Spoiler for Race Car

Authors: M.H. Djavareshkian, A. Esmaeli

Abstract:

A pressure-based implicit procedure to solve Navier- Stokes equations on a nonorthogonal mesh with collocated finite volume formulation is used to simulate flow around the smart and conventional flaps of spoiler under the ground effect. Cantilever beam with uniformly varying load with roller support at the free end is considered for smart flaps. The boundedness criteria for this procedure are determined from a Normalized Variable diagram (NVD) scheme. The procedure incorporates es the k -ε eddyviscosity turbulence model. The method is first validated against experimental data. Then, the algorithm is applied for turbulent aerodynamic flows around a spoiler section with smart and conventional flaps for different attack angle, flap angle and ground clearance where the results of two flaps are compared.

Keywords: Smart spoiler, Ground Effect, Flap, Aerodynamic coefficients, Race car.

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463 The Most Secure Smartphone Operating System: A Survey

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman

Abstract:

In the recent years, a fundamental revolution in the Mobile Phone technology from just being able to provide voice and short message services to becoming the most essential part of our lives by connecting to network and various app stores for downloading software apps of almost every activity related to our life from finding location to banking from getting news updates to downloading HD videos and so on. This progress in Smart Phone industry has modernized and transformed our way of living into a trouble-free world. The smart phone has become our personal computers with the addition of significant features such as multi core processors, multi-tasking, large storage space, bluetooth, WiFi, including large screen and cameras. With this evolution, the rise in the security threats have also been amplified. In Literature, different threats related to smart phones have been highlighted and various precautions and solutions have been proposed to keep the smart phone safe which carries all the private data of a user. In this paper, a survey has been carried out to find out the most secure and the most unsecure smart phone operating system among the most popular smart phones in use today.

Keywords: Smart phone, operating system, security threats, Android, iOS, Balckberry, Windows.

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462 Taxonomy of Threats and Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks

Authors: Faisal Al Yahmadi, Muhammad R. Ahmed

Abstract:

Electric power is a fundamental necessity in the 21st century. Consequently, any break in electric power is probably going to affect the general activity. To make the power supply smooth and efficient, a smart grid network is introduced which uses communication technology. In any communication network, security is essential. It has been observed from several recent incidents that adversary causes an interruption to the operation of networks. In order to resolve the issues, it is vital to understand the threats and vulnerabilities associated with the smart grid networks. In this paper, we have investigated the threats and vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks (SGN) and the few solutions in the literature. Proposed solutions showed developments in electricity theft countermeasures, Denial of services attacks (DoS) and malicious injection attacks detection model, as well as malicious nodes detection using watchdog like techniques and other solutions.

Keywords: Smart grid network, security, threats, vulnerabilities.

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461 Services and Applications for Smart Office Environments - A Survey of State-of-the-Art Usage Scenarios

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper reports on a survey of state-of-the-art application scenarios for smart office environments. Based on an analysis of ongoing research activities and industry projects, functionalities and services of future office systems are extracted. In a second step, these results are used to identify the key characteristics of emerging products.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous Computing, Smart Office Environments, Application Scenarios.

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460 A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Smart City Projects Including the Scenario of Public-Private Partnerships

Authors: Patrick T. I. Lam, Wenjing Yang

Abstract:

A smart city project embraces benefits and costs which can be classified under direct and indirect categories. Externalities come into the picture, but they are often difficult to quantify. Despite this barrier, policy makers need to carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the huge investments needed to make a city smart. The recent trend is towards the engagement of the private sector to utilize their resources and expertise, especially in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) areas, where innovations blossom. This study focuses on the identification of costs (on a life cycle basis) and benefits associated with smart city project developments based on a comprehensive literature review and case studies, where public-private partnerships would warrant consideration, the related costs and benefits are highlighted. The findings will be useful for policy makers of cities.

Keywords: Costs and benefits, identification, public-private partnerships, smart city projects.

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459 Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads

Authors: Kayijuka Idrissa

Abstract:

This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

Keywords: Statistical methods, Poisson distribution, car moving techniques, traffic flow.

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458 Computer Simulation of Low Volume Roads Made from Recycled Materials

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová

Abstract:

Low volume roads are widely used all over the world. To improve their quality the computer simulation of their behavior is proposed. The FEM model enables to determine stress and displacement conditions in the pavement and/or also in the particular material layers. Different variants of pavement layers, material used, humidity as well as loading conditions can be studied. Among others, the input information about material properties of individual layers made from recycled materials is crucial for obtaining results as exact as possible. For this purpose the cyclic-load triaxial test machine testing of cyclic-load performance of materials is a promising test method. The test is able to simulate the real traffic loading on particular materials taking into account the changes in the horizontal stress conditions produced in particular layers by crossings of vehicles. Also the test specimen can be prepared with different amount of water. Thus modulus of elasticity (Young modulus) of different materials including recycled ones can be measured under the different conditions of horizontal and vertical stresses as well as under the different humidity conditions. Using the proposed testing procedure the modulus of elasticity of recycled materials used in the newly built low volume road is obtained under different stress and humidity conditions set to standard, dry and fully saturated level. Obtained values of modulus of elasticity are used in FEA.

Keywords: FEA, FEM, geotechnical materials, low volume roads, pavement, triaxial test, Young modulus.

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