Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 934

Search results for: Slope Shape

934 Enhancement of Shape Description and Representation by Slope

Authors: Ali Salem Bin Samma, Rosalina Abdul Salam

Abstract:

Representation and description of object shapes by the slopes of their contours or borders are proposed. The idea is to capture the essence of the features that make it easier for a shape to be stored, transmitted, compared and recognized. These features must be independent of translation, rotation and scaling of the shape. A approach is proposed to obtain high performance, efficiency and to merge the boundaries into sequence of straight line segments with the fewest possible segments. Evaluation on the performance of the proposed method is based on its comparison with established method of object shape description.

Keywords: Shape description, Shape representation and Slope.

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933 Influence of Slope Shape and Surface Roughness on the Moving Paths of a Single Rockfall

Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee

Abstract:

Rockfall is a kind of irregular geological disaster. Its destruction time, space and movements are highly random. The impact force is determined by the way and velocity rocks move. The movement velocity of a rockfall depends on slope gradient of its moving paths, height, slope surface roughness and rock shapes. For effectively mitigate and prevent disasters brought by rockfalls, it is required to precisely calculate the moving paths of a rockfall so as to provide the best protective design. This paper applies Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) as our study tool to discuss the impact of slope shape and surface roughness on the moving paths of a single rockfall. The analytical results showed that the slope, m=1:1, acted as the threshold for rockfall bounce height on a monoclinal slight slope. When JRC ´╝£ 1.2, movement velocity reduced and bounce height increased as JCR increased. If slope fixed and JRC increased, the bounce height of rocks increased gradually with reducing movement velocity. Therefore, the analysis on the moving paths of rockfalls with CRSP could simulate bouncing of falling rocks. By analyzing moving paths, velocity, and bounce height of falling rocks, we could effectively locate impact points of falling rocks on a slope. Such analysis can be served as a reference for future disaster prevention and control.

Keywords: Rockfall, Slope Shape, Moving Path, SurfaceRoughness.

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932 Static Analysis and Pseudostatic Slope Stability

Authors: Meftah Ali

Abstract:

This article aims to analyze the static stability and pseudostatic slope by using different methods such as: Bishop method, Junbu, Ordinary, Morgenstern-price and GLE. The two dimensional modeling of slope stability under various loading as: the earthquake effect, the water level and road mobile charges. The results show that the slope is stable in the static case without water, but in other cases, the slope lost its stability and give unstable. The calculation of safety factor is to evaluate the stability of the slope using the limit equilibrium method despite the difference between the results obtained by these methods that do not rely on the same assumptions. In the end, the results of this study illuminate well the influence of the action of water, moving loads and the earthquake on the stability of the slope.

Keywords: Slope stability, pseudo static, safety factor, limit equilibrium.

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931 Shape-Based Image Retrieval Using Shape Matrix

Authors: C. Sheng, Y. Xin

Abstract:

Retrieval image by shape similarity, given a template shape is particularly challenging, owning to the difficulty to derive a similarity measurement that closely conforms to the common perception of similarity by humans. In this paper, a new method for the representation and comparison of shapes is present which is based on the shape matrix and snake model. It is scaling, rotation, translation invariant. And it can retrieve the shape images with some missing or occluded parts. In the method, the deformation spent by the template to match the shape images and the matching degree is used to evaluate the similarity between them.

Keywords: shape representation, shape matching, shape matrix, deformation

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930 Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall

Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee

Abstract:

The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC <1.4 the moving velocity decreases and the bounce height increases as JRC increases. If the gradient is fixed, when JRC is greater, the bounce height will be higher, while the moving velocity will experience a downward trend. Therefore, the best protecting point and facilities can be chosen if the moving paths of rockfalls are precisely estimated.

Keywords: rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.

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929 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 1D Shallow Water Flow with Water Surface Slope Limiter

Authors: W. Lai, A. A. Khan

Abstract:

A water surface slope limiting scheme is tested and compared with the water depth slope limiter for the solution of one dimensional shallow water equations with bottom slope source term. Numerical schemes based on the total variation diminishing Runge- Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method with slope limiter schemes based on water surface slope and water depth are used to solve one-dimensional shallow water equations. For each slope limiter, three different Riemann solvers based on HLL, LF, and Roe flux functions are used. The proposed water surface based slope limiter scheme is easy to implement and shows better conservation property compared to the slope limiter based on water depth. Of the three flux functions, the Roe approximation provides the best results while the LF function proves to be least suitable when used with either slope limiter scheme.

Keywords: Discontinuous finite element, TVD Runge-Kuttascheme, slope limiters, Riemann solvers, shallow water flow.

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928 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump

Abstract:

This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: Centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope.

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927 Research and Development of a Biomorphic Robot Driven by Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Y.J. Lai, H.Y. Peng, M.W. Wu, J. Shaw

Abstract:

In this study, we used shape memory alloys as actuators to build a biomorphic robot which can imitate the motion of an earthworm. The robot can be used to explore in a narrow space. Therefore we chose shape memory alloys as actuators. Because of the small deformation of a wire shape memory alloy, spiral shape memory alloys are selected and installed both on the X axis and Y axis (each axis having two shape memory alloys) to enable the biomorphic robot to do reciprocating motion. By the mechanism we designed, the robot can increase the distance as it moves in a duty cycle. In addition, two shape memory alloys are added to the robot head for controlling right and left turns. By sending pulses through the I/O card from the controller, the signals are then amplified by a driver to heat the shape memory alloys in order to make the SMA shrink to pull the mechanism to move.

Keywords: Biomorphic Robot, Shape Memory Alloy.

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926 Analysis of Highway Slope Failure by an Application of the Stereographic Projection

Authors: Chin-Yu Lee, Iau-Teh Wang

Abstract:

The mountain road slope failures triggered by earthquake activities and torrential rain namely to create the disaster. Province Road No. 24 is a main route to the Wutai Township. The area of the study is located at the mileages between 46K and 47K along the road. However, the road has been suffered frequent damages as a result of landslide and slope failures during typhoon seasons. An understanding of the sliding behaviors in the area appears to be necessary. Slope failures triggered by earthquake activities and heavy rainfalls occur frequently. The study is to understand the mechanism of slope failures and to look for the way to deal with the situation. In order to achieve these objectives, this paper is based on theoretical and structural geology data interpretation program to assess the potential slope sliding behavior. The study showed an intimate relationship between the landslide behavior of the slopes and the stratum materials, based on structural geology analysis method to analysis slope stability and finds the slope safety coefficient to predict the sites of destroyed layer. According to the case study and parameter analyses results, the slope mainly slips direction compared to the site located in the southeast area. Find rainfall to result in the rise of groundwater level is main reason of the landslide mechanism. Future need to set up effective horizontal drain at corrective location, that can effective restrain mountain road slope failures and increase stability of slope.

Keywords: slope stability analysis, Stereographic Projection, wedge Failure.

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925 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Fahim Kahlouche, Alaoua Bouaicha, Sihem Chaîbeddra, Sid-Ali Rafa, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: Slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D.

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924 Assessment of Landslide Volume for Alishan Highway Based On Database of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Ya-Fen Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, a study of slope failures along the Alishan Highway is carried out. An innovative empirical model is developed based on 15-year records of rainfall-induced slope failures. The statistical models are intended for assessing the volume of landslide for slope failure along the Alishan Highway in the future. The rainfall data considered in the proposed models include the effective cumulative rainfall and the critical rainfall intensity. The effective cumulative rainfall is defined at the point when the curve of cumulative rainfall goes from steep to flat. Then, the rainfall thresholds of landslide are established for assessing the volume of landslide and issuing warning and/or closure for the Alishan Highway during a future extreme rainfall. Slope failures during Typhoon Saola in 2012 demonstrate that the new empirical model is effective and applicable to other cases with similar rainfall conditions.

Keywords: Slope failure, landslide, volume, model, rainfall thresholds.

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923 Numerical Simulation of the Transient Shape Variation of a Rotating Liquid Droplet

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

Transient shape variation of a rotating liquid dropletis simulated numerically. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved by using the level set method. The shape variation from the sphere to the rotating ellipsoid, and to the two-robed shapeare simulated, and the elongation of the two-robed droplet is discussed. The two-robed shape after the initial transient is found to be stable and the elongation is almost the same for the cases with different initial rotation rate. The relationship between the elongation and the rotation rate is obtained by averaging the transient shape variation. It is shown that the elongation of two-robed shape is in good agreement with the existing experimental data. It is found that the transient numerical simulation is necessary for analyzing the largely elongated two-robed shape of rotating droplet.

Keywords: Droplet, rotation, two-robed shape, transient simulation.

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922 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev

Abstract:

This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of shape-memory products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: Elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior.

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921 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

Abstract:

A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: Expected life-cycle cost, failure probability, slopes failure, storms.

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920 Slope Stability of an Earthen Levee Strengthened by HPTRM under Turbulent Overtopping Conditions

Authors: Fashad Amini, Lin Li

Abstract:

High performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is one of the most advanced flexible armoring technologies for severe erosion challenges. The effect of turbulence on the slope stability of an earthen levee strengthened by high performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is investigated in this study for combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. The results show that turbulence has strong influence on the slope stability during the combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. Among the surge height, peak wave force and turbulent force. The turbulent force has the ability to stabilize the earthen levee at the large wave force the turbulent force has strongest effect on the FS. The surge storm acts as an independent force on the slope stability of the earthen levee. It just adds to the effects of the turbulent force and wave force on the slope stability of HPTRM strengthened levee.

Keywords: Slope stability, strength reduction method, HPTRM, levee, overtopping.

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919 The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact

Authors: H. Aissa, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.

Keywords: Splash distribution, water drop, slope steepness, soil detachment.

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918 Extracting Tongue Shape Dynamics from Magnetic Resonance Image Sequences

Authors: María S. Avila-García, John N. Carter, Robert I. Damper

Abstract:

An important problem in speech research is the automatic extraction of information about the shape and dimensions of the vocal tract during real-time speech production. We have previously developed Southampton dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (SDMRI) as an approach to the solution of this problem.However, the SDMRI images are very noisy so that shape extraction is a major challenge. In this paper, we address the problem of tongue shape extraction, which poses difficulties because this is a highly deforming non-parametric shape. We show that combining active shape models with the dynamic Hough transform allows the tongue shape to be reliably tracked in the image sequence.

Keywords: Vocal tract imaging, speech production, active shapemodels, dynamic Hough transform, object tracking.

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917 Shape Error Concealment for Shape Independent Transform Coding

Authors: Sandra Ondrušová, Jaroslav Polec

Abstract:

Arbitrarily shaped video objects are an important concept in modern video coding methods. The techniques presently used are not based on image elements but rather video objects having an arbitrary shape. In this paper, spatial shape error concealment techniques to be used for object-based image in error-prone environments are proposed. We consider a geometric shape representation consisting of the object boundary, which can be extracted from the α-plane. Three different approaches are used to replace a missing boundary segment: Bézier interpolation, Bézier approximation and NURBS approximation. Experimental results on object shape with different concealment difficulty demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods. Comparisons with proposed methods are also presented.

Keywords: error concealment, shape coding, object-based image, NURBS, Bézier curves.

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916 Assessment of Slope Stability by Continuum and Discontinuum Methods

Authors: Taleb Hosni Abderrahmane, Berga Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

The development of numerical analysis and its application to geomechanics problems have provided geotechnical engineers with extremely powerful tools. One of the most important problems in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability assessment. It is a very difficult task due to several aspects such the nature of the problem, experimental consideration, monitoring, controlling, and assessment. The main objective of this paper is to perform a comparative numerical study between the following methods: The Limit Equilibrium (LEM), Finite Element (FEM), Limit Analysis (LAM) and Distinct Element (DEM). The comparison is conducted in terms of the safety factors and the critical slip surfaces. Through the results, we see the feasibility to analyse slope stability by many methods.

Keywords: Comparison, factor of safety, geomechanics, numerical methods, slope analysis, slip surfaces.

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915 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with Plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and powai soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and Plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load –settlement curves have reported. It has been observed from test results that load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: Fly ash, Plastic recycled polymer, Factor of safety, Finite element method (FEM), Bishop’s simplified method.

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914 Method and Experiment of Fabricating and Cutting the Burr for Y Shape Nanochannel

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Shih-Hung Ma

Abstract:

The present paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish a method for fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel on silicon (Si) substrate. For fabricating Y shape nanochannel, it first makes the experimental cutting path planning for fabricating Y shape nanochannel until the fifth cutting layer. Using the constant down force by AFM and SDFE theory and following the experimental cutting path planning, the cutting depth and width of each pass of Y shape nanochannel can be predicted by simulation. The paper plans the path for cutting the burr at the edge of Y shape nanochannel. Then, it carries out cutting the burr along the Y nanochannel edge by using a smaller down force. The height of standing burr at the edge is required to be below the set value of 0.54 nm. The results of simulation and experiment of fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel is further compared.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, nanochannel, specific down force energy, Y shape, burr, silicon.

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913 Analysis and Prediction of the Behavior of the Landslide at Ain El Hammam, Algeria Based on the Second Order Work Criterion

Authors: Zerarka Hizia, Akchiche Mustapha, Prunier Florent

Abstract:

The landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) is characterized by a complex geology and a high hydrogeology hazard. AEH's perpetual reactivation compels us to look closely at its triggers and to better understand the mechanisms of its evolution in mass and in depth. This study builds a numerical model to simulate the influencing factors such as precipitation, non-saturation, and pore pressure fluctuations, using Plaxis software. For a finer analysis of instabilities, we use Hill's criterion, based on the sign of the second order work, which is the most appropriate material stability criterion for non-associated elastoplastic materials. The results of this type of calculation allow us, in theory, to predict the shape and position of the slip surface(s) which are liable to ground movements of the slope, before reaching the rupture given by the plastic limit of Mohr Coulomb. To validate the numerical model, an analysis of inclinometer measures is performed to confirm the direction of movement and kinematic of the sliding mechanism of AEH’s slope.

Keywords: Landslide, second order work, precipitation, inclinometers.

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912 Slope Effect in Emission Evaluation to Assess Real Pollutant Factors

Authors: G. Meccariello, L. Della Ragione

Abstract:

The exposure to outdoor air pollution causes lung cancer and increases the risk of bladder cancer. Because air pollution in urban areas is mainly caused by transportation, it is necessary to evaluate pollutant exhaust emissions from vehicles during their realworld use. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. A particular attention was given to the slope variability along the streets during each journey performed by the instrumented vehicle. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars. Finally the slope analysis can be correlated to the emission and consumption values in a specific road position, and it could be evaluated its influence on their behaviour.

Keywords: Air pollution, Driving cycles, GPS signal, Slope, Emission factor, fuel consumption.

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911 Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method

Authors: Dragos Nicolae VIZIREANU

Abstract:

One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

Keywords: 3D shape decomposition representation, mathematical morphology, gray scale interframe interpolation

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910 Study of the Cryogenically Cooled Electrode Shape in Electric Discharge Machining Process

Authors: Vineet Srivastava, Pulak M. Pandey

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is well established machining technique mainly used to machine complex geometries on difficult-to-machine materials and high strength temperature resistant alloys. In the present research, the objective is to study the shape of the electrode and establish the application of liquid nitrogen in reducing distortion of the electrode during electrical discharge machining of M2 grade high speed steel using copper electrodes. Study of roundness was performed on the electrode to observe the shape of the electrode for both conventional EDM and EDM with cryogenically cooled electrode. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been used to study the shape of electrode tip. The effect of various parameters such as discharge current and pulse on time has been studied to understand the behavior of distortion of electrode. It has been concluded that the shape retention is better in case of liquid nitrogen cooled electrode.

Keywords: cryogenic cooling, EDM, electrode shape, out of roundness.

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909 Carbon Storage in Above-Ground Biomass of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Ubonwan Chaiyo, Savitri Garivait, Kobsak Wanthongchai

Abstract:

The study site was located in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Four experimental plots in dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) and four plots in mixed deciduous forest (MDF) were set up to estimate the above-ground biomass of tree, sapling and bamboo. The allometry equations were used to investigate above-ground biomass of these vegetation. Seedling and other understory were determined using direct harvesting method. Carbon storage in above-ground biomass was calculated based on IPCC 2006. The results showed that the above-ground biomass of DDF at 20-40% slope, <20% slope and MDF at <20% slope were 91.96, 30.95 and 59.44 ton/ha, respectively. Bamboo covers about half of total aboveground biomass in MDF, which is a specific characteristic of this area. The carbon sequestration potential in above-ground biomass of plot slope range 20-40% DDF, <20% DDF and <20% MDF are 43.22, 14.55 and 27.94 ton C/ha, respectively.

Keywords: Carbon storage, aboveground biomass, tropical deciduous forest, dry dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest.

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908 Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution

Authors: Z.A. Rasid, R. Zahari, A. Ayob, D.L. Majid, A.S.M. Rafie

Abstract:

Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature distribution.

Keywords: Post-buckling, shape memory alloy, temperaturedependent property, tent-like temperature distribution

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907 Critical Terrain Slope Calculation for Locating Small Hydropower Plants

Authors: C. Vrekos, C. Evagelides, N. Samarinas, G. Arampatzis

Abstract:

As known, the water energy is a renewable and clean source of energy. Energy production from hydropower has been the first, and still is today a renewable source used to generate electricity. The optimal location and sizing of a small hydropower plant is a very important issue in engineering design which encourages investigation. The aim of this paper is to present a formula that can be utilized for locating the position of a small hydropower plant although there is a high dependence on economic, environmental, and social parameters. In this paper, the economic and technical side of the problem is considered. More specifically, there is a critical terrain slope that determines if the plant should be located at the end of the slope or not. Of course, this formula can be used for a first estimate and does not include detailed economic analysis. At the end, a case study is presented for the location of a small hydropower plant in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formula.

Keywords: Critical terrain slope, economic analysis, hydropower plant locating, renewable energy.

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906 Investigation of Building Loads Effect on the Stability of Slope

Authors: Hadj Brahim Mounia, Belhamel Farid, Souici Messoud

Abstract:

In big cities, construction on sloping land (landslide) is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flat lands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to the difficulties encountered during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. This paper analyses the effect of the number of floors of a building, founded on isolated footing on the stability of the slope using the computer code finite element PLAXIS 2D v. 8.2. The isolated footings of a building in this case were anchored in soil so that the levels of successive isolated footing realize a maximum slope of base of three for two heights, which connects the edges of the nearest footings, according to the Algerian building code DTR-BC 2.331: Shallow foundations. The results show that the embedment of the foundation into the soil reduces the value of the safety factor due to the change of the stress state of the soil by these foundations. The number of floors a building has also influences the safety factor. It has been noticed from this case of study that there is no risk of collapse of slopes for an inclination between 5° and 8°. In the case of slope inclination greater than 10° it has been noticed that the urbanization is prohibited.

Keywords: Building, collapse, factor of safety, isolated footing, PLAXIS 2D, slope.

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905 Theoretical and Analytical Approaches for Investigating the Relations between Sediment Transport and Channel Shape

Authors: Nidal Hadadin

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of cross sectional geometry on sediment transport rate. The processes of sediment transport are generally associated to environmental management, such as pollution caused by the forming of suspended sediment in the channel network of a watershed and preserving physical habitats and native vegetations, and engineering applications, such as the influence of sediment transport on hydraulic structures and flood control design. Many equations have been proposed for computing the sediment transport, the influence of many variables on sediment transport has been understood; however, the effect of other variables still requires further research. For open channel flow, sediment transport capacity is recognized to be a function of friction slope, flow velocity, grain size, grain roughness and form roughness, the hydraulic radius of the bed section and the type and quantity of vegetation cover. The effect of cross sectional geometry of the channel on sediment transport is one of the variables that need additional investigation. The width-depth ratio (W/d) is a comparative indicator of the channel shape. The width is the total distance across the channel and the depth is the mean depth of the channel. The mean depth is best calculated as total cross-sectional area divided by the top width. Channels with high W/d ratios tend to be shallow and wide, while channels with low (W/d) ratios tend to be narrow and deep. In this study, the effects of the width-depth ratio on sediment transport was demonstrated theoretically by inserting the shape factor in sediment continuity equation and analytically by utilizing the field data sets for Yalobusha River. It was found by utilizing the two approaches as a width-depth ratio increases the sediment transport decreases.

Keywords: Sediment transport, shape factor, hydraulicgeometry, flow discharge, width depth ratio.

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