Search results for: Slack Based Measure
11587 Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess Quality Management Efficiency
Authors: Chuen Tse Kuah, Kuan Yew Wong, Farzad Behrouzi
Abstract:This paper is aimed to give an illustration on the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a tool to assess Quality Management (QM) efficiency. A variant of DEA, slack based measure (SBM) is used for this purpose. From this study, it is found that DEA is suitable to measure QM efficiency and give improvement suggestions to the inefficient QM.
Keywords: Quality Management, Data Envelopment Analysis, Slack Based Measure, Efficiency Measurement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1931
11586 Research on Regional Energy Saving Potential Based on Nonparametric Radial Adjustment and Slack Adjustment
Authors: Donglan Zha, Ning Ding
Abstract:Taking the provincial capital, labor and energy as inputs, regional GDP as output from 1995 to 2007, the paper quantifies the vertical and lateral energy saving potential by introducing the radial adjustment and slack adjustment of DEA. The results show that by the vertical, the achievement of energy saving in 2007 is better than their respective historical performances. By horizontal, in 2007 it can be found that Tianjin, Liaoning, Shanghai and Yunnan do better in energy saving than other provinces. In national wide, the higher of energy efficiency, the larger of per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry in the national economy, the more open to the outside, the lower the energy saving potential demonstrates, while the energy endowment has negative effect on energy saving potential.
Keywords: radial adjustment; slack adjustment; regional disparity; energy saving potentialProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1202
11585 An Analysis of Real-Time Distributed System under Different Priority Policies
Authors: Y. Jayanta Singh, Suresh C. Mehrotra
Abstract:A real time distributed computing has heterogeneously networked computers to solve a single problem. So coordination of activities among computers is a complex task and deadlines make more complex. The performances depend on many factors such as traffic workloads, database system architecture, underlying processors, disks speeds, etc. Simulation study have been performed to analyze the performance under different transaction scheduling: different workloads, arrival rate, priority policies, altering slack factors and Preemptive Policy. The performance metric of the experiments is missed percent that is the percentage of transaction that the system is unable to complete. The throughput of the system is depends on the arrival rate of transaction. The performance can be enhanced with altering the slack factor value. Working on slack value for the transaction can helps to avoid some of transactions from killing or aborts. Under the Preemptive Policy, many extra executions of new transactions can be carried out.
Keywords: Real distributed systems, slack factors, transaction scheduling, priority policies.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
11584 A New Similarity Measure Based On Edge Counting
Authors: T. Slimani, B. Ben Yaghlane, K. Mellouli
In the field of concepts, the measure of Wu and Palmer  has the advantage of being simple to implement and have good performances compared to the other similarity measures . Nevertheless, the Wu and Palmer measure present the following disadvantage: in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-A ontology contained in the neighborhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in the same hierarchy. This situation is inadequate within the information retrieval framework. To overcome this problem, we propose a new similarity measure based on the Wu and Palmer measure. Our objective is to obtain realistic results for concepts not located in the same way. The obtained results show that compared to the Wu and Palmer approach, our measure presents a profit in terms of relevance and execution time.
Keywords: Hierarchy, IS-A ontology, Semantic Web, Similarity Measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
11583 Improved K-Modes for Categorical Clustering Using Weighted Dissimilarity Measure
Authors: S.Aranganayagi, K.Thangavel
K-Modes is an extension of K-Means clustering algorithm, developed to cluster the categorical data, where the mean is replaced by the mode. The similarity measure proposed by Huang is the simple matching or mismatching measure. Weight of attribute values contribute much in clustering; thus in this paper we propose a new weighted dissimilarity measure for K-Modes, based on the ratio of frequency of attribute values in the cluster and in the data set. The new weighted measure is experimented with the data sets obtained from the UCI data repository. The results are compared with K-Modes and K-representative, which show that the new measure generates clusters with high purity.
Keywords: Clustering, categorical data, K-Modes, weighted dissimilarity measureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3548
11582 Similarity Measure Functions for Strategy-Based Biometrics
Authors: Roman V. Yampolskiy, Venu Govindaraju
Abstract:Functioning of a biometric system in large part depends on the performance of the similarity measure function. Frequently a generalized similarity distance measure function such as Euclidian distance or Mahalanobis distance is applied to the task of matching biometric feature vectors. However, often accuracy of a biometric system can be greatly improved by designing a customized matching algorithm optimized for a particular biometric application. In this paper we propose a tailored similarity measure function for behavioral biometric systems based on the expert knowledge of the feature level data in the domain. We compare performance of a proposed matching algorithm to that of other well known similarity distance functions and demonstrate its superiority with respect to the chosen domain.
Keywords: Behavioral Biometrics, Euclidian Distance, Matching, Similarity Measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1528
11581 Application of a Similarity Measure for Graphs to Web-based Document Structures
Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian, Max Mühlhauser
Abstract:Due to the tremendous amount of information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) developing methods for mining the structure of web-based documents is of considerable interest. In this paper we present a similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as linear integer strings, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments for solving a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. In other words: We first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem for developing a efficient graph similarity measure. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based document structures.
Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
11580 Video-Based Face Recognition Based On State-Space Model
Authors: Cheng-Chieh Chiang, Yi-Chia Chan, Greg C. Lee
This paper proposes a video-based framework for face recognition to identify which faces appear in a video sequence. Our basic idea is like a tracking task - to track a selection of person candidates over time according to the observing visual features of face images in video frames. Hence, we employ the state-space model to formulate video-based face recognition by dividing this problem into two parts: the likelihood and the transition measures. The likelihood measure is to recognize whose face is currently being observed in video frames, for which two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis is employed. The transition measure estimates the probability of changing from an incorrect recognition at the previous stage to the correct person at the current stage. Moreover, extra nodes associated with head nodes are incorporated into our proposed state-space model. The experimental results are also provided to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our proposed approach.
Keywords: 2DLDA, face recognition, state-space model, likelihood measure, transition measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1570
11579 Necessary and Sufficient Condition for the Quaternion Vector Measure
Authors: Mei Li, Fahui Zhai
Abstract:In this paper, the definitions of the quaternion measure and the quaternion vector measure are introduced. The relation between the quaternion measure and the complex vector measure as well as the relation between the quaternion linear functional and the complex linear functional are discussed respectively. By using these relations, the necessary and sufficient condition to determine the quaternion vector measure is given.
Keywords: Quaternion, Quaternion measure, Quaternion vector measure, Quaternion Banach space, Quaternion linear functional.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 760
11578 Game Skill Measure for Mixed Games
Authors: Roman V. Yampolskiy
Abstract:Games can be classified as games of skill, games of chance or otherwise be classified as mixed. This paper deals with the topic of scientifically classifying mixed games as more reliant on elements of chance or elements of skill and ways to scientifically measure the amount of skill involved. This is predominantly useful for classification of games as legal or illegal in deferent jurisdictions based on the local gaming laws. We propose a novel measure of skill to chance ratio called the Game Skill Measure (GSM) and utilize it to calculate the skill component of a popular variant of Poker.
Keywords: Chance, Game, Skill, Luck.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
11577 Theoretical Analysis of the Effect of Accounting for Special Methods in Similarity-Based Cohesion Measurement
Authors: Jehad Al Dallal
Class cohesion is an important object-oriented software quality attributes, and it refers to the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Several class cohesion measures are proposed in the literature, and the impact of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular similarity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. The study shows the importance of considering the types of methods that have to be accounted for when proposing a similarity-based cohesion measure.
Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1550
11576 Documents Emotions Classification Model Based on TF-IDF Weighting Measure
Authors: Amr Mansour Mohsen, Hesham Ahmed Hassan, Amira M. Idrees
Emotions classification of text documents is applied to reveal if the document expresses a determined emotion from its writer. As different supervised methods are previously used for emotion documents’ classification, in this research we present a novel model that supports the classification algorithms for more accurate results by the support of TF-IDF measure. Different experiments have been applied to reveal the applicability of the proposed model, the model succeeds in raising the accuracy percentage according to the determined metrics (precision, recall, and f-measure) based on applying the refinement of the lexicon, integration of lexicons using different perspectives, and applying the TF-IDF weighting measure over the classifying features. The proposed model has also been compared with other research to prove its competence in raising the results’ accuracy.
Keywords: Emotion detection, TF-IDF, WEKA tool, classification algorithms.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1431
11575 Measuring the Structural Similarity of Web-based Documents: A Novel Approach
Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian
Most known methods for measuring the structural similarity of document structures are based on, e.g., tag measures, path metrics and tree measures in terms of their DOM-Trees. Other methods measures the similarity in the framework of the well known vector space model. In contrast to these we present a new approach to measuring the structural similarity of web-based documents represented by so called generalized trees which are more general than DOM-Trees which represent only directed rooted trees.We will design a new similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as strings of linear integers, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments to solve a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. More precisely, we first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based documents.
Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2427
11574 Semi-automatic Construction of Ontology-based CBR System for Knowledge Integration
Authors: Junjie Gao, Guishi Deng
Abstract:In order to integrate knowledge in heterogeneous case-based reasoning (CBR) systems, ontology-based CBR system has become a hot topic. To solve the facing problems of ontology-based CBR system, for example, its architecture is nonstandard, reusing knowledge in legacy CBR is deficient, ontology construction is difficult, etc, we propose a novel approach for semi-automatically construct ontology-based CBR system whose architecture is based on two-layer ontology. Domain knowledge implied in legacy case bases can be mapped from relational database schema and knowledge items to relevant OWL local ontology automatically by a mapping algorithm with low time-complexity. By concept clustering based on formal concept analysis, computing concept equation measure and concept inclusion measure, some suggestions about enriching or amending concept hierarchy of OWL local ontologies are made automatically that can aid designers to achieve semi-automatic construction of OWL domain ontology. Validation of the approach is done by an application example.
Keywords: OWL ontology, Case-based Reasoning, FormalConcept Analysis, Knowledge IntegrationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1892
11573 Efficient Frontier - Comparing Different Volatility Estimators
Authors: Tea Poklepović, Zdravka Aljinović, Mario Matković
Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) according to Markowitz states that investors form mean-variance efficient portfolios which maximizes their utility. Markowitz proposed the standard deviation as a simple measure for portfolio risk and the lower semi-variance as the only risk measure of interest to rational investors. This paper uses a third volatility estimator based on intraday data and compares three efficient frontiers on the Croatian Stock Market. The results show that range-based volatility estimator outperforms both mean-variance and lower semi-variance model.
Keywords: Variance, lower semi-variance, range-based volatility.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2443
11572 Theoretical Exploration for the Impact of Accounting for Special Methods in Connectivity-Based Cohesion Measurement
Authors: Jehad Al Dallal
Class cohesion is a key object-oriented software quality attribute that is used to evaluate the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion measures. However, the effect of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular connectivity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. For each of the three connectivity-based measures, the proposed theoretical study recommended excluding the special methods in cohesion measurement.
Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1574
11571 A Comparative Analysis of E-Government Quality Models
Authors: Abdoullah Fath-Allah, Laila Cheikhi, Rafa E. Al-Qutaish, Ali Idri
Many quality models have been used to measure egovernment portals quality. However, the absence of an international consensus for e-government portals quality models results in many differences in terms of quality attributes and measures. The aim of this paper is to compare and analyze the existing e-government quality models proposed in literature (those that are based on ISO standards and those that are not) in order to propose guidelines to build a good and useful e-government portals quality model. Our findings show that, there is no e-government portal quality model based on the new international standard ISO 25010. Besides that, the quality models are not based on a best practice model to allow agencies to both; measure e-government portals quality and identify missing best practices for those portals.
Keywords: E-government, portal, best practices, quality model, ISO, standard, ISO 25010, ISO 9126.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3480
11570 A New Approach for Controlling Overhead Traveling Crane Using Rough Controller
Authors: Mazin Z. Othman
This paper presents the idea of a rough controller with application to control the overhead traveling crane system. The structure of such a controller is based on a suggested concept of a fuzzy logic controller. A measure of fuzziness in rough sets is introduced. A comparison between fuzzy logic controller and rough controller has been demonstrated. The results of a simulation comparing the performance of both controllers are shown. From these results we infer that the performance of the proposed rough controller is satisfactory.
Keywords: Accuracy measure, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Overhead Traveling Crane (OTC), Rough Set Theory (RST), Roughness measureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1587
11569 Further the Effectiveness of Software Testability Measure
Authors: Liang Zhao, Feng Wang, Bo Deng, Bo Yang
Software testability is proposed to address the problem of increasing cost of test and the quality of software. Testability measure provides a quantified way to denote the testability of software. Since 1990s, many testability measure models are proposed to address the problem. By discussing the contradiction between domain testability and domain range ratio (DRR), a new testability measure, semantic fault distance, is proposed. Its validity is discussed.
Keywords: Software testability, DRR, Domain testability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1896
11568 Unsupervised Image Segmentation Based on Fuzzy Connectedness with Sale Space Theory
Authors: Yuanjie Zheng, Jie Yang, Yue Zhou
Abstract:In this paper, we propose an approach of unsupervised segmentation with fuzzy connectedness. Valid seeds are first specified by an unsupervised method based on scale space theory. A region is then extracted for each seed with a relative object extraction method of fuzzy connectedness. Afterwards, regions are merged according to the values between them of an introduced measure. Some theorems and propositions are also provided to show the reasonableness of the measure for doing mergence. Experiment results on a synthetic image, a color image and a large amount of MR images of our method are reported.
Keywords: Image segmentation, unsupervised imagesegmentation, fuzzy connectedness, scale space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1226
11567 Undecimated Wavelet Transform Based Contrast Enhancement
Authors: Numan Unaldi, Samil Temel, Süleyman Demirci
A novel undecimated wavelet transform based contrast enhancement algorithmis proposed to for both gray scale andcolor images. Contrast enhancement is realized by tuning the magnitude of approximation coefficients at each level with respect to the approximation coefficients of one higher level during the inverse transform phase in a center/surround enhancement sense.The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using a statistical visual contrast measure (VCM). Experimental results on the proposed algorithm show improvement in terms of the VCM.
Keywords: Image enhancement, local contrast enhancement, visual contrast measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2630
11566 Project Complexity Indices based on Topology Features
Authors: Amer A. Boushaala
Abstract:The heuristic decision rules used for project scheduling will vary depending upon the project-s size, complexity, duration, personnel, and owner requirements. The concept of project complexity has received little detailed attention. The need to differentiate between easy and hard problem instances and the interest in isolating the fundamental factors that determine the computing effort required by these procedures inspired a number of researchers to develop various complexity measures. In this study, the most common measures of project complexity are presented. A new measure of project complexity is developed. The main privilege of the proposed measure is that, it considers size, shape and logic characteristics, time characteristics, resource demands and availability characteristics as well as number of critical activities and critical paths. The degree of sensitivity of the proposed measure for complexity of project networks has been tested and evaluated against the other measures of complexity of the considered fifty project networks under consideration in the current study. The developed measure showed more sensitivity to the changes in the network data and gives accurate quantified results when comparing the complexities of networks.
Keywords: Activity networks, Complexity index, Networkcomplexity measure, Network topology, Project Network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
11565 Noise Performance of Millimeter-wave Silicon Based Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time(MITATT) Diode
Authors: Aritra Acharyya, Moumita Mukherjee, J. P. Banerjee
Abstract:A generalized method for small-signal simulation of avalanche noise in Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time (MITATT) device is presented in this paper where the effect of series resistance is taken into account. The method is applied to a millimeter-wave Double Drift Region (DDR) MITATT device based on Silicon to obtain noise spectral density and noise measure as a function of frequency for different values of series resistance. It is found that noise measure of the device at the operating frequency (122 GHz) with input power density of 1010 Watt/m2 is about 35 dB for hypothetical parasitic series resistance of zero ohm (estimated junction temperature = 500 K). Results show that the noise measure increases as the value of parasitic resistance increases.
Keywords: Noise Analysis, Silicon MITATT, Admittancecharacteristics, Noise spectral density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
11564 Accurate Dimensional Measurement of 3D Round Holes Based on Stereo Vision
Authors: Zhiguo Ren, Lilong Cai
This paper present an effective method to accurately reconstruct and measure the 3D curve edges of small industrial parts based on stereo vision. To effectively fit the curve of the measured parts using a series of line segments in the images, a strategy from coarse to fine is employed based on multi-scale curve fitting. After reconstructing the 3D curve of a hole through a curved surface, its axis is adjusted so that it is parallel to the Z axis with least squares error and the dimensions of the hole can be calculated on the XY plane easily. Experimental results show that the presented method can accurately measure the dimensions of round holes through a curved surface.
Keywords: Stereo Vision, 3D Round Hole Measurement, Curve Fitting, 3D Curve Reconstruction, Least Squares Error.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1492
11563 A New Objective Weight on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets
Authors: Nurnadiah Z., Lazim A.
Abstract:The design of weight is one of the important parts in fuzzy decision making, as it would have a deep effect on the evaluation results. Entropy is one of the weight measure based on objective evaluation. Non--probabilistic-type entropy measures for fuzzy set and interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FS) have been developed and applied to weight measure. Since the entropy for (IT2FS) for decision making yet to be explored, this paper proposes a new objective weight method by using entropy weight method for multiple attribute decision making (MADM). This paper utilizes the nature of IT2FS concept in the evaluation process to assess the attribute weight based on the credibility of data. An example was presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method in decision making. The entropy measure of interval type-2 fuzzy sets yield flexible judgment and could be applied in decision making environment.
Keywords: Objective weight, entropy weight, multiple attributedecision making, type-2 fuzzy sets, interval type-2 fuzzy setsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
11562 Protein-Protein Interaction Detection Based on Substring Sensitivity Measure
Authors: Nazar Zaki, Safaai Deris, Hany Alashwal
Detecting protein-protein interactions is a central problem in computational biology and aberrant such interactions may have implicated in a number of neurological disorders. As a result, the prediction of protein-protein interactions has recently received considerable attention from biologist around the globe. Computational tools that are capable of effectively identifying protein-protein interactions are much needed. In this paper, we propose a method to detect protein-protein interaction based on substring similarity measure. Two protein sequences may interact by the mean of the similarities of the substrings they contain. When applied on the currently available protein-protein interaction data for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the proposed method delivered reasonable improvement over the existing ones.
Keywords: Protein-Protein Interaction, support vector machine, feature extraction, pairwise alignment, Smith-Waterman score.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1820
11561 Underlying Cognitive Complexity Measure Computation with Combinatorial Rules
Authors: Benjapol Auprasert, Yachai Limpiyakorn
Abstract:Measuring the complexity of software has been an insoluble problem in software engineering. Complexity measures can be used to predict critical information about testability, reliability, and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of the source code. During the past few years, many complexity measures have been invented based on the emerging Cognitive Informatics discipline. These software complexity measures, including cognitive functional size, lend themselves to the approach of the total cognitive weights of basic control structures such as loops and branches. This paper shows that the current existing calculation method can generate different results that are algebraically equivalence. However, analysis of the combinatorial meanings of this calculation method shows significant flaw of the measure, which also explains why it does not satisfy Weyuker's properties. Based on the findings, improvement directions, such as measures fusion, and cumulative variable counting scheme are suggested to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive complexity measures.
Keywords: Cognitive Complexity Measure, Cognitive Weight of Basic Control Structure, Counting Rules, Cumulative Variable Counting Scheme.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1750
11560 Graph Cuts Segmentation Approach Using a Patch-Based Similarity Measure Applied for Interactive CT Lung Image Segmentation
Authors: Aicha Majda, Abdelhamid El Hassani
Abstract:Lung CT image segmentation is a prerequisite in lung CT image analysis. Most of the conventional methods need a post-processing to deal with the abnormal lung CT scans such as lung nodules or other lesions. The simplest similarity measure in the standard Graph Cuts Algorithm consists of directly comparing the pixel values of the two neighboring regions, which is not accurate because this kind of metrics is extremely sensitive to minor transformations such as noise or other artifacts problems. In this work, we propose an improved version of the standard graph cuts algorithm based on the Patch-Based similarity metric. The boundary penalty term in the graph cut algorithm is defined Based on Patch-Based similarity measurement instead of the simple intensity measurement in the standard method. The weights between each pixel and its neighboring pixels are Based on the obtained new term. The graph is then created using theses weights between its nodes. Finally, the segmentation is completed with the minimum cut/Max-Flow algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient, and can directly provide explicit lung regions without any post-processing operations compared to the standard method.
Keywords: Graph cuts, lung CT scan, lung parenchyma segmentation, patch based similarity metric.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 593
11559 Optimal Estimation of Supporting-Ground Orientation for Multi-Segment Body Based on Otolith-Canal Fusion
Authors: Karim A. Tahboub
Abstract:This article discusses the problem of estimating the orientation of inclined ground on which a human subject stands based on information provided by the vestibular system consisting of the otolith and semicircular canals. It is assumed that body segments are not necessarily aligned and thus forming an open kinematic chain. The semicircular canals analogues to a technical gyrometer provide a measure of the angular velocity whereas the otolith analogues to a technical accelerometer provide a measure of the translational acceleration. Two solutions are proposed and discussed. The first is based on a stand-alone Kalman filter that optimally fuses the two measurements based on their dynamic characteristics and their noise properties. In this case, no body dynamic model is needed. In the second solution, a central extended disturbance observer that incorporates a body dynamic model (internal model) is employed. The merits of both solutions are discussed and demonstrated by experimental and simulation results.
Keywords: Kalman filter, orientation estimation, otolith-canalfusion, vestibular system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1346
11558 A New Measure of Herding Behavior: Derivation and Implications
Authors: Amina Amirat, Abdelfettah Bouri
Abstract:If price and quantity are the fundamental building blocks of any theory of market interactions, the importance of trading volume in understanding the behavior of financial markets is clear. However, while many economic models of financial markets have been developed to explain the behavior of prices -predictability, variability, and information content- far less attention has been devoted to explaining the behavior of trading volume. In this article, we hope to expand our understanding of trading volume by developing a new measure of herding behavior based on a cross sectional dispersion of volumes betas. We apply our measure to the Toronto stock exchange using monthly data from January 2000 to December 2002. Our findings show that the herd phenomenon consists of three essential components: stationary herding, intentional herding and the feedback herding.
Keywords: Herding behavior, market return, trading volume.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2140