Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Single Input

19 Genetic Algorithm and Padé-Moment Matching for Model Order Reduction

Authors: Shilpi Lavania, Deepak Nagaria

Abstract:

A mixed method for model order reduction is presented in this paper. The denominator polynomial is derived by matching both Markov parameters and time moments, whereas numerator polynomial derivation and error minimization is done using Genetic Algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed method can be investigated in terms of closeness of the response of reduced order model with respect to that of higher order original model and a comparison of the integral square error as well.

Keywords: Model Order Reduction (MOR), control theory, Markov parameters, time moments, genetic algorithm, Single Input Single Output (SISO).

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18 Modeling Studies for Electrocoagulation

Authors: A. Genç, R. Hacıoğlu, B. Bakırcı

Abstract:

Synthetic oily wastewaters were prepared from metal working fluids (MWF). Electrocoagulation experiments were performed under constant voltage application. The current, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were recorded on line at every 5 seconds during the experiments. Effects of applied voltage differences, electrode materials and distance between electrodes on removal efficiency have been investigated. According to the experimental results, the treatment of MWF wastewaters by iron electrodes rather than aluminum and stainless steel was much quicker; and the distance between electrodes should be less than 1cm. The electrocoagulation process was modeled by using block oriented approach and found out that it can be modeled as a single input and multiple output system. Modeling studies indicates that the electrocoagulation process has a nonlinear model structure.

Keywords: Electrocoagulation, oily wastewater, SIMO systems.

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17 Dempster-Shafer Information Filtering in Multi-Modality Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: D.M. Weeraddana, K.S. Walgama, E.C. Kulasekere

Abstract:

A framework to estimate the state of dynamically varying environment where data are generated from heterogeneous sources possessing partial knowledge about the environment is presented. This is entirely derived within Dempster-Shafer and Evidence Filtering frameworks. The belief about the current state is expressed as belief and plausibility functions. An addition to Single Input Single Output Evidence Filter, Multiple Input Single Output Evidence Filtering approach is introduced. Variety of applications such as situational estimation of an emergency environment can be developed within the framework successfully. Fire propagation scenario is used to justify the proposed framework, simulation results are presented.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer Belief theory, Evidence Filtering, Evidence Fusion, Sensor Modalities, Wireless Sensor Networks

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16 Model Order Reduction of Discrete-Time Systems Using Fuzzy C-Means Clustering

Authors: Anirudha Narain, Dinesh Chandra, Ravindra K. S.

Abstract:

A computationally simple approach of model order reduction for single input single output (SISO) and linear timeinvariant discrete systems modeled in frequency domain is proposed in this paper. Denominator of the reduced order model is determined using fuzzy C-means clustering while the numerator parameters are found by matching time moments and Markov parameters of high order system.

Keywords: Model Order reduction, Discrete-time system, Fuzzy C-Means Clustering, Padé approximation.

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15 Conventional and PSO Based Approaches for Model Reduction of SISO Discrete Systems

Authors: S. K. Tomar, R. Prasad, S. Panda, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) discrete systems into lower order model, using a conventional and an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Modified Cauer Form (MCF) and differentiation are used. In this method the original discrete system is, first, converted into equivalent continuous system by applying bilinear transformation. The denominator of the equivalent continuous system and its reciprocal are differentiated successively, the reduced denominator of the desired order is obtained by combining the differentiated polynomials. The numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of MCF. The reduced continuous system is converted back into discrete system using inverse bilinear transformation. In the evolutionary technique method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example.

Keywords: Discrete System, Single Input Single Output (SISO), Bilinear Transformation, Reduced Order Model, Modified CauerForm, Polynomial Differentiation, Particle Swarm Optimization, Integral Squared Error.

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14 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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13 A Sensorless Robust Tracking Control of an Implantable Rotary Blood Pump for Heart Failure Patients

Authors: Mohsen A. Bakouri, Andrey V. Savkin, Abdul-Hakeem H. Alomari, Robert F. Salamonsen, Einly Lim, Nigel H. Lovell

Abstract:

Physiological control of a left ventricle assist device (LVAD) is generally a complicated task due to diverse operating environments and patient variability. In this work, a tracking control algorithm based on sliding mode and feed forward control for a class of discrete-time single input single output (SISO) nonlinear uncertain systems is presented. The controller was developed to track the reference trajectory to a set operating point without inducing suction in the ventricle. The controller regulates the estimated mean pulsatile flow Qp and mean pulsatility index of pump rotational speed PIω that was generated from a model of the assist device. We recall the principle of the sliding mode control theory then we combine the feed-forward control design with the sliding mode control technique to follow the reference trajectory. The uncertainty is replaced by its upper and lower boundary. The controller was tested in a computer simulation covering two scenarios (preload and ventricular contractility). The simulation results prove the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller

Keywords: robust control system, discrete-sliding mode, left ventricularle assist devicse, pulsatility index.

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12 A Combined Conventional and Differential Evolution Method for Model Order Reduction

Authors: J. S. Yadav, N. P. Patidar, J. Singhai, S. Panda, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper a mixed method by combining an evolutionary and a conventional technique is proposed for reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM). In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued Fraction Expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. Then, retaining the numerator polynomial, the denominator polynomial is recalculated by an evolutionary technique. In the evolutionary method, the recently proposed Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is employed. DE method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. The proposed method is illustrated through a numerical example and compared with ROM where both numerator and denominator polynomials are obtained by conventional method to show its superiority.

Keywords: Reduced Order Modeling, Stability, Mihailov Stability Criterion, Continued Fraction Expansions, Differential Evolution, Integral Squared Error.

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11 MPSO based Model Order Formulation Technique for SISO Continuous Systems

Authors: S. N. Deepa, G. Sugumaran

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new version of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) namely, Modified PSO (MPSO) for model order formulation of Single Input Single Output (SISO) linear time invariant continuous systems. In the General PSO, the movement of a particle is governed by three behaviors namely inertia, cognitive and social. The cognitive behavior helps the particle to remember its previous visited best position. In Modified PSO technique split the cognitive behavior into two sections like previous visited best position and also previous visited worst position. This modification helps the particle to search the target very effectively. MPSO approach is proposed to formulate the higher order model. The method based on the minimization of error between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to the unit step input. The results obtained are compared with the earlier techniques utilized, to validate its ease of computation. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.

Keywords: Continuous System, Model Order Formulation, Modified Particle Swarm Optimization, Single Input Single Output, Transfer Function Approach

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10 Optimal Digital Pitch Aircraft Control

Authors: N. Popovich, P. Yan

Abstract:

In this paper a controller for the pitch angle of an aircraft regarding to the elevator deflection angle is designed. The way how the elevator angle affects pitching motion of the aircraft is pointed out, as well as, how a pitch controller can be applied for the aircraft to reach certain pitch angle. In this digital optimal system, the elevator deflection angle and pitching angle of the plane are considered to be input and output respectively. A single input single output (SISO) system is presented. A digital pitch aircraft control is demonstrated. A simulation for the whole system has been performed. The optimal control weighting vectors, Q and R have been determined.

Keywords: Aircraft, control, digital, optimal, Q and Rmatrices.

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9 Single Input ANC for Suppression of Breath Sound

Authors: Yunjung Lee, Pil Un Kim, Gyhyoun Lee, Jin Ho Cho, Myoung Nam Kim

Abstract:

Various sounds generated in the chest are included in auscultation sound. Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) is one of the useful techniques for biomedical signal. But the ANC is not suitable for auscultation sound. Because the ANC needs two input channels as a primary signal and a reference signals, but a stethoscope can provide just one input sound. Therefore, in this paper, it was proposed the Single Input ANC (SIANC) for suppression of breath sound in a cardiac auscultation sound. For the SIANC, it was proposed that the reference generation system which included Heart Sound Detector, Control and Reference Generator. By experiment and comparison, it was confirmed that the proposed SIANC was efficient for heart sound enhancement and it was independent of variations of a heartbeat.

Keywords: Adaptive noise canceller, Auscultation, Breath soundsuppression, Signal enhancement.

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8 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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7 Model Reduction of Linear Systems by Conventional and Evolutionary Techniques

Authors: S. Panda, S. K. Tomar, R. Prasad, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM), using a conventional and an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued fraction expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. In the evolutionary technique method Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example.

Keywords: Reduced Order Modeling, Stability, Continued Fraction Expansions, Mihailov Stability Criterion, Particle Swarm Optimization, Integral Squared Error.

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6 New Analysis Methods on Strict Avalanche Criterion of S-Boxes

Authors: Phyu Phyu Mar, Khin Maung Latt

Abstract:

S-boxes (Substitution boxes) are keystones of modern symmetric cryptosystems (block ciphers, as well as stream ciphers). S-boxes bring nonlinearity to cryptosystems and strengthen their cryptographic security. They are used for confusion in data security An S-box satisfies the strict avalanche criterion (SAC), if and only if for any single input bit of the S-box, the inversion of it changes each output bit with probability one half. If a function (cryptographic transformation) is complete, then each output bit depends on all of the input bits. Thus, if it were possible to find the simplest Boolean expression for each output bit in terms of the input bits, each of these expressions would have to contain all of the input bits if the function is complete. From some important properties of S-box, the most interesting property SAC (Strict Avalanche Criterion) is presented and to analyze this property three analysis methods are proposed.

Keywords: S-boxes, cryptosystems, strict avalanche criterion, function, analysis methods.

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5 A Method for Modeling Multiple Antenna Channels

Authors: S. Rajabi, M. ArdebiliPoor, M. Shahabadi

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a method for modeling the correlation between the received signals by two or more antennas operating in a multipath environment. Considering the maximum excess delay in the channel being modeled, an elliptical region surrounding both transmitter and receiver antennas is produced. A number of scatterers are randomly distributed in this region and scatter the incoming waves. The amplitude and phase of incoming waves are computed and used to obtain statistical properties of the received signals. This model has the distinguishable advantage of being applicable for any configuration of antennas. Furthermore the common PDF (Probability Distribution Function) of received wave amplitudes for any pair of antennas can be calculated and used to produce statistical parameters of received signals.

Keywords: MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), SIMO (Single Input Multiple Output), GBSBEM (Geometrically Based Single Bounce Elliptical Model).

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4 Improved Root-Mean-Square-Gain-Combining for SIMO Channels

Authors: Rania Minkara, Jean-Pierre Dubois

Abstract:

The major problem that wireless communication systems undergo is multipath fading caused by scattering of the transmitted signal. However, we can treat multipath propagation as multiple channels between the transmitter and receiver to improve the signal-to-scattering-noise ratio. While using Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) systems, the diversity receivers extract multiple signal branches or copies of the same signal received from different channels and apply gain combining schemes such as Root Mean Square Gain Combining (RMSGC). RMSGC asymptotically yields an identical performance to that of the theoretically optimal Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) for values of mean Signal-to- Noise-Ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold value without the need for SNR estimation. This paper introduces an improvement of RMSGC using two different issues. We found that post-detection and de-noising the received signals improve the performance of RMSGC and lower the threshold SNR.

Keywords: Bit error rate, de-noising, pre-detection, root-meansquare gain combining, single-input multiple-output channels.

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3 Control of Vibrations in Flexible Smart Structures using Fast Output Sampling Feedback Technique

Authors: T.C. Manjunath, B. Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

This paper features the modeling and design of a Fast Output Sampling (FOS) Feedback control technique for the Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a smart flexible aluminium cantilever beam for a Single Input Single Output (SISO) case. Controllers are designed for the beam by bonding patches of piezoelectric layer as sensor / actuator to the master structure at different locations along the length of the beam by retaining the first 2 dominant vibratory modes. The entire structure is modeled in state space form using the concept of piezoelectric theory, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Finite Element Method (FEM) and the state space techniques by dividing the structure into 3, 4, 5 finite elements, thus giving rise to three types of systems, viz., system 1 (beam divided into 3 finite elements), system 2 (4 finite elements), system 3 (5 finite elements). The effect of placing the sensor / actuator at various locations along the length of the beam for all the 3 types of systems considered is observed and the conclusions are drawn for the best performance and for the smallest magnitude of the control input required to control the vibrations of the beam. Simulations are performed in MATLAB. The open loop responses, closed loop responses and the tip displacements with and without the controller are obtained and the performance of the proposed smart system is evaluated for vibration control.

Keywords: Smart structure, Finite element method, State spacemodel, Euler-Bernoulli theory, SISO model, Fast output sampling, Vibration control, LMI

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2 Neural Network Tuned Fuzzy Controller for MIMO System

Authors: Seema Chopra, R. Mitra, Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural network tuned fuzzy controller is proposed for controlling Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. For the convenience of analysis, the structure of MIMO fuzzy controller is divided into single input single-output (SISO) controllers for controlling each degree of freedom. Secondly, according to the characteristics of the system-s dynamics coupling, an appropriate coupling fuzzy controller is incorporated to improve the performance. The simulation analysis on a two-level mass–spring MIMO vibration system is carried out and results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller. The performance though improved, the computational time and memory used is comparatively higher, because it has four fuzzy reasoning blocks and number may increase in case of other MIMO system. Then a fuzzy neural network is designed from a set of input-output training data to reduce the computing burden during implementation. This control strategy can not only simplify the implementation problem of fuzzy control, but also reduce computational time and consume less memory.

Keywords: Fuzzy Control, Neural Network, MIMO System, Optimization of Membership functions.

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1 Mathematical Modeling of SISO based Timoshenko Structures – A Case Study

Authors: T.C. Manjunath, Student Member, B. Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

This paper features the mathematical modeling of a single input single output based Timoshenko smart beam. Further, this mathematical model is used to design a multirate output feedback based discrete sliding mode controller using Bartoszewicz law to suppress the flexural vibrations. The first 2 dominant vibratory modes is retained. Here, an application of the discrete sliding mode control in smart systems is presented. The algorithm uses a fast output sampling based sliding mode control strategy that would avoid the use of switching in the control input and hence avoids chattering. This method does not need the measurement of the system states for feedback as it makes use of only the output samples for designing the controller. Thus, this methodology is more practical and easy to implement.

Keywords: Smart structure, Timoshenko beam theory, Discretesliding mode control, Bartoszewicz law, Finite Element Method, State space model, Vibration control, Mathematical model, SISO.

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