Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7960

Search results for: Self-Organizing Maps method (SOM)

7960 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Classification in RGB Images

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Ahad Salimi, Nazanin Barhemmat, Babak Gholami

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks have gained a lot of interest as empirical models for their powerful representational capacity, multi input and output mapping characteristics. In fact, most feedforward networks with nonlinear nodal functions have been proved to be universal approximates. In this paper, we propose a new supervised method for color image classification based on selforganizing feature maps (SOFM). This algorithm is based on competitive learning. The method partitions the input space using self-organizing feature maps to introduce the concept of local neighborhoods. Our image classification system entered into RGB image. Experiments with simulated data showed that separability of classes increased when increasing training time. In additional, the result shows proposed algorithms are effective for color image classification.

Keywords: Classification, SOFM, neural network, RGB images.

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7959 Automatically-generated Concept Maps as a Learning Tool

Authors: Xia Lin

Abstract:

Concept maps can be generated manually or automatically. It is important to recognize differences of the two types of concept maps. The automatically generated concept maps are dynamic, interactive, and full of associations between the terms on the maps and the underlying documents. Through a specific concept mapping system, Visual Concept Explorer (VCE), this paper discusses how automatically generated concept maps are different from manually generated concept maps and how different applications and learning opportunities might be created with the automatically generated concept maps. The paper presents several examples of learning strategies that take advantages of the automatically generated concept maps for concept learning and exploration.

Keywords: Concept maps, Dynamic concept representation, learning strategies, visual interface, Visual Concept Explorer.

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7958 Self Organizing Analysis Platform for Wear Particle

Authors: Qurban A. Memon, Mohammad S. Laghari

Abstract:

Integration of system process information obtained through an image processing system with an evolving knowledge database to improve the accuracy and predictability of wear particle analysis is the main focus of the paper. The objective is to automate intelligently the analysis process of wear particle using classification via self organizing maps. This is achieved using relationship measurements among corresponding attributes of various measurements for wear particle. Finally, visualization technique is proposed that helps the viewer in understanding and utilizing these relationships that enable accurate diagnostics.

Keywords: Neural Network, Relationship Measurement, Selforganizing Clusters, Wear Particle Analysis.

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7957 Approximately Jordan Maps and Their Stability

Authors: Nasrin Eghbali

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the approximate Jordan maps and boundedness of these maps. Also we investigate the stability of approximate Jordan maps and prove some stability properties for approximate Jordan maps.

Keywords: Approximate Jordan map, stability.

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7956 Complexity of Multivalued Maps

Authors: David Sherwell, Vivien Visaya

Abstract:

We consider the topological entropy of maps that in general, cannot be described by one-dimensional dynamics. In particular, we show that for a multivalued map F generated by singlevalued maps, the topological entropy of any of the single-value map bounds the topological entropy of F from below.

Keywords: Multivalued maps, Topological entropy, Selectors

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7955 The Stability of Almost n-multiplicative Maps in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

Authors: E. Ansari-Piri, N. Eghbali

Abstract:

Let A and B be two linear algebras. A linear map ϕ : A → B is called an n-homomorphism if ϕ(a1...an) = ϕ(a1)...ϕ(an) for all a1, ..., an ∈ A. In this note we have a verification on the behavior of almost n-multiplicative linear maps with n > 2 in the fuzzy normed spaces

Keywords: Almost multiplicative maps, n-homomorphism maps, almost n-multiplicative maps, fuzzy normed space, stability.

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7954 Big Bang – Big Crunch Learning Method for Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Engin Yesil, Leon Urbas

Abstract:

Modeling of complex dynamic systems, which are very complicated to establish mathematical models, requires new and modern methodologies that will exploit the existing expert knowledge, human experience and historical data. Fuzzy cognitive maps are very suitable, simple, and powerful tools for simulation and analysis of these kinds of dynamic systems. However, human experts are subjective and can handle only relatively simple fuzzy cognitive maps; therefore, there is a need of developing new approaches for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps using historical data. In this study, a new learning algorithm, which is called Big Bang-Big Crunch, is proposed for the first time in literature for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps from data. Two real-world examples; namely a process control system and radiation therapy process, and one synthetic model are used to emphasize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization, Dynamic Systems, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Learning.

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7953 Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps as a New Method for Determination of Salt Composition of Multi-Component Solutions

Authors: Sergey A. Burikov, Tatiana A. Dolenko, Kirill A. Gushchin, Sergey A. Dolenko

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of clusterization by Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) applied for analysis of array of Raman spectra of multi-component solutions of inorganic salts, for determination of types of salts present in the solution. It is demonstrated that use of SOM is a promising method for solution of clusterization and classification problems in spectroscopy of multicomponent objects, as attributing a pattern to some cluster may be used for recognition of component composition of the object.

Keywords: Kohonen self-organizing maps, clusterization, multicomponent solutions, Raman spectroscopy.

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7952 Research Topic Map Construction

Authors: Hei-Chia Wang, Che-Tsung Yang

Abstract:

While the explosive increase in information published on the Web, researchers have to filter information when searching for conference related information. To make it easier for users to search related information, this paper uses Topic Maps and social information to implement ontology since ontology can provide the formalisms and knowledge structuring for comprehensive and transportable machine understanding that digital information requires. Besides enhancing information in Topic Maps, this paper proposes a method of constructing research Topic Maps considering social information. First, extract conference data from the web. Then extract conference topics and the relationships between them through the proposed method. Finally visualize it for users to search and browse. This paper uses ontology, containing abundant of knowledge hierarchy structure, to facilitate researchers getting useful search results. However, most previous ontology construction methods didn-t take “people" into account. So this paper also analyzes the social information which helps researchers find the possibilities of cooperation/combination as well as associations between research topics, and tries to offer better results.

Keywords: Ontology, topic maps, social information, co-authorship.

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7951 Investigation of Some Methodologies in Providing Erosion Maps of Surface, Rill and Gully and Erosion Features

Authors: A. Mohammadi Torkashvand, N. Haghighat

Abstract:

Some methodologies were compared in providing erosion maps of surface, rill and gully and erosion features, in research which took place in the Varamin sub-basin, north-east Tehran, Iran. A photomorphic unit map was produced from processed satellite images, and four other maps were prepared by the integration of different data layers, including slope, plant cover, geology, land use, rocks erodibility and land units. Comparison of ground truth maps of erosion types and working unit maps indicated that the integration of land use, land units and rocks erodibility layers with satellite image photomorphic units maps provide the best methods in producing erosion types maps.

Keywords: Erosion Features, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing.

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7950 Estimating an Optimal Neighborhood Size in the Spherical Self-Organizing Feature Map

Authors: Alexandros Leontitsis, Archana P. Sangole

Abstract:

This article presents a short discussion on optimum neighborhood size selection in a spherical selforganizing feature map (SOFM). A majority of the literature on the SOFMs have addressed the issue of selecting optimal learning parameters in the case of Cartesian topology SOFMs. However, the use of a Spherical SOFM suggested that the learning aspects of Cartesian topology SOFM are not directly translated. This article presents an approach on how to estimate the neighborhood size of a spherical SOFM based on the data. It adopts the L-curve criterion, previously suggested for choosing the regularization parameter on problems of linear equations where their right-hand-side is contaminated with noise. Simulation results are presented on two artificial 4D data sets of the coupled Hénon-Ikeda map.

Keywords: Parameter estimation, self-organizing feature maps, spherical topology.

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7949 Predictive Clustering Hybrid Regression(pCHR) Approach and Its Application to Sucrose-Based Biohydrogen Production

Authors: Nikhil, Ari Visa, Chin-Chao Chen, Chiu-Yue Lin, Jaakko A. Puhakka, Olli Yli-Harja

Abstract:

A predictive clustering hybrid regression (pCHR) approach was developed and evaluated using dataset from H2- producing sucrose-based bioreactor operated for 15 months. The aim was to model and predict the H2-production rate using information available about envirome and metabolome of the bioprocess. Selforganizing maps (SOM) and Sammon map were used to visualize the dataset and to identify main metabolic patterns and clusters in bioprocess data. Three metabolic clusters: acetate coupled with other metabolites, butyrate only, and transition phases were detected. The developed pCHR model combines principles of k-means clustering, kNN classification and regression techniques. The model performed well in modeling and predicting the H2-production rate with mean square error values of 0.0014 and 0.0032, respectively.

Keywords: Biohydrogen, bioprocess modeling, clusteringhybrid regression.

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7948 Analysis and Design Business Directory for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises using Google Maps API and Multimedia

Authors: Suselo Thomas, Suyoto, Dwiandiyanta B. Yudi

Abstract:

This paper explain about analysis and design a business directory for micro-scale businesses, small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Business Directory, if implemented will facilitate and optimize the access of SMEs to ease suppliers access to marketing. Business Directory will be equipped with the power of geocoding, so each location can be easily viewed SMEs on the map. The map will be constructed by using the functionality of a webbased Google Maps API. The information presented in the form of multimedia that can be more interesting and interactive. The method used to achieve the goal are: observation; interviews; modeling and classifying business directory for SMEs.

Keywords: Business directories, SMEs, Google maps API, multimedia, geocoding ommas.

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7947 Digital Geomatics Trends for Production and Updating Topographic Map by Using Digital Generalization Procedures

Authors: O. Z. Jasim

Abstract:

An accuracy digital map must satisfy the users for two main requirements, first, map must be visually readable and second, all the map elements must be in a good representation. These two requirements hold especially true for map generalization which aims at simplifying the representation of cartographic data. Different scales of maps are very important for any decision in any maps with different scales such as master plan and all the infrastructures maps in civil engineering. Cartographer cannot project the data onto a piece of paper, but he has to worry about its readability. The map layout of any geodatabase is very important, this layout is help to read, analyze or extract information from the map. There are many principles and guidelines of generalization that can be find in the cartographic literature. A manual reduction method for generalization depends on experience of map maker and therefore produces incompatible results. Digital generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapping fields. This project is intended to review the state of the art of the new technology and help to understand the needs and plans for the implementation of digital generalization capability as well as increase the knowledge of production topographic maps.

Keywords: Cartography, digital generalization, mapping, GIS.

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7946 Particle Filter Applied to Noisy Synchronization in Polynomial Chaotic Maps

Authors: Moussa Yahia, Pascal Acco, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

Polynomial maps offer analytical properties used to obtain better performances in the scope of chaos synchronization under noisy channels. This paper presents a new method to simplify equations of the Exact Polynomial Kalman Filter (ExPKF) given in [1]. This faster algorithm is compared to other estimators showing that performances of all considered observers vanish rapidly with the channel noise making application of chaos synchronization intractable. Simulation of ExPKF shows that saturation drawn on the emitter to keep it stable impacts badly performances for low channel noise. Then we propose a particle filter that outperforms all other Kalman structured observers in the case of noisy channels.

Keywords: Chaos synchronization, Saturation, Fast ExPKF, Particlefilter, Polynomial maps.

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7945 A Safety Analysis Method for Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Ching Louis Liu, Edmund Kazmierczak, Tim Miller

Abstract:

Safety analysis for multi-agent systems is complicated by the, potentially nonlinear, interactions between agents. This paper proposes a method for analyzing the safety of multi-agent systems by explicitly focusing on interactions and the accident data of systems that are similar in structure and function to the system being analyzed. The method creates a Bayesian network using the accident data from similar systems. A feature of our method is that the events in accident data are labeled with HAZOP guide words. Our method uses an Ontology to abstract away from the details of a multi-agent implementation. Using the ontology, our methods then constructs an “Interaction Map,” a graphical representation of the patterns of interactions between agents and other artifacts. Interaction maps combined with statistical data from accidents and the HAZOP classifications of events can be converted into a Bayesian Network. Bayesian networks allow designers to explore “what it” scenarios and make design trade-offs that maintain safety. We show how to use the Bayesian networks, and the interaction maps to improve multi-agent system designs.

Keywords: Multi-agent system, safety analysis, safety model.

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7944 Reducing Cognitive Load in Learning Computer Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Many difficulties are faced in the process of learning computer programming. This paper will propose a system framework intended to reduce cognitive load in learning programming. In first section focus is given on the process of learning and the shortcomings of the current approaches to learning programming. Finally the proposed prototype is suggested along with the justification of the prototype. In the proposed prototype the concept map is used as visualization metaphor. Concept maps are similar to the mental schema in long term memory and hence it can reduce cognitive load well. In addition other method such as part code method is also proposed in this framework to can reduce cognitive load.

Keywords: Cognitive load, concept maps, working memory, split attention effect, partial code programs.

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7943 Application of Geographic Information Systems(GIS) in the History of Cartography

Authors: Bangbo Hu

Abstract:

This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in the field of the history of cartography by examples, including assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps. GIS provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition, several historical geographical information systems are introduced. These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems (CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps is also discussed in this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals value of GIS applications in this field.

Keywords: Cartography, GIS, history, maps.

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7942 Using Data Mining for Learning and Clustering FCM

Authors: Somayeh Alizadeh, Mehdi Ghazanfari, Mohammad Fathian

Abstract:

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have successfully been applied in numerous domains to show relations between essential components. In some FCM, there are more nodes, which related to each other and more nodes means more complex in system behaviors and analysis. In this paper, a novel learning method used to construct FCMs based on historical data and by using data mining and DEMATEL method, a new method defined to reduce nodes number. This method cluster nodes in FCM based on their cause and effect behaviors.

Keywords: Clustering, Data Mining, Fuzzy Cognitive Map(FCM), Learning.

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7941 Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps for the Automatic Artifact Rejection from EEG Data

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to improve the efficiency and the reliability of the automatic artifact rejection, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Artifact rejection is a key topic in signal processing. The artifacts are unwelcome signals that may occur during the signal acquisition and that may alter the analysis of the signals themselves. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we enhance this technique introducing the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested exploiting the Independent Component scalp maps and it was compared to the performance of the method in literature and it showed to outperform it.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, independent component analysis, kurtosis.

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7940 Customer Segmentation Model in E-commerce Using Clustering Techniques and LRFM Model: The Case of Online Stores in Morocco

Authors: Rachid Ait daoud, Abdellah Amine, Belaid Bouikhalene, Rachid Lbibb

Abstract:

Given the increase in the number of e-commerce sites, the number of competitors has become very important. This means that companies have to take appropriate decisions in order to meet the expectations of their customers and satisfy their needs. In this paper, we present a case study of applying LRFM (length, recency, frequency and monetary) model and clustering techniques in the sector of electronic commerce with a view to evaluating customers’ values of the Moroccan e-commerce websites and then developing effective marketing strategies. To achieve these objectives, we adopt LRFM model by applying a two-stage clustering method. In the first stage, the self-organizing maps method is used to determine the best number of clusters and the initial centroid. In the second stage, kmeans method is applied to segment 730 customers into nine clusters according to their L, R, F and M values. The results show that the cluster 6 is the most important cluster because the average values of L, R, F and M are higher than the overall average value. In addition, this study has considered another variable that describes the mode of payment used by customers to improve and strengthen clusters’ analysis. The clusters’ analysis demonstrates that the payment method is one of the key indicators of a new index which allows to assess the level of customers’ confidence in the company's Website.

Keywords: Customer value, LRFM model, Cluster analysis, Self-Organizing Maps method (SOM), K-means algorithm, loyalty.

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7939 Topology Preservation in SOM

Authors: E. Arsuaga Uriarte, F. Díaz Martín

Abstract:

The SOM has several beneficial features which make it a useful method for data mining. One of the most important features is the ability to preserve the topology in the projection. There are several measures that can be used to quantify the goodness of the map in order to obtain the optimal projection, including the average quantization error and many topological errors. Many researches have studied how the topology preservation should be measured. One option consists of using the topographic error which considers the ratio of data vectors for which the first and second best BMUs are not adjacent. In this work we present a study of the behaviour of the topographic error in different kinds of maps. We have found that this error devaluates the rectangular maps and we have studied the reasons why this happens. Finally, we suggest a new topological error to improve the deficiency of the topographic error.

Keywords: Map lattice, Self-Organizing Map, topographic error, topology preservation.

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7938 Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking

Authors: T. K. Tee, M. N. A. Azman, S. Mohamed, Muhammad, M., M. M. Mohamad, J. Md Yunos, M. H. Yee, W. Othman

Abstract:

Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Buzan Mind Mapping, note-taking technique, hand-drawn mind maps.

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7937 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: Deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming.

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7936 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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7935 A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Authors: M. Hamdi, R. Rhouma, S. Belghith

Abstract:

Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Keywords: Chaotic map, Cryptography, Random Numbers, Statistical tests, S-box.

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7934 On Tarski’s Type Theorems for L-Fuzzy Isotone and L-Fuzzy Relatively Isotone Maps on L-Complete Propelattices

Authors: František Včelař, Zuzana Pátíková

Abstract:

Recently a new type of very general relational structures, the so called (L-)complete propelattices, was introduced. These significantly generalize complete lattices and completely lattice L-ordered sets, because they do not assume the technically very strong property of transitivity. For these structures also the main part of the original Tarski’s fixed point theorem holds for (L-fuzzy) isotone maps, i.e., the part which concerns the existence of fixed points and the structure of their set. In this paper, fundamental properties of (L-)complete propelattices are recalled and the so called L-fuzzy relatively isotone maps are introduced. For these maps it is proved that they also have fixed points in L-complete propelattices, even if their set does not have to be of an awaited analogous structure of a complete propelattice.

Keywords: Fixed point, L-complete propelattice, L-fuzzy (relatively) isotone map, residuated lattice, transitivity.

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7933 Using a Semantic Self-Organising Web Page-Ranking Mechanism for Public Administration and Education

Authors: Marios Poulos, Sozon Papavlasopoulos, V. S. Belesiotis

Abstract:

In the proposed method for Web page-ranking, a novel theoretic model is introduced and tested by examples of order relationships among IP addresses. Ranking is induced using a convexity feature, which is learned according to these examples using a self-organizing procedure. We consider the problem of selforganizing learning from IP data to be represented by a semi-random convex polygon procedure, in which the vertices correspond to IP addresses. Based on recent developments in our regularization theory for convex polygons and corresponding Euclidean distance based methods for classification, we develop an algorithmic framework for learning ranking functions based on a Computational Geometric Theory. We show that our algorithm is generic, and present experimental results explaining the potential of our approach. In addition, we explain the generality of our approach by showing its possible use as a visualization tool for data obtained from diverse domains, such as Public Administration and Education.

Keywords: Computational Geometry, Education, e-Governance, Semantic Web.

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7932 A Comparative Study on Seismic Provisions Made in UBC-1997 and Saudi Building Code for RC Buildings

Authors: S. Nazar, M. A. Ismaeil

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of static analysis procedure for seismic performance based on UBC-1997 and SBC-301-2007(Saudi Arabia). These building codes define different ductility classes and corresponding response reduction factors based on material, configuration and detailing of reinforcements. Codes differ significantly in specifying the procedures to estimate base shear, drift and effective stiffness of structural members. One of the major improvements made in new SBC (based on IBC-2003) is ground motion parameters used for seismic design. In old SBC (based on UBC) maps have been based on seismic zones. However new SBC provide contour maps giving spectral response quantities. In this approach, a case study of RC frame building located in two different cities and with different ductility classes has been performed. Moreover, equivalent static method based on SBC-301 and UBC-1997 is used to explore the variation in results based on two codes, particularly design base shear, lateral loads and story drifts.

Keywords: Ductility Classes, Equivalent Static method, RC Frames, SBC-301-2007, Story drifts, UBC-1997.

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7931 Knowledge Based Concept Analysis Method using Concept Maps and UML: Security Notion Case

Authors: Miquel Colobran, Josep M. Basart

Abstract:

One of the most ancient humankind concerns is knowledge formalization i.e. what a concept is. Concept Analysis, a branch of analytical philosophy, relies on the purpose of decompose the elements, relations and meanings of a concept. This paper aims at presenting a method to make a concept analysis obtaining a knowledge representation suitable to be processed by a computer system using either object-oriented or ontology technologies. Security notion is, usually, known as a set of different concepts related to “some kind of protection". Our method concludes that a more general framework for the concept, despite it is dynamic, is possible and any particular definition (instantiation) depends on the elements used by its construction instead of the concept itself.

Keywords: Concept analysis, Knowledge representation, Security, UML.

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