Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 151

Search results for: Satellite attitude

151 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion

Authors: Sadaoui Djaouida

Abstract:

In the paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.

Keywords: Predictive control, Synchronization, Satellite attitude.

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150 Stabilization and Observation of Attitude Control Systems for Micro Satellites

Authors: A. Elakkary, A. Echchatbi, N. Elalami

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in attitude control of a satellite, which using wheels of reaction, by state feedback. First, we develop a method allowing us to put the control and its integral in the state-feedback form. Then, by using the theorem of Gronwall- Bellman, we put the sufficient conditions so that the nonlinear system modeling the satellite is stabilisable and observed by state feedback.

Keywords: Satellite, attitude control, state feedback, attitude stabilization.

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149 Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Attitude Controller for an Uncoupled Flexible Satellite Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Martha C. Orazulume, Jibril D. Jiya

Abstract:

Flexible satellites are equipped with various appendages which vibrate under the influence of any excitation and make the attitude of the satellite to be unstable. Therefore, the system must be able to adjust to balance the effect of these appendages in order to point accurately and satisfactorily which is one of the most important problems in satellite design. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller is simple to design and computationally efficient to implement which is used to stabilize the effect of these flexible appendages. However, manual turning of the PID is time consuming, waste energy and money. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of PID Controller. Simulation results obtained show that PSO tuned PID Controller is able to re-orient the spacecraft attitude as well as dampen the effect of mechanical resonance and yields better performance when compared with manually tuned PID Controller.

Keywords: Attitude control, flexible satellite, particle swarm optimization, PID controller.

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148 Robust UKF Insensitive to Measurement Faults for Pico Satellite Attitude Estimation

Authors: Halil Ersin Soken, Chingiz Hajiyev

Abstract:

In the normal operation conditions of a pico satellite, conventional Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) gives sufficiently good estimation results. However, if the measurements are not reliable because of any kind of malfunction in the estimation system, UKF gives inaccurate results and diverges by time. This study, introduces Robust Unscented Kalman Filter (RUKF) algorithms with the filter gain correction for the case of measurement malfunctions. By the use of defined variables named as measurement noise scale factor, the faulty measurements are taken into the consideration with a small weight and the estimations are corrected without affecting the characteristic of the accurate ones. Two different RUKF algorithms, one with single scale factor and one with multiple scale factors, are proposed and applied for the attitude estimation process of a pico satellite. The results of these algorithms are compared for different types of measurement faults in different estimation scenarios and recommendations about their applications are given.

Keywords: attitude algorithms, Kalman filters, robustestimation.

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147 Small Satellite Modelling and Attitude Control Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Amirhossein Asadabadi, Amir Anvar

Abstract:

Small satellites have become increasingly popular recently as a means of providing educational institutes with the chance to design, construct, and test their spacecraft from beginning to the possible launch due to the low launching cost. This approach is remarkably cost saving because of the weight and size reduction of such satellites. Weight reduction could be realised by utilising electromagnetic coils solely, instead of different types of actuators. This paper describes the restrictions of using only “Electromagnetic" actuation for 3D stabilisation and how to make the magnetorquer based attitude control feasible using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The design is developed to stabilize the spacecraft against gravity gradient disturbances with a three-axis stabilizing capability.

Keywords: Fuzzy, Attitude Control, Small Satellite, Fuzzy Logic Control, Electromagnetic, Magnetic Control.

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146 Exploring the Ambiguity Resolution in Spacecraft Attitude Determination Using GNSS Phase Measurement

Authors: Lv Meibo, Naqvi Najam Abbas, Li YanJun

Abstract:

Attitude Determination (AD) of a spacecraft using the phase measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is an active area of research. Various attitude determination algorithms have been developed in yester years for spacecrafts using different sensors but the last two decades have witnessed a phenomenal increase in research related with GPS receivers as a stand-alone sensor for determining the attitude of satellite using the phase measurements of the signals from GNSS. The GNSS-based Attitude determination algorithms have been experimented in many real missions. The problem of AD algorithms using GNSS phase measurements has two important parts; the ambiguity resolution and the determining of attitude. Ambiguity resolution is the widely addressed topic in literature for implementing the AD algorithm using GNSS phase measurements for achieving the accuracy of millimeter level. This paper broadly overviews the different techniques for resolving the integer ambiguities encountered in AD using GNSS phase measurements.

Keywords: Attitude Determination, Ambiguity Resolution, GNSS, LAMBDA Method, Satellite.

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145 Detection of Actuator Faults for an Attitude Control System using Neural Network

Authors: S. Montenegro, W. Hu

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop a neural network-based residual generator to detect the fault in the actuators for a specific communication satellite in its attitude control system (ACS). First, a dynamic multilayer perceptron network with dynamic neurons is used, those neurons correspond a second order linear Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter and a nonlinear activation function with adjustable parameters. Second, the parameters from the network are adjusted to minimize a performance index specified by the output estimated error, with the given input-output data collected from the specific ACS. Then, the proposed dynamic neural network is trained and applied for detecting the faults injected to the wheel, which is the main actuator in the normal mode for the communication satellite. Then the performance and capabilities of the proposed network were tested and compared with a conventional model-based observer residual, showing the differences between these two methods, and indicating the benefit of the proposed algorithm to know the real status of the momentum wheel. Finally, the application of the methods in a satellite ground station is discussed.

Keywords: Satellite, Attitude Control, Momentum Wheel, Neural Network, Fault Detection.

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144 Undergraduate Students’ Attitude towards the Statistics Course

Authors: Somruay Apichatibutarapong

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to address and comparison of the attitudes towards the statistics course for undergraduate students. Data were collected from 120 students in Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who enrolled in the statistics course. The quantitative approach was used to investigate the assessment and comparison of attitudes towards statistics course. It was revealed that the overall attitudes somewhat agree both in pre-test and post-test. In addition, the comparison of students’ attitudes towards the statistic course (Form A) has no difference in the overall attitudes. However, there is statistical significance in all dimensions and overall attitudes towards the statistics course (Form B).

Keywords: Statistics attitude, Student’s attitude, Statistics, Attitude test.

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143 Predictive Fuzzy Logic Controller for Agile Micro-Satellite

Authors: A. Bellar, M.K. Fellah, A.M. Si Mohammed, M. Bensaada, L. Boukhris

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of the predictive fuzzy logic controller (PFLC) applied to attitude control system for agile micro-satellite. In order to reduce the effect of unpredictable time delays and large uncertainties, the algorithm employs predictive control to predict the attitude of the satellite. Comparison of the PFLC and conventional fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is presented to evaluate the performance of the control system during attitude maneuver. The two proposed models have been analyzed with the same level of noise and external disturbances. Simulation results demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of the PFLC on the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) of agile satellite.

Keywords: Agile micro-satellite, Attitude control, fuzzy logic, predictive control

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142 Development of Precise Ephemeris Generation Module for Thaichote Satellite Operations

Authors: Manop Aorpimai, Ponthep Navakitkanok

Abstract:

In this paper, the development of the ephemeris generation module used for the Thaichote satellite operations is presented. It is a vital part of the flight dynamics system, which comprises, the orbit determination, orbit propagation, event prediction and station-keeping maneouvre modules. In the generation of the spacecraft ephemeris data, the estimated orbital state vector from the orbit determination module is used as an initial condition. The equations of motion are then integrated forward in time to predict the satellite states. The higher geopotential harmonics, as well as other disturbing forces, are taken into account to resemble the environment in low-earth orbit. Using a highly accurate numerical integrator based on the Burlish-Stoer algorithm the ephemeris data can be generated for long-term predictions, by using a relatively small computation burden and short calculation time. Some events occurring during the prediction course that are related to the mission operations, such as the satellite’s rise/set viewed from the ground station, Earth and Moon eclipses, the drift in groundtrack as well as the drift in the local solar time of the orbital plane are all detected and reported. When combined with other modules to form a flight dynamics system, this application is aimed to be applied for the Thaichote satellite and successive Thailand’s Earth-observation missions. 

Keywords: Flight Dynamics System, Orbit Propagation, Satellite Ephemeris, Thailand’s Earth Observation Satellite.

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141 Research on the Strategy of Orbital Avoidance for Optical Remote Sensing Satellite

Authors: Zheng Dian Xun, Cheng Bo, Lin Hetong

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the orbit avoidance strategy of the optical remote sensing satellite. The optical remote sensing satellite, moving along the Sun-synchronous orbit, is equipped with laser warning equipment to alert CCD camera from laser attacks. This paper explores the strategy of satellite avoidance to protect the CCD camera and also the satellite. The satellite could evasive to several target points in the orbital coordinates of virtual satellite. The so-called virtual satellite is a passive vehicle which superposes the satellite at the initial stage of avoidance. The target points share the consistent cycle time and the same semi-major axis with the virtual satellite, which ensures the properties of the satellite’s Sun-synchronous orbit remain unchanged. Moreover, to further strengthen the avoidance capability of satellite, it can perform multi-target-points avoid maneuvers. On occasions of fulfilling the satellite orbit tasks, the orbit can be restored back to virtual satellite through orbit maneuvers. There into, the avoid maneuvers adopts pulse guidance. In addition, the fuel consumption is optimized. The avoidance strategy discussed in this article is applicable to optical remote sensing satellite when it is encountered with hostile attack of space-based laser anti-satellite.

Keywords: Optical remote sensing satellite, satellite avoidance, virtual satellite, avoid target-point, avoid maneuver.

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140 An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload

Authors: V. Vicente E. Mujica, Gustavo Gonzalez

Abstract:

The global coverage of broadband multimedia and internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays. In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite in order to define a discretization function for determining that delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the development of a delay discretization function are together validated by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial data points of processing delay for Ku bands.

Keywords: Terrestrial-satellite networks, latency, on-orbit satellite payload, simulation.

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139 Compatibility of Integrated Satellite Systems with Another Satellite System Operating in Adjacent Beam

Authors: Hyemi Gam, Dae-Sub Oh, Bon-Jun Ku

Abstract:

This paper addresses the analysis of the interference between complementary ground component (CGC) base station and mobile earth station (MES). In the frequency sharing scenario between CGC base station and MES, the interference from the adjacent beams must be considered. In this paper, we estimated the interference to MES of an integrated satellite system and the result is presented as the carrier to interference ratio(C/I) with respect to the number of CGC base station in the adjacent beam and the ratio of satellite beam center radius to the total beam radius (R1/R). By using these results, we can determine the minimum separation distance between the CGC base stations of adjacent beam and MES for compatibility. This result can be applied to the CGC base station of an integrated satellite system for the effective frequency sharing.

Keywords: Integrated satellite system, interference, frequency reuse pattern, CGC base station, MES, frequency sharing.

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138 Predicting Individual Investors- Intention to Invest: An Experimental Analysis of Attitude as a Mediator

Authors: Azwadi Ali

Abstract:

The survival of publicly listed companies largely depends on their stocks being liquidly traded. This goal can be achieved when new investors are attracted to invest on companies- stocks. Among different groups of investors, individual investors are generally less able to objectively evaluate companies- risks and returns, and tend to be emotionally biased in their investing decisions. Therefore their decisions may be formed as a result of perceived risks and returns, and influenced by companies- images. This study finds that perceived risk, perceived returns and trust directly affect individual investors- trading decisions while attitude towards brand partially mediates the relationships. This finding suggests that, in courting individual investors, companies still need to perform financially while building a good image can result in their stocks being accepted quicker than the stocks of good performing companies with hidden images.

Keywords: Behavioral Finance, Investment, Attitude towardsBrand, Partial Least Squares

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137 The Attitude of High School Teachers in Saudi Arabia towards Computers: Qualitative Study

Authors: Manal O. Alothman, Judy. Robertson

Abstract:

Teachers can play a huge role in encouraging students to use computers and can affect students’ attitudes towards computers. So understanding teachers’ beliefs and their use of computers is an important way to create effective motivational systems for teachers to use computers in the classroom in an effective way. A qualitative study (6 focus group) was carried out among Saudi High school teachers, both male and female, to examine their attitudes towards computers and to find out their computer skills and usage. The study showed a gender differences in that females were less likely to attend computer workshops, females also had less computer skills, and they have more negative attitudes towards computers than males. Also the study found that low computer skills in the classroom made students unlikely to have the lessons presented using computers. Furthermore, the study found some factors that effected teachers’ attitudes towards computers. These factors were computer experience and confidence as much having skills and good experience in computer use, the role and importance of computers had become in their life and in teaching as well.

Keywords: Attitude, Education, Student, Teacher, Technology.

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136 An Implementation of a Dual-Spin Spacecraft Attitude Reorientation Using Properties of Its Chaotic Motion

Authors: Anton V. Doroshin

Abstract:

This article contains a description of main ideas for the attitude reorientation of spacecraft (small dual-spin spacecraft, nanosatellites) using properties of its chaotic attitude motion under the action of internal perturbations. The considering method based on intentional initiations of chaotic modes of the attitude motion with big amplitudes of the nutation oscillations, and also on the redistributions of the angular momentum between coaxial bodies of the dual-spin spacecraft (DSSC), which perform in the purpose of system’s phase space changing.

Keywords: Spacecraft, Attitude Dynamics and Control, Chaos.

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135 Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping

Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil

Abstract:

The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.

Keywords: burst acquisition, burst time plan, frame acquisition, satellite access, satellite TDMA, unique word detection

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134 XML Integration of Data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite

Authors: W. Srisang, K. Jaroensutasinee, M. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

This study aimed at developing visualization tools for integrating CloudSat images and Water Vapor Satellite images. KML was used for integrating data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite. CloudSat 2D images were transformed into 3D polygons in order to achieve 3D images. Before overlaying the images on Google Earth, GMS-6 water vapor satellite images had to be rescaled into linear images. Web service was developed using webMathematica. Shoreline from GMS-6 images was compared with shoreline from LandSat images on Google Earth for evaluation. The results showed that shoreline from GMS-6 images was highly matched with the shoreline in LandSat images from Google Earth. For CloudSat images, the visualizations were compared with GMS-6 images on Google Earth. The results showed that CloudSat and GMS-6 images were highly correlated.

Keywords: CloudSat, Water vapor, Satellite images, GoogleEarth™.

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133 Modelling Customer's Attitude Towards E-Government Services

Authors: Norazah Mohd Suki, T Ramayah

Abstract:

e-Government structures permits the government to operate in a more transparent and accountable manner of which it increases the power of the individual in relation to that of the government. This paper identifies the factors that determine customer-s attitude towards e-Government services using a theoretical model based on the Technology Acceptance Model. Data relating to the constructs were collected from 200 respondents. The research model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques via the Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS 16) computer software. SEM is a comprehensive approach to testing hypotheses about relations among observed and latent variables. The proposed model fits the data well. The results demonstrated that e- Government services acceptance can be explained in terms of compatibility and attitude towards e-Government services. The setup of the e-Government services will be compatible with the way users work and are more likely to adopt e-Government services owing to their familiarity with the Internet for various official, personal, and recreational uses. In addition, managerial implications for government policy makers, government agencies, and system developers are also discussed.

Keywords: E-government, structural equation modelling, attitude, service.

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132 How the Iranian Free-Style Wrestlers Know and Think about Doping? – A Knowledge and Attitude Study

Authors: F. Halabchi, A. Esteghamati, A. Razzaghi, A. Noori

Abstract:

Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Wrestling is the nationally popular sport in Iran. Also the prevalence of doping may be high, due to its power demanding characteristics. So, we aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the club wrestlers. In a cross sectional study, 426 wrestlers were studied. For this reason, a researcher made questionnaire was used. In this study, researchers selected the clubs by randomized clustered sampling and distributed the questionnaire among wrestlers. Knowledge of wrestlers in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects was poor or moderate in 70.8%, 95.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Wrestlers have poor knowledge in doping. Furthermore, they believe some myths which are unfavorable. It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches.

Keywords: Attitude, Doping, Knowledge, Wrestling

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131 Stabilization and Control of a UAV Flight Attitude Angles using the Backstepping Method

Authors: Mihai Lungu

Abstract:

The paper presents the design of a mini-UAV attitude controller using the backstepping method. Starting from the nonlinear dynamic equations of the mini-UAV, by using the backstepping method, the author of this paper obtained the expressions of the elevator, rudder and aileron deflections, which stabilize the UAV, at each moment, to the desired values of the attitude angles. The attitude controller controls the attitude angles, the angular rates, the angular accelerations and other variables that describe the UAV longitudinal and lateral motions. To design the nonlinear controller, by using the backstepping technique, the nonlinear equations and the Lyapunov analysis have been directly used. The designed controller has been implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment and its effectiveness has been tested with a campaign of numerical simulations using data from the UAV flight tests. The obtained results are very good and they are better than the ones found in previous works.

Keywords: Attitude angles, Backstepping, Controller, UAV.

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130 Satellite Rainfall Prediction Techniques - A State of the Art Review

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, S. Vidhya

Abstract:

In the present world, predicting rainfall is considered to be an essential and also a challenging task. Normally, the climate and rainfall are presumed to have non-linear as well as intricate phenomena. For predicting accurate rainfall, we necessitate advanced computer modeling and simulation. When there is an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation then it becomes enrichment to applications such as hydrologic, climatic and ecological. Conversely, there may be some kind of challenges occur in the community due to some application which results in the absence of consistent precipitation observation in remote and also emerging region. This survey paper provides a multifarious collection of methodologies which are epitomized by various researchers for predicting the rainfall. It also gives information about some technique to forecast rainfall, which is appropriate to all methods like numerical, traditional and statistical.

Keywords: Satellite Image, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Classification, Clustering, Precipitation Estimation.

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129 Development of an Attitude Scale Towards Social Networking Sites

Authors: Münevver Başman, Deniz Gülleroğlu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine the attitudes towards social networking sites. 45 tryout items, prepared for this aim, were applied to 342 students studying at Marmara University, Faculty of Education. The reliability and the validity of the scale were conducted with the help of these students. As a result of exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation, 41 items grouped according to the structure with three factors (interest, reality and negative effects) is obtained. While alpha reliability of the scale is obtained as .899; the reliability of factors is obtained as .899, .799, .775, respectively.

Keywords: Attitude, reliability, social networking sites, validity.

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128 Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect

Authors: A. E. Emam, Joseph Victor, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and after the implementation of the pointing corrections.

Keywords: Satellite, inclined orbit, pointing errors, coverage optimization.

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127 Attitude Change after Taking a Virtual Global Understanding Course

Authors: Rosina C. Chia, Elmer Poe, Karl L. Wuensch

Abstract:

A virtual collaborative classroom was created at East Carolina University, using videoconference technology via regular internet to bring students from 18 different countries, 2 at a time, to the ECU classroom in real time to learn about each other-s culture. Students from two countries are partnered one on one, they meet for 4-5 weeks, and submit a joint paper. Then the same process is repeated for two other countries. Lectures and student discussions are managed with pre-determined topics and questions. Classes are conducted in English and reading assignments are placed on the website. Administratively all partners are independent, students pay fees and get credits at their home institution. Familiarity with technology, knowledge in cultural understanding and attitude change were assessed, only attitude changes are reported in this paper. After taking this course, all students stated their comfort level in working with, and their desire to interact with, culturally different others grew stronger and their xenophobia and isolationist attitudes decreased.

Keywords: Attitude change, interactive cultural learning, multicultural education, real time virtual learning.

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126 Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Attitude of Pineapple Growers

Authors: Kaushal Kumar Jha

Abstract:

Nagaland, the 16th state of India in order of statehood, is situated between 25° 6' and 27° 4' latitude north and between 93º 20' E and 95º 15' E longitude of equator in the North Eastern part of the India. Endowed with varied topography, soil and agro climatic conditions it is known for its potentiality to grow all most all kinds of horticultural crops. Pineapple being grown since long organically by default is one of the most promising crops of the state with emphasis being laid for commercialization by the government of Nagaland. In light of commercialization, globalization and scope of setting small-scale industries, a research study was undertaken to examine the socio-economic and personal characteristics, entrepreneurial characteristics and attitude of the pineapple growers towards improved package of practices of pineapple cultivation. The study was conducted in Medziphema block of Dimapur district of the Nagaland state of India following ex post facto research design. Ninety pineapple growers were selected from four different villages of Medziphema block based on proportionate random selection procedure. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had medium level of entrepreneurial characteristics in terms of knowledge level, risk orientation, self confidence, management orientation, farm decision making ability and leadership ability and most of them had favourable attitude towards improved package of practices of pineapple cultivation. The variables age, education, farm size, risk orientation, management orientation and sources of information utilized were found important to influence the attitude of the respondents. The study revealed that favourable attitude and entrepreneurial characteristics of the pineapple cultivators might be harnessed for increased production of pineapple in the state thereby bringing socio economic upliftment of the marginal and small-scale farmers.

Keywords: Attitude, Entrepreneurial characteristics, Pineapple, Socio economic upliftment.

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125 Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft

Authors: K. Parandhama Gowd

Abstract:

Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further, defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) has gone up. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs, and spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly and create spacecraft traffic problems. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design concepts for adaptive spacecraft. The main idea here is to improve existing design methods of spacecraft design and development to further improve upon design considerations for futuristic adaptive spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability and self-protection. In other words, the innovative design considerations proposed here are to have future spacecraft with self-organizing capabilities for orbital control and protection from anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). Here, an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI, miniaturization, and nano antenna array technologies, including nano technologies are expected.

Keywords: Satellites, low earth orbit, medium earth orbit, geostationary earth orbit, self-organizing control system, anti-satellite weapons, orbital control, radar warning receiver, missile warning receiver, laser warning receiver, attitude and orbit control systems, command and data handling.

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124 Coupled Spacecraft Orbital and Attitude Modeling and Simulation in Multi-Complex Modes

Authors: Amr Abdel Azim Ali, G. A. Elsheikh, Moutaz Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents verification of a modeling and simulation for a Spacecraft (SC) attitude and orbit control system. Detailed formulation of coupled SC orbital and attitude equations of motion is performed in order to achieve accepted accuracy to meet the requirements of multitargets tracking and orbit correction complex modes. Correction of the target parameter based on the estimated state vector during shooting time to enhance pointing accuracy is considered. Time-optimal nonlinear feedback control technique was used in order to take full advantage of the maximum torques that the controller can deliver. This simulation provides options for visualizing SC trajectory and attitude in a 3D environment by including an interface with V-Realm Builder and VR Sink in Simulink/MATLAB. Verification data confirms the simulation results, ensuring that the model and the proposed control law can be used successfully for large and fast tracking and is robust enough to keep the pointing accuracy within the desired limits with considerable uncertainty in inertia and control torque.

Keywords: Attitude and orbit control, time-optimal nonlinear feedback control, modeling and simulation, pointing accuracy, maximum torques.

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123 Study of Remote Sensing and Satellite Images Ability in Preparing Agricultural Land Use Map (ALUM)

Authors: Ali Gholami

Abstract:

In this research the Preparation of Land use map of scanner LISS III satellite data, belonging to the IRS in the Aghche region in Isfahan province, is studied carefully. For this purpose, the IRS satellite images of August 2008 and various land preparation uses in region including rangelands, irrigation farming, dry farming, gardens and urban areas were separated and identified. Therefore, the GPS and Erdas Imaging software were used and three methods of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance were analyzed. In each of these methods, matrix error and Kappa index were calculated and accuracy of each method, based on percentages: 53.13, 56.64 and 48.44, were obtained respectively. Considering the low accuracy of these methods in separation of land preparation use, the visual interpretation of the map was used. Finally, regional visits of 150 points were noted at random and no error was observed. It shows that the map prepared by visual interpretation is in high accuracy. Although the probable errors due to visual interpretation and geometric correction might happen but the desired accuracy of the map which is more than 85 percent is reliable.

Keywords: Land use map, Aghche Region, Erdas Imagine, satellite images

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122 Construction of Attitude Reference Benchmark for Test of Star Sensor Based on Precise Timing

Authors: Tingting Lu, Yonghai Wang, Haiyong Wang, Jiaqi Liu

Abstract:

To satisfy the need of outfield tests of star sensors, a method is put forward to construct the reference attitude benchmark. Firstly, its basic principle is introduced; Then, all the separate conversion matrixes are deduced, which include: the conversion matrix responsible for the transformation from the Earth Centered Inertial frame i to the Earth-centered Earth-fixed frame w according to the time of an atomic clock, the conversion matrix from frame w to the geographic frame t, and the matrix from frame t to the platform frame p, so the attitude matrix of the benchmark platform relative to the frame i can be obtained using all the three matrixes as the multiplicative factors; Next, the attitude matrix of the star sensor relative to frame i is got when the mounting matrix from frame p to the star sensor frame s is calibrated, and the reference attitude angles for star sensor outfield tests can be calculated from the transformation from frame i to frame s; Finally, the computer program is finished to solve the reference attitudes, and the error curves are drawn about the three axis attitude angles whose absolute maximum error is just 0.25ÔÇ│. The analysis on each loop and the final simulating results manifest that the method by precise timing to acquire the absolute reference attitude is feasible for star sensor outfield tests.

Keywords: Atomic time, attitude determination, coordinate conversion, inertial coordinate system, star sensor.

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