Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Sandy Daley

72 Worth A Thousand Words – How Drawings Provide Insight into Children-s Attitudes and Perceptions of Physical Education

Authors: Sandy Daley, Sandra Jones, Don Iverson

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity for children are promoted widely and well understood; however factors which impact on children-s beliefs and attitudes towards physical education need to be explored in more detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how primary school children value and perceive their involvement in physical education (PE) classes through the use of drawings. While this type of data collection has been used previously to determine a child-s response to specific health education classes, such as drug education, to the best of our knowledge it has not been used in the context of PE. Results from this study showed that kindergarten children found PE classes fun and engaging. Children in Year 4 and Year 6 were less satisfied with PE classes because of the activities offered, the lack of opportunity to play sport, and perception that teachers did not appear to value this area of the curriculum.

Keywords: attitudes, physical education, primary school children, write and draw

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71 Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed , S. Tamassoki , E. Izadi

Abstract:

Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since urban development demands mean that sandy clay areas are increasingly encountered, especially for transportation infrastructures. This paper presents the results of the finite element analysis of the direct shear test (under three vertical loading 44, 96 and 192 kPa) and discusses the effects of different parameters such as cohesion, friction angle and Young's modulus on the shear strength of sandy clay. The numerical model was calibrated against the experimental results of large-scale direct shear tests. The results have shown that the shear strength was increased with increase in friction angle and cohesion. However, the shear strength was not influenced by raising the friction angle at normal stress of 44 kPa. Also, the effect of different young's modulus factors on stress-strain curve was investigated.

Keywords: Shear strength, Finite element analysis, Large direct shear test, Sandy clay.

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70 Effect of Oil Contamination on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. M. Shojaedin

Abstract:

Oil leakage from the pipelines and the tanks carrying them, or during oil extraction, could lead to the changes in the characteristics and properties of the soil. In this paper, conducting a series of experimental cyclic triaxial tests, the effects of oil contamination on the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is investigated. The studied specimens are prepared by mixing the Firoozkuh sand with crude oil in 4, 8 and 12 percent by soil dry weight. The results show that the oil contamination up to 8% causes an increase in the soil liquefaction resistance and then with increase in the contamination, the liquefaction resistance decreases.

Keywords: Cyclic triaxial test, Liquefaction resistance, Oil contamination, Sandy soil.

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69 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.

Keywords: Improvement, shear strength, internal friction angle, sandy soil, rubber chip.

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68 Experimental Study of Subsurface Erosion in River Banks

Authors: F. Imanshoar, M. R. M. Tabatabai, Y. Hassanzadeh, M. Rostamipoor

Abstract:

Subsurface erosion in river banks and its details, in spite of its occurrence in various parts of the world has rarely been paid attention by researchers. In this paper, quantitative concept of the subsurface bank erosion has been investigated for vertical banks. Vertical banks were simulated experimentally by considering a sandy erodible layer overlaid by clayey one under uniformly distributed constant overhead pressure. Results of the experiments are indicated that rate of sandy layer erosion is decreased by an increase in overburden; likewise, substituting 20% of coarse (3.5 mm) sand layer bed material by fine material (1.4 mm) may lead to a decrease in erosion rate by one-third. This signifies the importance of the bed material composition effect on sandy layers erosion due to subsurface erosion in river banks.

Keywords: Subsurface Erosion, Vertical Banks, Bed Material Size

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67 Effect of Base Coarse Layer on Load-Settlement Characteristics of Sandy Subgrade Using Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Nazeri, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Ghiasinejad

Abstract:

The present research has been performed to investigate the effect of base course application on load-settlement characteristics of sandy subgrade using plate load test. The main parameter investigated in this study was the subgrade reaction coefficient. The model tests were conducted in a 1.35 m long, 1 m wide, and 1 m deep steel test box of Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU Calibration Chamber). The base courses used in this research were in three different thicknesses of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The test results indicated that in the case of using base course over loose sandy subgrade, the values of subgrade reaction coefficient can be increased from 7  to 132 , 224 , and 396  in presence of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm base course, respectively.

Keywords: Base course, calibration chamber, plate load test, loose sand, subgrade reaction coefficient.

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66 Magnesium Foliar Application and Phosphorien Soil Inoculation Positively Affect Pisum sativum L. Plants Grown on Sandy Calcareous Soil

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Ashraf Sh. Osman, Mostafa M. Rady, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani

Abstract:

The effects of soil inoculation with phosphorien-containing phosphate-dissolving bacteria (PDB) and/or magnesium (Mg) foliar application at the rates of 0, 0.5 and 1mM on growth, green pod and seed yields, and chemical constituents of Pisum sativum L. grown on a sandy calcareous soil were investigated. Results indicated that PDB and/or Mg significantly increased shoot length, number of branches plant–1, total leaf area plant–1 and canopy dry weight plant–1, leaf contents of pigments, soluble sugars, free proline, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, and Ca/Na ratio, while leaf Na content was reduced. PDB and/or Mg also increased green pod and seed yields. We concluded that PDB and Mg have pronounced positive effects on Pisum sativum L. plants grown on sandy calcareous soil. PDB and Mg, therefore, have the potential to be applied for various crops to overcome the adverse effects of the newly-reclaimed sandy calcareous soils.

Keywords: Bio-P-fertilizer, Mg foliar application, Newly-reclaimed soils, Pisum sativum L.

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65 Leachate Generation from Landfill Lysimeter using Different Types of Soil Cover

Authors: S. Karnchanawong, P. Yongpisalpop

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of soil cover type on characteristics of leachates generated from landfill lysimeters. Four lysimeters with diameter and height of 0.15 and 3.00 m, respectively, were prepared. Three lysimeters were filled with municipal waste and three different cover soil types i.e. sandy loam soil, silty loam soil and clay soil while another lysimeter was filled solely with municipal waste. The study was conducted in the rainy season. Leachate quantities were measured every day and leachate characteristics were determined once a week. The cumulative leachate quantity from the lysimeter filled solely with municipal waste was found to be around 27% higher than the lysimeters using cover soils. There were no any differences of the cumulative leachate amounts generated from the lysimeters using three types of soils. The comparison of the total mass of pollutants generated from all lysimeters showed that the lysimeter filled solely with municipal waste generated the maximum quantities of pollutants. Among the lysimeters using different types of soils, the lysimeter using sandy loam soil generated the lowest amount of most of pollutants, compared with the lysimeters using silty loam and clay soils. It can be concluded that in term of pollutant attenuation in the leachate, a sandy loam is the most suitable soil to be used as a cover soil in the landfill.

Keywords: cover soil, leachate, sandy loam soil, silty loam soil, clay soil.

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64 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands

Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.

Keywords: Clayey sand, liquefaction, triaxial test, undrained shear strength.

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63 Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions

Authors: W. S. Mohamed, A. A. Hammam

Abstract:

Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.

Keywords: Biochar, dissolved organic carbon, N-uptake, poultry, sandy soil.

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62 Shoreline Change Estimation from Survey Image Coordinates and Neural Network Approximation

Authors: Tienfuan Kerh, Hsienchang Lu, Rob Saunders

Abstract:

Shoreline erosion problems caused by global warming and sea level rising may result in losing of land areas, so it should be examined regularly to reduce possible negative impacts. Initially in this study, three sets of survey images obtained from the years of 1990, 2001, and 2010, respectively, are digitalized by using graphical software to establish the spatial coordinates of six major beaches around the island of Taiwan. Then, by overlaying the known multi-period images, the change of shoreline can be observed from their distribution of coordinates. In addition, the neural network approximation is used to develop a model for predicting shoreline variation in the years of 2015 and 2020. The comparison results show that there is no significant change of total sandy area for all beaches in the three different periods. However, the prediction results show that two beaches may exhibit an increasing of total sandy areas under a statistical 95% confidence interval. The proposed method adopted in this study may be applicable to other shorelines of interest around the world.

Keywords: Digitalized shoreline coordinates, survey image overlaying, neural network approximation, total beach sandy areas.

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61 Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils

Authors: A. Rifa’i, Y. Takeshita, M. Komatsu

Abstract:

The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A poodle layer and a drainage system had ever built to avoid such a problem, but puddles still did not stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using a simpler procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling was proposed according to the development of field permeability testing instrument. This experiment used a proposed Constant Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured with constant water flow from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were monitored by soil moisture measurement device. The results were correlations between k and θ which were drawn by numerical approach from Van Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of 19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6 cm/sec (Sr=68%) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr=82%). The equipment and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective, simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without establish soil water characteristic curve.

Keywords: Constant discharge method, in situ permeability test, sandy soil, unsaturated conditions.

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60 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: CBR, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy-silt, SEM, zeolite.

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59 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: Bentonite, brittleness index, liquefaction, slag.

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58 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

Abstract:

Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment / bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance / quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water was observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Contaminated sediment, Land farming, Oily sludge, Oil Terminal.

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57 Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Moeini, Mehrdad Ghyabi, Kiarash Mohtasham Dolatshahi

Abstract:

This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.

Keywords: Beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation method, multi-support excitation, nonlinear site response analysis, seismic soil-pile interaction.

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56 Influence of Environment-Friendly Organic Wastes on the Properties of Sandy Soil under Growing Zea mays L. in Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed Rashad, Mohamed Hafez, Mohamed Emran, Emad Aboukila, Ibrahim Nassar

Abstract:

Environment-friendly organic wastes of Brewers' spent grain, a byproduct of the brewing process, have recently used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and plant production. In this work, treatments of 1% (T1) and 2% (T2) of spent grains, 1% (C1) and 2% (C2) of compost and mix of both sources (C1T1) were used and compared to the control for growing Zea mays L. on sandy soil under arid Mediterranean climate. Soils were previously incubated at 65% saturation capacity for a month. The most relevant soil physical and chemical parameters were analysed. Water holding capacity and soil organic matter (OM) increased significantly along the treatments with the highest values in T2. Soil pH decreased along the treatments and the lowest pH was in C1T1. Bicarbonate decreased by 69% in C1T1 comparing to control. Total nitrogen (TN) and available P varied significantly among all treatments and T2, C1T1 and C2 treatments increased 25, 17 and 11 folds in TN and 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 folds in P, respectively related to control. Available K showed the highest values in C1T1. Soil micronutrients increased significantly along all treatments with the highest values in T2. After corn germination, significant variation was observed in the velocity of germination coefficients (VGC) among all treatments in the order of C1T1>T2>T1>C2>C1>control. The highest records of final germination and germination index were in C1T1 and T2. The spent grains may compensate deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in newly reclaimed sandy soils without adverse effects to sustain crop production with a rider that excessive or continuous use need to be circumvented.

Keywords: Spent grain, compost, micronutrients, macronutrients, water holding capacity, plant growth.

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55 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, finite element analysis, loose sand, settlement equations, shallow foundation.

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54 A New Correlation between SPT and CPT for Various Soils

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, S. AlKaabim, Paul Cosentino

Abstract:

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. On the other hand, the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is considered one of the best investigation tools. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained it complaints the SPT in many applications like field explorations, design parameters, and quality control assessments. Many soil index and engineering properties have been correlated to both of SPT and CPT. Various foundation design methods were developed based on the outcome of these tests. Therefore it is vital to correlate these tests to each other so that either one of the tests can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the SPT and CPT for different type of sandy soils in Florida. Data for this research were collected from number of projects sponsored by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), six sites served as the subject of SPT-CPT correlations. The correlations were established between the cone resistance (qc), sleeve friction (fs) and the uncorrected SPT blow counts (N) for various soils. A positive linear relationship was found between qc, fs and N for various sandy soils. In general, qc versus N showed higher correlation coefficients than fs versus N. qc/N ratios were developed for different soil types and compared to literature values, the results of this research revealed higher ratios than literature values.

Keywords: In situ tests, Correlation, SPT, CPT.

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53 Characterization of the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique as a Biological Cementing Agent for Sand Deposits

Authors: Sameh Abu El-Soud, Zahra Zayed, Safwan Khedr, Adel M. Belal

Abstract:

The population increase in Egypt is urging for horizontal land development which became a demand to allow the benefit of different natural resources and expand from the narrow Nile valley. However, this development is facing challenges preventing land development and agriculture development. Desertification and moving sand dunes in the west sector of Egypt are considered the major obstacle that is blocking the ideal land use and development. In the proposed research, the sandy soil is treated biologically using Bacillus pasteurii bacteria as these bacteria have the ability to bond the sand partials to change its state of loose sand to cemented sand, which reduces the moving ability of the sand dunes. The procedure of implementing the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique (MICP) technique is examined, and the different factors affecting on this process such as the medium of bacteria sample preparation, the optical density (OD600), the reactant concentration, injection rates and intervals are highlighted. Based on the findings of the MICP treatment for sandy soil, conclusions and future recommendations are reached.

Keywords: Soil stabilization, biological treatment, MICP, sand cementation.

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52 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder (0, 1, 3 and 6%) on some growth parameters of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment).

 The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL) and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of the two donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Melilotus indica > Bromus tectorum. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of soil stoical analyses indicated that significant difference between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: Allelopathy Soil, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana, growth, weeds.

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51 Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade, E. Izadi, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.

Keywords: Steel tank, soil-structure, sandy soil, seismic load.

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50 Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads

Authors: Mahdi Taghipour Masoumi, Ali Abdi Kordani, Mahmoud Nazirizad

Abstract:

Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two types of soil: Clayey and sandy containing non-reinforced and reinforced soil. The samples comprised three types of geotextiles with different characteristics (150, 200, 300 g/m2) and depths (H= 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm), and were grouped into two forms, one-layered and two-layered, based on the sample materials in order to perform defined tests. The results showed that the soil bearing characteristics increased when one layer of geotextile was used in clayey and sandy samples reinforced by geotextile. However, the bearing capacity of the soil, in the presence of a geotextile layer material with depth of more than 30 mm, had no remarkable effect. Furthermore, when the two-layered geotextile was applied in material samples, although it increased the soil resistance, it also showed that through the addition of a number or weights of geotextile into samples, the natural composition of the soil changed and the results are unreliable.

Keywords: Reinforced soil, geosynthetics, geotextile, transportation capacity, CBR experiments.

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49 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich

Abstract:

Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: Metal, recycling, sewage sludge, trace element.

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48 Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzekri, H. Benmassaud

Abstract:

Aurèsregion is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and 2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013 allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain its remarkable extension. The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of the risk of desertification.

Keywords: Aurès, Land use, remote sensing, spatiotemporal.

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47 Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests

Authors: Ivandic Kreso, Spiranec Miljenko, Kavur Boris, Strelec Stjepan

Abstract:

This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.

Keywords: Dilatometer testing, MASW testing, shear wave, soil stiffness, stiffness reduction, shear strain.

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46 Evaluation of Tension Capacity of Pile (Case Study in Sandy Soil)

Authors: Shooshpasha I., Kiakojoori M., Mirzagoltabar R. A.

Abstract:

High building constructions are increasing in south beaches of the Caspian Sea because of tourist attractions and limitation of residential areas. According to saturated alluvial fields transfer of load from high structures to the soil by piles is inevitable. In spite of most of these piles are under compression forces, tension piles are used in special conditions. Few studies have been conducted because of the limited use of these piles. Tension capacity of openended pipe piles in full scale was tested in this study. The length of the bored piles was 420 up to 480 cm and all were in 120 cm diameter. The results of testing 7 piles were compared with the results of relations given by researches.

Keywords: piles, tension capacity, sand, shaft friction

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45 Nylon Solution as Soil Stabilizer

Authors: G. M. Ayininuola, O. S. Oladeji

Abstract:

The research investigated the use of nylon solution to enhance the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil. Used nylon sachet of potable water were dissolved in four separate solvents namely acetone, toluene, ethyl glycol and dual purpose kerosene (DPK). It was discovered that DPK has the highest nylon solubility of 29g/ml at 91oC. The nylon solution was used to stabilize poorly graded sandy soil. The result showed that at less or equal to 4% stabilization, the CBR value decreased from 25.3% to 15.85% and later appreciated to 67.78% at 16% stabilization. The initial decrease in CBR value of soil sample observed was as a result of inadequate nylon solution to coat soil particles for proper bonding.

Keywords: Nylon solution, Soil stabilization, Dual purpose kerosene, California bearing ratio.

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44 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands

Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen

Abstract:

Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.

Keywords: Backward erosion piping, embankments, physical modelling, sand.

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43 The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact

Authors: H. Aissa, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.

Keywords: Splash distribution, water drop, slope steepness, soil detachment.

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