Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh

32 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati

Abstract:

Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: All-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential.

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31 Review of the Characteristics of Mahan Garden:One Type of Persian Gardens

Authors: Ladan Tajaddini

Abstract:

Iranians- imagination of heaven, which is the reward of a person-s good deeds during their life, has shown itself in pleasant and green gardens where earthly gardens were made as representations of paradise. Iranians are also quite interested in making their earthly gardens and plantations around their buildings. With Iran-s hot and dry climate with a lack of sufficient water for plantation coverage, it becomes noticeable how important it is to Iranians- art in making gardens. This study, with regard to examples, documents and library studies, investigates the characteristics of Persian gardens. The result shows that elements such as soil, water, plants and layout have been used in forming a unique style of Persian gardens. Bagh-e Shah Zadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) is a typical example and has been carefully studied. In this paper I try to investigate and evaluate the characteristics of a Persian garden by means of a descriptive approach.

Keywords: environmental planning, Persian garden, landscape, shah zadeh garden, soil and water, gardening.

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30 Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sohrab Nemati, Ehsan Khojastehfar, Sadegh Balaghi

Abstract:

In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Time history analysis, wavelet transform, optimization, earthquake.

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29 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: Wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data.

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28 On the Accuracy of Basic Modal Displacement Method Considering Various Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history seismic analysis is supposed to be the most accurate method to predict the seismic demand of structures. On the other hand, the required computational time of this method toward achieving the result is its main deficiency. While being applied in optimization process, in which the structure must be analyzed thousands of time, reducing the required computational time of seismic analysis of structures makes the optimization algorithms more practical. Apparently, the invented approximate methods produce some amount of errors in comparison with exact time history analysis but the recently proposed method namely, Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) and Sum Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) drastically reduces the computational time by combination of peak responses in each mode. In the present research, the Basic Modal Displacement (BMD) method is introduced and applied towards estimation of seismic demand of main structure. Seismic demand of sampled structure is estimated by calculation of modal displacement of basic structure (in which the modal displacement has been calculated). Shear steel sampled structures are selected as case studies. The error applying the introduced method is calculated by comparison of the estimated seismic demands with exact time history dynamic analysis. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by application of three types of earthquakes (in view of time of peak ground acceleration).

Keywords: Time history dynamic analysis, basic modal displacement, earthquake induced demands, shear steel structures.

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27 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: Ethylene dichloride, purification, EDC, simulation.

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26 Fuzzy Gauge Capability (Cg and Cgk) through Buckley Approach

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohsen Sadegh Amalnick

Abstract:

Different terms of the Statistical Process Control (SPC) has sketch in the fuzzy environment. However, Measurement System Analysis (MSA), as a main branch of the SPC, is rarely investigated in fuzzy area. This procedure assesses the suitability of the data to be used in later stages or decisions of the SPC. Therefore, this research focuses on some important measures of MSA and through a new method introduces the measures in fuzzy environment. In this method, which works based on Buckley approach, imprecision and vagueness nature of the real world measurement are considered simultaneously. To do so, fuzzy version of the gauge capability (Cg and Cgk) are introduced. The method is also explained through example clearly.

Keywords: SPC, MSA, gauge capability, Cg, Cgk.

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25 Optimizing Allocation of Two Dimensional Irregular Shapes using an Agent Based Approach

Authors: Ramin Halavati, Saeed B. Shouraki, Mahdieh Noroozian, Saman H. Zadeh

Abstract:

Packing problems arise in a wide variety of application areas. The basic problem is that of determining an efficient arrangement of different objects in a region without any overlap and with minimal wasted gap between shapes. This paper presents a novel population based approach for optimizing arrangement of irregular shapes. In this approach, each shape is coded as an agent and the agents' reproductions and grouping policies results in arrangements of the objects in positions with least wasted area between them. The approach is implemented in an application for cutting sheets and test results on several problems from literature are presented.

Keywords: Optimization, Bin Packing, Agent Based Systems.

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24 EBSD Investigation of Friction Stir Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: T. Saeid, A. Abdollah-zadeh, T. Shibayanagi, K. Ikeuchi, H. Assadi

Abstract:

Electron back-scattered diffraction was used to follow the evolution of microstructure from the base metal to the stir zone (SZ) in a duplex stainless steel subjected to friction stir welding. In the stir zone (SZ), a continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) was evidenced for ferrite, while it was suggested that a static recrystallization together with CDRX may occur for austenite. It was found that ferrite and austenite grains in the SZ take a typical shear texture of bcc and fcc materials respectively.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, Dynamic recrystallization, Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), Duplex stainless steel

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23 A Novel Approach to Fault Classification and Fault Location for Medium Voltage Cables Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H. Khorashadi-Zadeh, M. R. Aghaebrahimi

Abstract:

A novel application of neural network approach to fault classification and fault location of Medium voltage cables is demonstrated in this paper. Different faults on a protected cable should be classified and located correctly. This paper presents the use of neural networks as a pattern classifier algorithm to perform these tasks. The proposed scheme is insensitive to variation of different parameters such as fault type, fault resistance, and fault inception angle. Studies show that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location tasks.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, cable, fault location andfault classification.

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22 A Comparison between Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Gas Flow Model in Slurry Bubble Column Reactor for Direct Synthesis of DME

Authors: Sadegh Papari, Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study, a heterogeneous and homogeneous gas flow dispersion model for simulation and optimisation of a large-scale catalytic slurry reactor for the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas and CO2, using a churn-turbulent regime was developed. In the heterogeneous gas flow model the gas phase was distributed into two bubble phases: small and large, however in the homogeneous one, the gas phase was distributed into only one large bubble phase. The results indicated that the heterogeneous gas flow model was in more agreement with experimental pilot plant data than the homogeneous one.

Keywords: Modelling, Slurry bubble column, Dimethyl ether synthesis, Homogeneous gas flow, Heterogeneous gas flow

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21 CMOS Solid-State Nanopore DNA System-Level Sequencing Techniques Enhancement

Authors: Syed Islam, Yiyun Huang, Sebastian Magierowski, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents system level CMOS solid-state nanopore techniques enhancement for speedup next generation molecular recording and high throughput channels. This discussion also considers optimum number of base-pair (bp) measurements through channel as an important role to enhance potential read accuracy. Effective power consumption estimation offered suitable range of multi-channel configuration. Nanopore bp extraction model in statistical method could contribute higher read accuracy with longer read-length (200 < read-length). Nanopore ionic current switching with Time Multiplexing (TM) based multichannel readout system contributed hardware savings.

Keywords: DNA, Nanopore, Amplifier, ADC, Multichannel.

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20 Uniformity of Dose Distribution in Radiation Fields Surrounding the Spine using Film Dosimetry and Comparison with 3D Treatment Planning Software

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi , Vahid Fayaz , Hassan Zandi, Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

The overall penumbra is usually defined as the distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose , Spine , Radiotherapy, 3D treatment planning software

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19 Relationship between Food Resources and Brooding Site by Asiatic Houbara (Chlamydotis macqueenii ) in Central Steppe of Iran

Authors: S. Aghainajafi Zadeh, M.R. Hemami., F. Heydari

Abstract:

Knowledge of food resource of the houbara which an endangered species would be a important step toward the preservation of this bird. Adequate study has not been done in this field and therefore the food sources of the houbara during the brooding season was studied in the central steppe of Iran. In order to determine the density of insect in plant communities the pitfall trap was used , positioned in five linear transects divided between plant communities and in two repetitions. The results showed that the among communities there was a significant difference in term of the number beetles and ants ( p= 0.01, F2, 29= 4.66) collectively. Also bush steppe habitat had a higher arthropoda density in comparison with the shrub steppe habitat. Considering that most houbara nests were found in the bush steppe habitat .It seems this habitat provides the most available food supply for the houbara chicks.

Keywords: Asiatic houbara bustard, Brooding season, Food resource

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18 Anticipation of Bending Reinforcement Based on Iranian Concrete Code Using Meta-Heuristic Tools

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

In this paper, different concrete codes including America, New Zealand, Mexico, Italy, India, Canada, Hong Kong, Euro Code and Britain are compared with the Iranian concrete design code. First, by using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the codes having the most correlation with the Iranian ninth issue of the national regulation are determined. Consequently, two anticipated methods are used for comparing the codes: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multi-variable regression. The results show that ANN performs better. Predicting is done by using only tensile steel ratio and with ignoring the compression steel ratio.

Keywords: Concrete design code, anticipate method, artificial neural network, multi-variable regression, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system.

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17 Study of Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Oak Acorn

Authors: Habibeh Nalbandi, Sadegh Seiiedlou, Hamid R. Ghasemzadeh, Naser Hamdami

Abstract:

The purpose of present work was to study the drying kinetics of whole acorn and its kernel at different drying air temperatures and their effective moisture diffusivity. The results indicated that the drying time of whole acorn was 442, 206 and 188 min at the air temperature of 65, 75 and 85ºC, respectively. At the same temperatures, the drying time of kernel was 131, 56 and 76min. The results showed that the effect of drying air temperature increasing on the drying time reduction could not be significant on acorn drying at all conditions. The effective moisture diffusivity of whole acorn and kernel increased with increasing air temperature from 65 to 75ºC. However more air temperature increasing, led to decreasing this property of acorn kernel. The critical temperature of acorn drying was about 75°C in which acorn kernel had the highest effective moisture diffusivity.

Keywords: Critical temperature, Drying kinetics, Moisture diffusivity, Oak acorn.

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16 Elimination Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold

Authors: Iman Elyasi, Sadegh Zarmehi

Abstract:

Due to some reasons, observed images are degraded which are mainly caused by noise. Recently image denoising using the wavelet transform has been attracting much attention. Waveletbased approach provides a particularly useful method for image denoising when the preservation of edges in the scene is of importance because the local adaptivity is based explicitly on the values of the wavelet detail coefficients. In this paper, we propose several methods of noise removal from degraded images with Gaussian noise by using adaptive wavelet threshold (Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink and Normal Shrink). The proposed thresholds are simple and adaptive to each subband because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholds remove noise significantly and preserve the edges in the scene.

Keywords: Image denoising, Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink, Normal Shrink.

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15 Effect of Geometrical Parameters on Natural Frequencies of FGM Cylindrical shell with Holes Under Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Mostafa Ghayour, Mohammad Sadegh Golabi

Abstract:

In the recent years, functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have gained considerable attention in the high temperature environment applications. In this paper, free vibration of thin functionally graded cylindrical shell with hole composed of stainless steel and zirconia is studied. The mechanical properties vary smoothly and continuously from one surface to the other according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The Influence of shell geometrical parameters, variations of volume fractions and boundary conditions on natural frequency is considered. The equations of motion are based on strains-displacement relations from Love-s shell theory and Rayleigh method. The results have been obtained for natural frequencies of cylindrical shell with holes for different shape, number and location in this paper.

Keywords: Functionally gradient material, Vibration, various boundary conditions, cylindrical shells.

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14 Optimal Aggregate Production Planning with Fuzzy Data

Authors: Wen-Lung Huang, Shih-Pin Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates the optimization problem of multi-product aggregate production planning (APP) with fuzzy data. From a comprehensive viewpoint of conserving the fuzziness of input information, this paper proposes a method that can completely describe the membership function of the performance measure. The idea is based on the well-known Zadeh-s extension principle which plays an important role in fuzzy theory. In the proposed solution procedure, a pair of mathematical programs parameterized by possibility level a is formulated to calculate the bounds of the optimal performance measure at a . Then the membership function of the optimal performance measure is constructed by enumerating different values of a . Solutions obtained from the proposed method contain more information, and can offer more chance to achieve the feasible disaggregate plan. This is helpful to the decision-maker in practical applications.

Keywords: fuzzy data, aggregate production planning, membership function, parametric programming

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13 Study on the Relations between One's Personality Dimensions and his Personality Judgment about Friend based on Reality Distortion

Authors: Bahareh Babaei, Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Reza Reza-zadeh, Hossien Kaviani

Abstract:

Judgment is affected by many agents and distortion in this assessment is unpreventable. Personality dimensions are among those factors that interfere with the distortion. In this research, the relations between personality dimensions of subject and his judgment on friends- personality dimensions is investigated. One-hundred friend couples completed both NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) and Ahvaz Reality Distortion Inventory (ARDI) to make judgments about themselves and their friends. Observations show that judge-s Agreement and Neuroticism dimensions are impressed by reality distortion. On the other hand, this reality distortion interferes with one-s evaluation of his friend-s Agreement, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness dimensions. Conscientiousness with suppressive effect on judge-s other dimensions plays the irrelevant role on personality judgment. Therefore, observer-rating tools which are used as a conventional criterion seem to be not valid because of the reality distortion due to judge-s personality dimensions.

Keywords: Personality dimensions, reality distortion, judgmental accuracy.

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12 FEM Analysis of the Interaction between a Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor and Biological Tissues

Authors: Ahmad Atieh, Masoud Kalantari, Roozbeh Ahmadi, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh

Abstract:

The present paper presents a finite element model and analysis for the interaction between a piezoresistive tactile sensor and biological tissues. The tactile sensor is proposed for use in minimally invasive surgery to deliver tactile information of biological tissues to surgeons. The proposed sensor measures the relative hardness of soft contact objects as well as the contact force. Silicone rubbers were used as the phantom of biological tissues. Finite element analysis of the silicone rubbers and the mechanical structure of the sensor were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (v3.4) environment. The simulation results verify the capability of the sensor to be used to differentiate between different kinds of silicone rubber materials.

Keywords: finite element analysis, minimally invasive surgery, Neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials, tactile sensor.

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11 Fuzzy Neuro Approach to Busbar Protection; Design and Implementation

Authors: M. R. Aghaebrahimi, H. Khorashadi Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for busbar protection with stable operation of current transformer during saturation, using fuzzy neuro and symmetrical components theory. This technique uses symmetrical components of current signals to learn the hidden relationship existing in the input patterns. Simulation studies are preformed and the influence of changing system parameters such as inception fault and source impedance is studied. Details of the design procedure and the results of performance studies with the proposed relay are given in the paper. An analysis of the performance of the proposed technique during ct saturation conditions is presented. The performance of the technique was investigated for a variety of operating conditions and for several busbar configurations. Data generated by EMTDC simulations of model power systems were used in the investigations. The results indicate that the proposed technique is stable during ct saturation conditions.

Keywords: Busbar protection, fuzzy neuro, Ct saturation.

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10 Investigation Wintering And Breeding Habitat Selection by Asiatic Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii ) In Central Steppe of Iran

Authors: S. Aghainajafi Zadeh, M.R. Hemami., F. Heydari

Abstract:

Asiatic Houbara ( Chlamydotis macqueenii ) is a flagship and vulnerable species. In-situ conservation of this threatened species demands for knowledge of its habitat selection. The aim of this study was to determine habitat variables influencing birds wintering and breeding selection in semi- arid central Iran. Habitat features of the detected nest and pellet sites were compared with paired and random plots by quantifying a number of habitat variables. In wintering habitat use at micro scale houbara selected sites where vegetation cover was significantly lower compard to control sites( p< 0.001). Areas with low number of larger plant species (p=0.03) that were not too close to a vegetation patch(p<0.001) were selected for breeding habitat.

Keywords: Asiatic houbara bustard, Habitat selection, Nest, pellet.

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9 Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Using Percentage Change as the Universe of Discourse

Authors: Meredith Stevenson, John E. Porter

Abstract:

Since the pioneering work of Zadeh, fuzzy set theory has been applied to a myriad of areas. Song and Chissom introduced the concept of fuzzy time series and applied some methods to the enrollments of the University of Alabama. In recent years, a number of techniques have been proposed for forecasting based on fuzzy set theory methods. These methods have either used enrollment numbers or differences of enrollments as the universe of discourse. We propose using the year to year percentage change as the universe of discourse. In this communication, the approach of Jilani, Burney, and Ardil is modified by using the year to year percentage change as the universe of discourse. We use enrollment figures for the University of Alabama to illustrate our proposed method. The proposed method results in better forecasting accuracy than existing models.

Keywords: Fuzzy forecasting, fuzzy time series, fuzzified enrollments, time-invariant model

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8 Optimal Control Strategy for High Performance EV Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Mehdi Karbalaye Zadeh, Ehsan M. Siavashi

Abstract:

The controllable electrical loss which consists of the copper loss and iron loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. The control algorithm of current vector minimizing the electrical loss is proposed and the optimal current vector can be decided according to the operating speed and the load conditions. The proposed control algorithm is applied to the experimental PM motor drive system and this paper presents a modern approach of speed control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) applied for Electric Vehicle using a nonlinear control. The regulation algorithms are based on the feedback linearization technique. The direct component of the current is controlled to be zero which insures the maximum torque operation. The near unity power factor operation is also achieved. More over, among EV-s motor electric propulsion features, the energy efficiency is a basic characteristic that is influenced by vehicle dynamics and system architecture. For this reason, the EV dynamics are taken into account.

Keywords: PMSM, Electric Vehicle, Optimal control, Traction.

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7 Reviewing the Relation of Language and Minorities' Rights

Authors: Mohsen Davarzani, Ehsan Lame, Mohammad Taghi Hassan Zadeh

Abstract:

Language is considered as a powerful and outstanding feature of ethnicity. However, humiliating and prohibiting using human language is one the most heinous and brutal acts in the form of racism. In other words, racism can be a product of physiological humiliations and discrimination, such as skin color, and can also be resulted from ethnic humiliation and discrimination such as language, customs and so on. Ethnic and racial discrimination is one of the main problems of the world that minorities and occasionally the majority have suffered from. Nowadays, few states can be found in which all individuals and its citizens are of the same race and ethnicity, culture and language. In these countries, referred to as the multinational states, (eg, Iran, Switzerland, India, etc.), there are the communities and groups which have their own linguistic, cultural and historical characteristics. Characteristics of human rights issues, diversity of issues and plurality of meanings indicate that they appear in various aspects. The states are obliged to respect, as per national and international obligations, the rights of all citizens from different angles, especially different groups that require special attention in order of the particular aspects such as ethnicity, religious and political minorities, children, women, workers, unions and in case the states are in breach of any of these items, they are faced with challenges in local, regional or international fields.

Keywords: Law, language, minorities, ethnicity.

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6 Absorbed Dose Measurement in Gonads Menduring Abdominal and Pelvicradiotherapy

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi, Ali Asghar Yousefi, Somayeh Nourollahi, Fatemeh Noughani

Abstract:

Two different testicular tissues have to be distinguished in regard to radiation damage: first the seminiferous tubules, corresponding to the sites of spermatogenesis, which are extremely radiosensitive. Second the testosterone secreting Leydig cells, which are considered to be less radiosensitive. This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from Abdominal and pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 15 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber and TLD. For transmission Factor Also common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate Ionisation chambers. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 100 cGy, testicular dose was 2.96-8.12 cGy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The treatment at parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose, Abdominal and pelvic, gonads men, Radiotherapy.

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5 Seismic Behaviour of Steel Frames Investigation with Knee Brace Based on Pushover Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Abdolreza Zare, Hossein Abbas zadeh

Abstract:

The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. In this framing system, a special form of diagonal brace connected to a knee element instead of beam-column joint, is investigated. Recently, a similar system was proposed and named as chevron knee bracing system (CKB) which in comparison with the former system has a better energy absorption characteristic and at the same time retains the elastic nature of the structures. Knee bracing can provide a stiffer bracing system but reduces the ductility of the steel frame. Chevron knee bracing can be employed to provide the desired ductility level for a design. In this article, relation between seismic performance and structural parameters of the two above mentioned systems are investigated and compared. Frames with similar dimensions but various heights in both systems are designed according to Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of building, and then based on a non-linear push over static analysis; the seismic parameters such as behavior factor and performance levels are compared.

Keywords: Seismic behaviour, ordinary knee bracing frame, Chevron knee brace, behaviour factor, performance level.

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4 Multistage Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Malmquist Productivity Index Using Grey's System Theory to Evaluate Performance of Electric Power Supply Chain in Iran

Authors: Mesbaholdin Salami, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh

Abstract:

Evaluation of organizational performance is among the most important measures that help organizations and entities continuously improve their efficiency. Organizations can use the existing data and results from the comparison of units under investigation to obtain an estimation of their performance. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is an important index in the evaluation of overall productivity, which considers technological developments and technical efficiency at the same time. This article proposed a model based on the multistage MPI, considering limited data (Grey’s theory). This model can evaluate the performance of units using limited and uncertain data in a multistage process. It was applied by the electricity market manager to Iran’s electric power supply chain (EPSC), which contains uncertain data, to evaluate the performance of its actors. Results from solving the model showed an improvement in the accuracy of future performance of the units under investigation, using the Grey’s system theory. This model can be used in all case studies, in which MPI is used and there are limited or uncertain data.

Keywords: Malmquist Index, Grey's Theory, Charnes Cooper & Rhodes (CCR) Model, network data envelopment analysis, Iran electricity power chain.

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3 On the Design of Shape Memory Alloy Locking Mechanism: A Novel Solution for Laparoscopic Ligation Process

Authors: Reza Yousefian, Michael A. Kia, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh

Abstract:

The blood ducts must be occluded to avoid loss of blood from vessels in laparoscopic surgeries. This paper presents a locking mechanism to be used in a ligation laparoscopic procedure (LigLAP I), as an alternative solution for a stapling procedure. Currently, stapling devices are being used to occlude vessels. Using these devices may result in some problems, including injury of bile duct, taking up a great deal of space behind the vessel, and bile leak. In this new procedure, a two-layer suture occludes a vessel. A locking mechanism is also required to hold the suture. Since there is a limited space at the device tip, a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator is used in this mechanism. Suitability for cleanroom applications, small size, and silent performance are among the advantages of SMA actuators in biomedical applications. An experimental study is conducted to examine the function of the locking mechanism. To set up the experiment, a prototype of a locking mechanism is built using nitinol, which is a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The locking mechanism successfully locks a polymer suture for all runs of the experiment. In addition, the effects of various surface materials on the applied pulling forces are studied. Various materials are mounted at the mechanism tip to compare the maximum pulling forces applied to the suture for each material. The results show that the various surface materials on the device tip provide large differences in the applied pulling forces.

Keywords: Laparoscopic surgery, ligation process, locking mechanism, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator.

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