**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1605

# Search results for: Ripple factor

##### 1605 Analysis and Experimentation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Ripple Steering for Power Factor Correction

**Authors:**
A. Inba Rexy,
R. Seyezhai

**Abstract:**

Through the fast growing technologies, design of power factor correction (PFC) circuit is facing several challenges. In this paper, a two-phase interleaved boost converter with ripple steering technique is proposed. Among the various topologies, Interleaved Boost converter (IBC) is considered as superior due to enriched performance, lower ripple content, compact weight and size. A thorough investigation is presented here for the proposed topology. Simulation study for the IBC has been carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Theoretical analysis and hardware prototype has been performed to validate the results.

**Keywords:**
Interleaved Boost Converter (IBC),
Power Factor Correction (PFC),
Ripple Steering Technique,
Ripple,
and Simulation.

##### 1604 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

**Authors:**
T. Mohammed Chikouche,
K. Hartani

**Abstract:**

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

**Keywords:**
Power quality,
direct power control,
power ripple,
switching table,
unity power factor.

##### 1603 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

**Authors:**
Ahmad Zahran,
Ahmed Herzallah,
Ahmad Ahmad,
Mahran Quraan

**Abstract:**

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

**Keywords:**
Cockcroft-Walton circuit,
Harmonics,
Ripple factor,
HVDC generator.

##### 1602 Three-Level Converters Back-to-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

**Authors:**
T. Abdelkrim,
K. Benamrane,
B. Bezza,
Aeh Benkhelifa,
A. Borni

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

**Keywords:**
Back-to-back connection,
Feedback control,
Neutral-point balance,
Three-level converter,
Torque ripple.

##### 1601 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

**Authors:**
P. Srinivas,
P. V. N. Prasad

**Abstract:**

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands.

The DTC of SRM is analyzed by two methods. In one method, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model.

**Keywords:**
Direct Toque Control,
Simplified Torque Equation,
Finite Element Analysis,
Torque Ripple.

##### 1600 Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of 4-Phase Boost Converter

**Authors:**
Nagulapati Kiran,
V. Rangavalli,
B. Vanajakshi

**Abstract:**

This paper designs the four-phase Boost Converter which overcomes the problem of high input ripple current and output ripple voltage. Digital control is more convenient for such a topology on basis of synchronization, phase shift operation, etc. Simulation results are presented for open-loop and closed-loop for four phase boost converter. This control scheme is applicable for PFC rectifiers as well. Thus a comparative analysis based on the obtained results is performed.

**Keywords:**
Boost Converter,
Bode plot,
PI Controller,
Four phase.

##### 1599 Design and Simulation of CCM Boost Converter for Power Factor Correction Using Variable Duty Cycle Control

**Authors:**
M. Nirmala

**Abstract:**

Power quality in terms of power factor, THD and precisely regulated output voltage are the major key factors for efficient operation of power electronic converters. This paper presents an easy and effective active wave shaping control scheme for the pulsed input current drawn by the uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier thereby achieving power factor nearer to unity and also satisfying the THD specifications. It also regulates the output DC-bus voltage. CCM boost power factor correction with constant frequency operation features smaller inductor current ripple resulting in low RMS currents on inductor and switch thus leading to low electromagnetic interference. The objective of this work is to develop an active PFC control circuit using CCM boost converter implementing variable duty cycle control. The proposed scheme eliminates inductor current sensing requirements yet offering good performance and satisfactory results for maintaining the power quality. Simulation results have been presented which covers load changes also.

**Keywords:**
CCM Boost converter,
Power factor Correction,
Total harmonic distortion,
Variable Duty Cycle.

##### 1598 Torque Ripple Minimization in Switched Reluctance Motor Using Passivity-Based Robust Adaptive Control

**Authors:**
M.M. Namazi,
S.M. Saghaiannejad,
A. Rashidi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Switched Reluctance Motor,
Port HamiltonianSystem,
Passivity-Based Control,
Torque Ripple Minimization

##### 1597 Improved Modulo 2n +1 Adder Design

**Authors:**
Somayeh Timarchi,
Keivan Navi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Modulo 2n+1 arithmetic,
residue number
system,
low power,
ripple-carry adders.

##### 1596 Design Optimization of a Double Stator Cup- Rotor Machine

**Authors:**
E. Diryak,
P. Lefley,
L. Petkovska,
G. Cvetkovski

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Permanent magnet machine,
low- cogging torque,
low- ripple torque,
high- electromagnetic torque,
design optimization.

##### 1595 Sensitivity Analysis of External-Rotor Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

**Authors:**
Hadi Aghazadeh,
Seyed Ebrahim Afjei,
Alireza Siadatan

**Abstract:**

In this paper, a proper approach is taken to assess a set of the most effective rotor design parameters for an external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMaSynRM) and therefore to tackle the design complexity of the rotor structure. There are different advantages for introducing permanent magnets into the rotor flux barriers, some of which are to saturate the rotor iron ribs, to increase the motor torque density and to improve the power factor. Moreover, the d-axis and q-axis inductances are of great importance to simultaneously achieve maximum developed torque and low torque ripple. Therefore, sensitivity analysis of the rotor geometry of an 8-pole external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor is performed. Several magnetically accurate finite element analyses (FEA) are conducted to characterize the electromagnetic performance of the motor. The analyses validate torque and power factor equations for the proposed external-rotor motor. Based upon the obtained results and due to an additional term, permanent magnet torque, added to the reluctance torque, the electromagnetic torque of the PMaSynRM increases.

**Keywords:**
Permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor,
flux barrier,
flux carrier,
electromagnetic torque,
and power factor.

##### 1594 A Topology for High Voltage Gain Half-Bridge Z-Source Inverter with Low Voltage Stress on Capacitors

**Authors:**
M. Nageswara Rao

**Abstract:**

In this paper, a topology for high voltage gain half-bridge z-source inverter with low voltage stress on capacitors is proposed. The proposed inverter has only one impedance network. It can generate symmetric and asymmetric voltages with different magnitudes during both half-cycles. By selecting the duty cycle it can also produce conventional half-bridge inverter characteristics. It is used in special applications like, electrochemical and electro plating applications. Calculations of voltage ripple of capacitors, capacitors voltage stress inductors current ripple are presented. The proposed topology is simulated using PSCAD software and the simulated values are compared with the theoretical values.

**Keywords:**
Half-bridge inverter,
impedance network-source inverter,
high voltage gain inverter,
power system computer aided design.

##### 1593 IIR Filter design with Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

**Authors:**
Suman Kumar Saha,
Rajib Kar,
Durbadal Mandal,
S. P. Ghoshal

**Abstract:**

This paper demonstrates the application of craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) technique for designing the 8th order low pass Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. CRPSO, the much improved version of PSO, is a population based global heuristic search algorithm which finds near optimal solution in terms of a set of filter coefficients. Effectiveness of this algorithm is justified with a comparative study of some well established algorithms, namely, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation results affirm that the proposed algorithm CRPSO, outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output i.e. sharpness at cut-off, pass band ripple, stop band ripple, and stop band attenuation but also in convergence speed with assured stability.

**Keywords:**
IIR Filter,
RGA,
PSO,
CRPSO,
Evolutionary Optimization Techniques,
Low Pass (LP) Filter,
Magnitude
Response,
Pole-Zero Plot,
Stability.

##### 1592 Comparison of Zero Voltage Soft Switching and Hard Switching Boost Converter with Maximum Power Point Tracking

**Authors:**
N. Ravi Kumar,
R. Kamalakannan

**Abstract:**

The inherent nature of normal boost converter has more voltage stress across the power electronics switch and ripple. The presented formation of the front end rectifier stage for a photovoltaic (PV) organization is mainly used to give the supply. Further increasing of the solar efficiency is achieved by connecting the zero voltage soft switching boost converter. The zero voltage boost converter is used to convert the low level DC voltage to high level DC voltage. The inherent nature of zero voltage switching boost converter is used to shrink the voltage tension across the power electronics switch and ripple. The input stage allows the determined power point tracking to be used to extract supreme power from the sun when it is available. The hardware setup was implemented by using PIC Micro controller (16F877A).

**Keywords:**
Boost converter,
duty cycle,
hard switching,
MOSFET,
maximum power point tracking,
photovoltaic,
soft switching,
zero voltage switching.

##### 1591 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood,
[a,
b]-factor,
Hamiltonian [a,
b]-factor.

##### 1590 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graph,
neighborhood,
factor,
Hamiltonian factor.

##### 1589 Modeling and Simulation of PSM DC-DC Buck Converter

**Authors:**
Ramamurthy S,
Vanaja Ranjan P

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
DC/DC Converter,
Pulse Skipping Modulation,
Buckregulator,
Modulation Factor,
Electromagnetic Interference

##### 1588 Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Open-Source Software Scilab/Xcos

**Authors:**
Yin Yin Phyo,
Tun Lin Naing

**Abstract:**

This paper investigated the simulation of two-phase interleaved boost converter (IBC) with free and open-source software Scilab/Xcos. By using interleaved method, it can reduce current stress on components, components size, input current ripple and output voltage ripple. The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuit of its different four modes of operation for simulation. The equivalent circuits are considered in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The average values of the system variables are derived from the state-space equation to find the equilibrium point. Scilab is now becoming more and more popular among students, engineers and scientists because it is open-source software and free of charge. It gives a great convenience because it has powerful computation and simulation function. The waveforms of output voltage, input current and inductors current are obtained by using Scilab/Xcos.

**Keywords:**
Two-phase boost converter,
continuous conduction mode,
free and open-source,
interleaved method,
dynamic simulation.

##### 1587 Submicron Laser-Induced Dot, Ripple and Wrinkle Structures and Their Applications

**Authors:**
P. Slepicka,
N. Slepickova Kasalkova,
I. Michaljanicova,
O. Nedela,
Z. Kolska,
V. Svorcik

**Abstract:**

Polymers exposed to laser or plasma treatment or modified with different wet methods which enable the introduction of nanoparticles or biologically active species, such as amino-acids, may find many applications both as biocompatible or anti-bacterial materials or on the contrary, can be applied for a decrease in the number of cells on the treated surface which opens application in single cell units. For the experiments, two types of materials were chosen, a representative of non-biodegradable polymers, polyethersulphone (PES) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as biodegradable material. Exposure of solid substrate to laser well below the ablation threshold can lead to formation of various surface structures. The ripples have a period roughly comparable to the wavelength of the incident laser radiation, and their dimensions depend on many factors, such as chemical composition of the polymer substrate, laser wavelength and the angle of incidence. On the contrary, biopolymers may significantly change their surface roughness and thus influence cell compatibility. The focus was on the surface treatment of PES and PHB by pulse excimer KrF laser with wavelength of 248 nm. The changes of physicochemical properties, surface morphology, surface chemistry and ablation of exposed polymers were studied both for PES and PHB. Several analytical methods involving atomic force microscopy, gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and others were used for the analysis of the treated surface. It was found that the combination of certain input parameters leads not only to the formation of optimal narrow pattern, but to the combination of a ripple and a wrinkle-like structure, which could be an optimal candidate for cell attachment. The interaction of different types of cells and their interactions with the laser exposed surface were studied. It was found that laser treatment contributes as a major factor for wettability/contact angle change. The combination of optimal laser energy and pulse number was used for the construction of a surface with an anti-cellular response. Due to the simple laser treatment, we were able to prepare a biopolymer surface with higher roughness and thus significantly influence the area of growth of different types of cells (U-2 OS cells).

**Keywords:**
Polymer treatment,
laser,
periodic pattern,
cell response.

##### 1586 Swarm Intelligence based Optimal Linear Phase FIR High Pass Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach

**Authors:**
Sangeeta Mandal,
Rajib Kar,
Durbadal Mandal,
Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
FIR Filter; PSO-CFIWA; PSO; Parks and McClellanAlgorithm,
Evolutionary Optimization Technique; MagnitudeResponse; Convergence; High Pass Filter

##### 1585 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions

**Authors:**
Göksu Gözen Citak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Attitudes toward violence,
confirmatory factor analysis,
constructing attitude scale,
exploratory factor analysis,
violence on televisions.

##### 1584 DTC-SVM Scheme for Induction Motors Fedwith a Three-level Inverter

**Authors:**
Ehsan Hassankhan,
Davood A. Khaburi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Direct torque control,
space vector Pulsewidthmodulation(SVPWM),
neutral point clamped(NPC),
two-levelinverter.

##### 1583 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method

**Authors:**
Dariush Semnani,
Javad Yekrang,
Hossein Ghayoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Surface roughness,
Nonwoven,
Machine vision,
Image processing.

##### 1582 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

**Authors:**
S. Taghvamanesh,
R. Ziaie Moayed

**Abstract:**

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

**Keywords:**
Bearing capacity,
Bearing capacity factor,
irregular foundation,
shallow foundation.

##### 1581 Energy Efficiency Testing of Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED)

**Authors:**
Hari Maghfiroh,
Harry Prabowo

**Abstract:**

WOLED is widely used as lighting for high efficacy and little power consumption. In this research, power factor testing between WOLED and fluorescent lamp to see which one is more efficient in consuming energy. Since both lamps use semiconductor components, so calculation of the power factor need to consider the effects of harmonics. Harmonic make bigger losses. The study is conducted by comparing the value of the power factor regardless of harmonics (DPF) and also by included the harmonics (TPF). The average value of DPF of fluorescent is 0.953 while WOLED is 0.972. The average value of TPF of fluorescent is 0.717 whereas WOLED is 0.933. So from the review of power factor WOLED is more energy efficient than fluorescent lamp.

**Keywords:**
Fluorescent,
harmonic,
power factor,
WOLED.

##### 1580 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

**Authors:**
Oznur Korukcu,
Kamile Kukulu,
Mehmet Z. Firat

**Abstract:**

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

**Keywords:**
Confirmatory factor analysis,
cross-cultural research,
exploratory factor analysis,
fear of childbirth.

##### 1579 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames

**Authors:**
Taïeb Branci,
Djamal Yahmi,
Abdelhamid Bouchair,
Eric Fourneley

**Abstract:**

According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.

**Keywords:**
Behavior,
code,
frame,
ductility,
overstrength,
redundancy,
plastic.

##### 1578 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Hongxia Liu

**Abstract:**

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

**Keywords:**
Graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood union,
fractional k-factor,
fractional k-deleted graph.

##### 1577 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

**Authors:**
T. Francis Thamburaj,
A. Aloysius

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cognitive complexity metric,
cognitive weighted
polymorphism factor,
object-oriented metrics,
polymorphism factor,
software metrics.

##### 1576 Control of Grid Connected PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System with Back-To-Back Converter Topology Using Resonant Controller

**Authors:**
Fekkak Bouazza,
Menaa Mohamed,
Loukriz Abdelhamid,
Krim Mohamed L.

**Abstract:**

This paper presents modeling and control strategy for the grid connected wind turbine system based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The considered system is based on back-to-back converter topology. The Grid Side Converter (GSC) achieves the DC bus voltage control and unity power factor. The Machine Side Converter (MSC) assures the PMSG speed control. The PMSG is used as a variable speed generator and connected directly to the turbine without gearbox. The pitch angle control is not either considered in this study. Further, Optimal Tip Speed Ratio (OTSR) based MPPT control strategy is used to ensure the most energy efficiency whatever the wind speed variations. A filter (L) is put between the GSC and the grid to reduce current ripple and to improve the injected power quality. The proposed grid connected wind system is built under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and performance of its control strategies.

**Keywords:**
Wind,
grid,
PMSG,
MPPT,
OTSR.