Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1554

Search results for: Rigid body motion

1554 An Optimal Control Problem for Rigid Body Motions on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimize the integral of the square norm of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal control, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, maximum principle, lie group, Rigid body motion, Lorentz metric.

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1553 Planning Rigid Body Motions and Optimal Control Problem on Lie Group SO(2, 1)

Authors: Nemat Abazari, Ilgin Sager

Abstract:

In this paper smooth trajectories are computed in the Lie group SO(2, 1) as a motion planning problem by assigning a Frenet frame to the rigid body system to optimize the cost function of the elastic energy which is spent to track a timelike curve in Minkowski space. A method is proposed to solve a motion planning problem that minimizes the integral of the Lorentz inner product of Darboux vector of a timelike curve. This method uses the coordinate free Maximum Principle of Optimal control and results in the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The presence of several conversed quantities inherent in these Hamiltonian systems aids in the explicit computation of the rigid body motions.

Keywords: Optimal control, Hamiltonian vector field, Darboux vector, maximum principle, lie group, rigid body motion, Lorentz metric.

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1552 Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators

Authors: E. Abedi, A. Ahmadi Nadooshan, S. Salehi

Abstract:

Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller design.

Keywords: Flexible manipulator, flexible link, dynamicmodeling, end point.

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1551 Rigid and Non-rigid Registration of Binary Objects using the Weighted Ratio Image

Authors: Panos Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent similarity criterion for rigid and non-rigid body registration of binary objects. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the raios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation.

Keywords: rigid and non-rigid body registration, binary objects

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1550 Influence Analysis of Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Structure Parameters

Authors: Liu Shengnan, Sun Liping, Zhu Jianxun

Abstract:

Based on three dimensional potential flow theory and hinged rigid body motion equations, structure RAOs of Pelamis wave energy converter is analyzed. Analysis of numerical simulation is carried out on Pelamis in the irregular wave conditions, and the motion response of structures and total generated power is obtained. The paper analyzes influencing factors on the average power including diameter of floating body, section form of floating body, draft, hinged stiffness and damping. The optimum parameters are achieved in Zhejiang Province. Compared with the results of the pelamis experiment made by Glasgow University, the method applied in this paper is feasible.

Keywords: Pelamis, Hinge, Floating multibody, Wave energy

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1549 Motion Control of a Ball Throwing Robot with a Flexible Robotic Arm

Authors: Yizhi Gai, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Takanori Emaru

Abstract:

Motion control of flexible arms is more difficult than that of rigid arms, however utilizing its dynamics enables improved performance such as a fast motion in short operation time. This paper investigates a ball throwing robot with one rigid link and one flexible link. This robot throws a ball at a set speed with a proper control torque. A mathematical model of this ball throwing robot is derived through Hamilton’s principle. Several patterns of torque input are designed and tested through the proposed simulation models. The parameters of each torque input pattern is optimized and determined by chaos embedded vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (CEVEPSO). Then, the residual vibration of the manipulator after throwing is suppressed with input shaping technique. Finally, a real experiment is set up for the model checking.

Keywords: Motion control, flexible robotic arm, CEVEPSO, ball throwing robot.

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1548 2D Human Motion Regeneration with Stick Figure Animation Using Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers.

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1547 Human Motion Regeneration in 2-Dimension as Stick Figure Animation with Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, Darwin Gouwanda, S.M.N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers

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1546 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Ismahafezi Ismail, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

Abstract:

The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time.

Keywords: Computer animation, humanoid motion, motion capture, motion editing.

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1545 An Immersive Motion Capture Environment

Authors: Daniel Kade, Oğuzhan Özcan, Rikard Lindell

Abstract:

Motion capturing technology has been used for quite a while and several research has been done within this area. Nevertheless, we discovered open issues within current motion capturing environments. In this paper we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the addressed research areas and show issues with current motion capturing environments. Observations, interviews and questionnaires have been used to reveal the challenges actors are currently facing in a motion capturing environment. Furthermore, the idea to create a more immersive motion capturing environment to improve the acting performances and motion capturing outcomes as a potential solution is introduced. It is hereby the goal to explain the found open issues and the developed ideas which shall serve for further research as a basis. Moreover, a methodology to address the interaction and systems design issues is proposed. A future outcome could be that motion capture actors are able to perform more naturally, especially if using a non-body-worn solution.

Keywords: Immersive acting environment, Interaction in a mediated environment, Motion capturing, MoCap.

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1544 Non-Rigid Registration of Medical Images Using an Automated Method

Authors: Panos Kotsas

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent registration criterion for non-rigid body registration of medical images. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the ratios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation. The geometric transformation model adopted is a local cubic B-splines based model.

Keywords: Medical image, non-rigid, registration.

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1543 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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1542 Effect of Robot Configuration Parameters, Masses and Friction on Painlevé Paradox for a Sliding Two-Link (P-R) Robot

Authors: Hassan M. Alkomy, Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Ahmed S. Ashour, Khaled T. Mohamed

Abstract:

For a rigid body sliding on a rough surface, a range of uncertainty or non-uniqueness of solution could be found, which is termed: Painlevé paradox. Painlevé paradox is the reason of a wide range of bouncing motion, observed during sliding of robotic manipulators on rough surfaces. In this research work, the existence of the paradox zone during the sliding motion of a two-link (P-R) robotic manipulator with a unilateral constraint is investigated. Parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of friction, link-length ratio, total height and link-mass ratio on the paradox zone.

Keywords: Dynamical system, friction, multibody system, Painlevé paradox, robotic systems, sliding robots, unilateral constraint.

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1541 Simulation of Sloshing behavior using Moving Grid and Body Force Methods

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating container are simulated numerically to assess the numerical approach for studying two-phase flows under oscillating conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating container directly using the moving grid of the ALE method, and the other is to simulate the effect of container motion using the oscillating body force acting on the fluid in the stationary container. The two-phase flow field in the container is simulated using the level set method in both cases. It is found that the calculated results by the body force method coinsides with those by the moving grid method and the sloshing behavior is predicted well by both the methods. Theoretical back ground and limitation of the body force method are discussed, and the effects of oscillation amplitude and frequency are shown.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, oscillation, moving grid, body force

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1540 Ray Tracing Technique based 60 GHz Band Propagation Modelling and Influence of People Shadowing

Authors: A. Khafaji, R. Saadane, J. El Abbadi, M. Belkasmi

Abstract:

The main objectif of this paper is to present a tool that we have developed subject to characterize and modelling indoor radio channel propagation at millimetric wave. The tool is based on the ray tracing technique (RTT). As, in realistic environment we cannot neglect the significant impact of Human Body Shadowing and other objects in motion on indoor 60 GHz propagation channel. Hence, our proposed model allows a simulation of propagation in a dynamic indoor environment. First, we describe a model of human body. Second, RTT with this model is used to simulate the propagation of millimeter waves in the presence of persons in motion. Results of the simulation show that this tool gives results in agreement with those reported in the literature. Specially, the effects of people motion on temporal channel properties.

Keywords: Simulation. 60 GHz band, Ray Tracing Technique, Indoor channel, Propagation, Human Body Model, Level crossing rate,

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1539 A Study on Numerical Modelling of Rigid Pavement: Temperature and Thickness Effect

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Pavement engineering plays a significant role to develop cost effective and efficient highway and road networks. In general, pavement regarding structure is categorized in two core group namely flexible and rigid pavements. There are various benefits in application of rigid pavement. For instance, they have a longer life and lower maintenance costs in compare with the flexible pavement. In rigid pavement designs, temperature and thickness are two effective parameters that could widely affect the total cost of the project. In this study, a numerical modeling using Kenpave-Kenslab was performed to investigate the effect of these two important parameters in the rigid pavement.   

Keywords: Rigid pavement, Kenpave, Kenslab, thickness, temperature.

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1538 Dynamic Modeling of a Robot for Playing a Curved 3D Percussion Instrument Utilizing a Finite Element Method

Authors: Prakash Persad, Kelvin Loutan, Jr., Trichelle Seepersad

Abstract:

The Finite Element Method is commonly used in the analysis of flexible manipulators to predict elastic displacements and develop joint control schemes for reducing positioning error. In order to preserve simplicity, regular geometries, ideal joints and connections are assumed. This paper presents the dynamic FE analysis of a 4- degrees of freedom open chain manipulator, intended for striking a curved 3D surface percussion musical instrument. This was done utilizing the new MultiBody Dynamics Module in COMSOL, capable of modeling the elastic behavior of a body undergoing rigid body type motion.

Keywords: Dynamic modeling, Entertainment robots, Finite element method, Flexible robot manipulators, Multibody dynamics, Musical robots.

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1537 Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect

Authors: Yasuhisa Tamura, Koji Yamaoka, Masataka Uehara, Takeshi Shima

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.

Keywords: Flying disc, throwing movement, Kinect, capture, feedback

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1536 2D Rigid Registration of MR Scans using the 1d Binary Projections

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent registration criterion for 2D rigid body registration of medical images using 1D binary projections. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio of two projections. The ratio is computed on a pixel per pixel basis and weighting is performed by setting the ratios between one and zero pixels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the one areas of the two projections and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation using n=5 points. The sum of x and y projections is used for translational adjustment and a 45deg projection for rotational adjustment. 20 T1- T2 registration experiments were performed and gave mean errors 1.19deg and 1.78 pixels. The method is suitable for contour/surface matching. Further research is necessary to determine the robustness of the method with regards to threshold, shape and missing data.

Keywords: Medical image, projections, registration, rigid.

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1535 Dao Embodied – Embodying Dao: The Body as Locus of Personal Cultivation in Ancient Daoist and Confucian Philosophy

Authors: Geir Sigurðsson

Abstract:

This paper compares ancient Daoist and Confucian approaches to the human body as a locus for learning, edification or personal cultivation. While pointing out some major differences between ancient Chinese and mainstream Western visions of the body, it seeks at the same time inspiration in some seminal Western phenomenological and post-structuralist writings, in particular from Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Pierre Bourdieu. By clarifying the somewhat dissimilar scopes of foci found in Daoist and Confucian philosophies with regard to the role of and attitude to the body, the conclusion is nevertheless that their approaches are comparable, and that both traditions take the physical body to play a vital role in the cultivation of excellence. Lastly, it will be argued that cosmological underpinnings prevent the Confucian li from being rigid and invariable and that it rather emerges as a flexible learning device to train through active embodiment a refined sensibility for one’s cultural environment.

Keywords: Body, Confucianism, Daoism, li, phenomenology, ritual.

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1534 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

Abstract:

Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: Human Motion Capture, Computer Vision, Vision based, Tracking.

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1533 Extracting Human Body based on Background Estimation in Modified HLS Color Space

Authors: Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang, Jong-Wook Han, Ki-Young Moon

Abstract:

The ability to recognize humans and their activities by computer vision is a very important task, with many potential application. Study of human motion analysis is related to several research areas of computer vision such as the motion capture, detection, tracking and segmentation of people. In this paper, we describe a segmentation method for extracting human body contour in modified HLS color space. To estimate a background, the modified HLS color space is proposed, and the background features are estimated by using the HLS color components. Here, the large amount of human dataset, which was collected from DV cameras, is pre-processed. The human body and its contour is successfully extracted from the image sequences.

Keywords: Background Subtraction, Human Silhouette Extraction, HLS Color Space, and Object Segmentation

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1532 Motion Protection System Design for a Parallel Motion Platform

Authors: Dongsu Wu, Hongbin Gu

Abstract:

A motion protection system is designed for a parallel motion platform with subsided cabin. Due to its complex structure, parallel mechanism is easy to encounter interference problems including link length limits, joints limits and self-collision. Thus a virtual spring algorithm in operational space is developed for the motion protection system to avoid potential damages caused by interference. Simulation results show that the proposed motion protection system can effectively eliminate interference problems and ensure safety of the whole motion platform.

Keywords: Motion protection, motion platform, parallelmechanism, Stewart platform, collision avoidance.

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1531 Combining Laws of Mechanics and Hydrostatics in Non-Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: M. Blokh

Abstract:

Method of combined teaching laws of classical mechanics and hydrostatics in non-inertial reference frames for undergraduate students is proposed. Pressure distribution in a liquid (or gas) moving with acceleration is considered. Combined effect of hydrostatic force and force of inertia on a body immersed in a liquid can lead to paradoxical results, in a motion of pendulum in particular. The body motion under Stokes force influence and forces in rotating reference frames are investigated as well. Problems and difficulties in student perceptions are analyzed.

Keywords: Hydrodynamics, mechanics, non-inertial reference frames, teaching.

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1530 Computational Prediction of Complicated Atmospheric Motion for Spinning or non- Spinning Projectiles

Authors: Dimitrios N. Gkritzapis, Elias E. Panagiotopoulos, Dionissios P. Margaris, Dimitrios G. Papanikas

Abstract:

A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of high spin and fin-stabilized projectiles via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The projectiles is assumed to be both rigid (non-flexible), and rotationally symmetric about its spin axis launched at low and high pitch angles. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectiles maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to wind and gravity. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied from the tabulated database of McCoy-s book. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

Keywords: Constant-Variable aerodynamic coefficients, low and high pitch angles, wind.

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1529 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink.

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1528 Motion Detection Techniques Using Optical Flow

Authors: A. A. Shafie, Fadhlan Hafiz, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

Motion detection is very important in image processing. One way of detecting motion is using optical flow. Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. The method used for finding the optical flow in this project is assuming that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. This technique is later used in developing software for motion detection which has the capability to carry out four types of motion detection. The motion detection software presented in this project also can highlight motion region, count motion level as well as counting object numbers. Many objects such as vehicles and human from video streams can be recognized by applying optical flow technique.

Keywords: Background modeling, Motion detection, Optical flow, Velocity smoothness constant, motion trajectories.

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1527 Breast Motion and Discomfort of Chinese Women in Three Breast Support Conditions

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang, S.M. Shen, Y.K. Yang

Abstract:

Breast motion and discomfort has been studied in Australia, Britain and the United States, while little information was known about the breast motion conditions of Chinese women. The aim of this paper was to study the breast motion and discomfort of Chinese women in no bra condition, daily bra condition and sports bra condition. Breast motion and discomfort of 8 participants was assessed during walking at 5km h-1 and running at 10km h-1. Statistical methods were used to analyze the difference and relationship between breast displacement, perceived breast motion and breast discomfort. Three indexes were developed to evaluate the functions of bras on reducing objective breast motion, subjective breast motion and breast discomfort. The result showed that breast motion of Chinese women was smaller than previous research, which may be resulted from smaller breast size in Asian women.

Keywords: Breast discomfort, breast motion, breast support conditions, Chinese women.

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1526 Performance of Histogram-Based Skin Colour Segmentation for Arms Detection in Human Motion Analysis Application

Authors: Rosalyn R. Porle, Ali Chekima, Farrah Wong, G. Sainarayanan

Abstract:

Arms detection is one of the fundamental problems in human motion analysis application. The arms are considered as the most challenging body part to be detected since its pose and speed varies in image sequences. Moreover, the arms are usually occluded with other body parts such as the head and torso. In this paper, histogram-based skin colour segmentation is proposed to detect the arms in image sequences. Six different colour spaces namely RGB, rgb, HSI, TSL, SCT and CIELAB are evaluated to determine the best colour space for this segmentation procedure. The evaluation is divided into three categories, which are single colour component, colour without luminance and colour with luminance. The performance is measured using True Positive (TP) and True Negative (TN) on 250 images with manual ground truth. The best colour is selected based on the highest TN value followed by the highest TP value.

Keywords: image colour analysis, image motion analysis, skin, wavelet transform.

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1525 Dynamics of a Vapour Bubble inside a Vertical Rigid Cylinder with a Deposit Rib

Authors: S. Mehran, S. Rouhi, F.Rouzbahani, E. Haghgoo

Abstract:

In this paper dynamics of a vapour bubble generated due to a local energy input inside a vertical rigid cylinder and in the absence of buoyancy forces is investigated. Different ratios of the diameter of the rigid cylinder to the maximum radius of the bubble are considered. The Boundary Integral Equation Method is employed for numerical simulation of the problem. Results show that during the collapse phase of the bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder, two liquid micro jets are developed on the top and bottom sides of the vapour bubble and are directed inward. Results also show that existence of a deposit rib inside the vertical rigid cylinder slightly increases the life time of the bubble. It is found that by increasing the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the maximum radius of the bubble, the rate of the growth and collapse phases of the bubble increases and the life time of the bubble decreases.

Keywords: Vapour bubble, Vertical rigid cylinder, Boundaryelement method.

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