Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: Pulse Width

88 Open-Loop Vector Control of Induction Motor with Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

Authors: Karchung, S. Ruangsinchaiwanich

Abstract:

This paper presents open-loop vector control method of induction motor with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. Normally, the closed loop speed control is preferred and is believed to be more accurate. However, it requires a position sensor to track the rotor position which is not desirable to use it for certain workspace applications. This paper exhibits the performance of three-phase induction motor with the simplest control algorithm without the use of a position sensor nor an estimation block to estimate rotor position for sensorless control. The motor stator currents are measured and are transformed to synchronously rotating (d-q-axis) frame by use of Clarke and Park transformation. The actual control happens in this frame where the measured currents are compared with the reference currents. The error signal is fed to a conventional PI controller, and the corrected d-q voltage is generated. The controller outputs are transformed back to three phase voltages and are fed to SVPWM block which generates PWM signal for the voltage source inverter. The open loop vector control model along with SVPWM algorithm is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink software and is experimented and validated in TMS320F28335 DSP board.

Keywords: Electric drive, induction motor, open-loop vector control, space vector pulse width modulation technique.

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87 Elimination of Low Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverter Using Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithm

Authors: N. Ould Cherchali, A. Tlemçani, M. S. Boucherit, A. Morsli

Abstract:

Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, particularly those founded on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Firefly algorithm has appeared in approximately seven years ago, its literature has enlarged considerably with different applications. It is inspired by the behavior of fireflies. The aim of this paper is the application of firefly algorithm for solving a nonlinear algebraic system. This resolution is needed to study the Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation strategy (SHEPWM) to eliminate the low order harmonics; results have been applied on multilevel inverters. The final results from simulations indicate the elimination of the low order harmonics as desired. Finally, experimental results are presented to confirm the simulation results and validate the efficaciousness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Firefly algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, multilelvel inverter, SHEPWM.

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86 Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Authors: M. Nayeemuddin, T. Bramhananda Reddy, M. Vijaya Kumar

Abstract:

Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, acoustic noise, CSVPWM, total harmonic distortion, random PWM algorithm.

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85 Cascaded H-Bridge Five Level Inverter Based Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation for Harmonic Elimination

Authors: S. Selvaperumal, M. S. Sivagamasundari

Abstract:

In this paper, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation technique is employed to eliminate lower order harmonics like third by determination of solving non-linear equations. The cascaded H-bridge five level inverter is driven by the Peripheral Interface Controlled (PIC) Microcontroller 16F877A. The performance of single phase cascaded H-bridge five level inverter with relevant to harmonics and a variety of switches with solar cell as its input source is simulated by employing MATLAB/Simulink. A hardware model is developed to verify the performance of the developed system.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter, total harmonic distortion, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation, MATLAB.

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84 Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.

Keywords: Harmonics, power quality, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion.

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83 Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters

Authors: Kaumil B. Shah, Hina Chandwani

Abstract:

The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.

Keywords: Modular multilevel converter, discontinuous pulse width modulation, switching losses, zero-sequence voltage.

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82 Simplified Space Vector Based Decoupled Switching Strategy for Indirect Vector Controlled Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Syed Munvar Ali, V. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, M. Surya Kalavathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual inverter configuration has been implemented for induction motor drive. This isolated dual inverter is capable to produce high quality of output voltage and minimize common mode voltage (CMV). To this isolated dual inverter a decoupled space vector based pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is proposed. Conventional space vector based PWM (SVPWM) techniques require reference voltage vector calculation and sector identification. The proposed decoupled SVPWM technique generates gating pulses from instantaneous phase voltages and gives a CMV of ±vdc/6. To evaluate proposed algorithm MATLAB based simulation studies are carried on indirect vector controlled open end winding induction motor drive.

Keywords: Inverter configuration, decoupled SVPWM, common mode voltage, vector control.

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81 A Thirteen-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Single Phase Inverter

Authors: P. Varalaxmi, A. Kirubakaran

Abstract:

This paper presents a thirteen-level asymmetrical cascaded H-bridge single phase inverter. In this configuration, the desired output voltage level is achieved by connecting the DC sources in different combinations by triggering the switches. The modes of operation are explained well for positive level generations. Moreover, a comparison is made with conventional topologies of diode clamped, flying capacitors and cascaded-H-bridge and some recently proposed topologies to show the significance of the proposed topology in terms of reduced part counts. The simulation work has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental work is also carried out for lower rating to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed topology. Further the results are presented for different loading conditions.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion, THD.

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80 Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Mohd Tariq

Abstract:

The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.

Keywords: Packed U-Cell inverter, pulse width modulation, five-phase system, induction motor.

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79 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier.

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78 Bipolar PWM and LCL Filter Configuration to Reduce Leakage Currents in Transformerless PV System Connected to Utility Grid

Authors: Shanmuka Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper  presents PV system without considering transformer connected to electric grid. This is considered more economic compared to present PV system. The problem that occurs when transformer is not considered appears with a leakage current near capacitor connected to ground. Bipolar Pulse Width Modulation (BPWM) technique along with filter L-C-L configuration in the circuit is modeled to shrink the leakage current in the circuit. The DC/AC inverter is modeled using H-bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module which is controlled using proposed Bipolar PWM control technique. To extract maximum power, Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) controller is used in this model. Voltage and current regulators are used to determine the reference voltage for the inverter from active and reactive current where reactive current is set to zero. The PLL is modeled to synchronize the measurements. The model is designed with MATLAB Simulation blocks and compared with the methods available in literature survey to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, PV, pulse width modulation, PWM, perturb and observe, phase locked loop.

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77 Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: A. Elnady

Abstract:

This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.

Keywords: Direct power control, PI controller, PD-PWM, and power control.

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76 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor

Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar

Abstract:

The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.

Keywords: Induction motor, multi-level inverters, NPC inverter, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector pulse width modulation.

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75 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: 4-quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency, ATmega 32 microcontrollers.

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74 Nuclear Fuel Safety Threshold Determined by Logistic Regression Plus Uncertainty

Authors: D. S. Gomes, A. T. Silva

Abstract:

Analysis of the uncertainty quantification related to nuclear safety margins applied to the nuclear reactor is an important concept to prevent future radioactive accidents. The nuclear fuel performance code may involve the tolerance level determined by traditional deterministic models producing acceptable results at burn cycles under 62 GWd/MTU. The behavior of nuclear fuel can simulate applying a series of material properties under irradiation and physics models to calculate the safety limits. In this study, theoretical predictions of nuclear fuel failure under transient conditions investigate extended radiation cycles at 75 GWd/MTU, considering the behavior of fuel rods in light-water reactors under reactivity accident conditions. The fuel pellet can melt due to the quick increase of reactivity during a transient. Large power excursions in the reactor are the subject of interest bringing to a treatment that is known as the Fuchs-Hansen model. The point kinetic neutron equations show similar characteristics of non-linear differential equations. In this investigation, the multivariate logistic regression is employed to a probabilistic forecast of fuel failure. A comparison of computational simulation and experimental results was acceptable. The experiments carried out use the pre-irradiated fuels rods subjected to a rapid energy pulse which exhibits the same behavior during a nuclear accident. The propagation of uncertainty utilizes the Wilk's formulation. The variables chosen as essential to failure prediction were the fuel burnup, the applied peak power, the pulse width, the oxidation layer thickness, and the cladding type.

Keywords: Logistic regression, reactivity-initiated accident, safety margins, uncertainty propagation.

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73 A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction

Authors: Jun Wang, Tingcun Wei

Abstract:

The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: DPWM, PLL megafunction, FPGA, time resolution, digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter.

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72 Single Phase 13-Level D-STATCOM Inverter with Distributed System

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

The global energy consumption is increasing persistently and need for distributed power generation through renewable energy is essential. To meet the power requirements for consumers without any voltage fluctuations and losses, modeling and design of multilevel inverter with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) capability is presented. The presented inverter is provided with 13-level cascaded H-bridge topology of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) connected along with inbuilt Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM device provides control of power factor stability at local feeder lines and the inverter eliminates Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The 13-level inverter utilizes 52 switches of each H-bridge is fed with single DC sources separately and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used for switching IGBTs. The control strategy implemented for inverter transmits active power to grid as well as it maintains power factor to be stable with achievement of steady state power transmission. Significant outcome of this project is improvement of output voltage quality with steady state power transmission with low THD. Simulation of inverter with DSTATCOM is performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The scaled prototype model of proposed inverter is built and its results were validated with simulated results.

Keywords: FACTS devices, distributed-Static synchronous compensators, DSTATCOM, total harmonics elimination, modular multilevel converter.

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71 Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: G. Renuka Devi

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.

Keywords: Five-phase induction motor drive, field programmable gate array, indirect field oriented control, multi-phase, space vector pulse width modulation, voltage source inverter, very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language.

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70 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: Active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition.

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69 A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, Zinelaabidine Boudjema, Adil Yahdou

Abstract:

Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.

Keywords: Flying capacitor inverter, multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector modulation, total harmonic distortion, induction motor.

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68 FPGA Based Implementation of Simplified Space Vector PWM Algorithm for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives

Authors: Tapan Trivedi, Pramod Agarwal, Rajendrasinh Jadeja, Pragnesh Bhatt

Abstract:

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation is popular for variable frequency drives. The method has several advantages over carried based PWM and is computation intensive. The implementation of SVPWM for multilevel inverter requires special attention and at the same time consumes considerable resources. Due to faster processing power and reduced over all computational burden, FPGAs are being investigated as an alternative for other controllers. In this paper, a space vector PWM algorithm is implemented using FPGA which requires less computational area and is modular in structure. The algorithm is verified experimentally for Neutral Point Clamped inverter using FPGA development board xc3s5000-4fg900.

Keywords: Modular structure, Multilevel inverter, Space Vector PWM, Switching States.

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67 Experimental Implementation of Model Predictive Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Abdelsalam A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Fast speed drives for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is a crucial performance for the electric traction systems. In this paper, PMSM is derived with a Model-based Predictive Control (MPC) technique. Fast speed tracking is achieved through optimization of the DC source utilization using MPC. The technique is based on predicting the optimum voltage vector applied to the driver. Control technique is investigated by comparing to the cascaded PI control based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). MPC and SVPWM-based FOC are implemented with the TMS320F2812 DSP and its power driver circuits. The designed MPC for a PMSM drive is experimentally validated on a laboratory test bench. The performances are compared with those obtained by a conventional PI-based system in order to highlight the improvements, especially regarding speed tracking response.

Keywords: Permanent magnet synchronous motor, mode predictive control, optimization of DC source utilization, cascaded PI control, space vector pulse width modulation, TMS320F2812 DSP.

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66 Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network

Authors: A. Morsli, A.Tlemçani, N. Ould Cherchali, M. S. Boucherit

Abstract:

This article presents two methods for the compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both methods are applied to a shunt Active Power Filter (sAPF) based on a three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better than P-Q.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, P-Q method, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), shunt Active Power Filter (sAPF), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

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65 Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter

Authors: B. M. Manjunatha, D. V. Ashok Kumar, M. Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV system. To improve the performance of the system the number of voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical results are verified using MATLAB.

Keywords: Diode Clamped, Pulse Width Modulation, total harmonic distortion, Z Source Inverter.

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64 Internal Leakage Analysis from Pd to Pc Port Direction in ECV Body Used in External Variable Type A/C Compressor

Authors: Md. Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho, Seo Hyun Sang, Wang Wen Hai, Chang Heon Yi, Man Ik Hwang, Dae Hoon Kang

Abstract:

Solenoid operated electromagnetic control valve (ECV) playing an important role for car’s air conditioning control system. ECV is used in external variable displacement swash plate type compressor and controls the entire air conditioning system by means of a pulse width modulation (PWM) input signal supplying from an external source (controller). Complete form of ECV contains number of internal features like valve body, core, valve guide, plunger, guide pin, plunger spring, bellows etc. While designing the ECV; dimensions of different internal items must meet the standard requirements as it is quite challenging. In this research paper, especially the dimensioning of ECV body and its three pressure ports through which the air/refrigerant passes are considered. Here internal leakage test analysis of ECV body is being carried out from its discharge port (Pd) to crankcase port (Pc) when the guide valve is placed inside it. The experiments have made both in ordinary and digital system using different assumptions and thereafter compare the results.

Keywords: Electromagnetic control valve (ECV), Leakage, Pressure port, Valve body, Valve guide.

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63 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Ibrahim Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: SVPWM, THD, DC-AC Inverter, Sampling Frequency.

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62 Simulink Model of Reference Frame Theory Based Three Phase Shunt Active Filter

Authors: P. Nammalvar, P. Meganathan, A. Balamuguran

Abstract:

Among various active filters, shunt active filter is a viable solution for reactive power and harmonics compensation. In this paper, the SRF plan is used to generate current reference for compensation and conventional PI controllers were used as the controller to compensate the reactive power. The design of the closed loop controllers is reserved simple by modeling them as first order systems. Computationally uncomplicated and efficient SVM system is used in the present work for better utilization of dc bus voltage. The rating of shunt active filter has been finalized based on the reactive power demand of the selected reactive load. The proposed control and SVM technique are validated by simulating in MATLAB software.

Keywords: Shunt Active Filter, Space vector pulse width modulation, Voltage Source Converter, Reactive Power, Synchronous Reference Frame, Point of common coupling.

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61 Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the comparison made between Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter. Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper, comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.

Keywords: Multi-level inverter, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation, Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Total Harmonic Distortion, Genetic Algorithm.

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60 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son, Rozita Borhan

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: Amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, Frequency Divider, Pulse Generator.

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59 Space Vector PWM and Model Predictive Control for Voltage Source Inverter Control

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for two-level three phase (2L-3P) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). VSI with associated system is subjected to both control techniques and the results are compared. Matlab/Simulink was used to model, simulate and validate the control schemes. Findings of this study show that MPC is superior to SVPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and implementation.

Keywords: Model Predictive Control, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation, Voltage Source Inverter.

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