Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Priya Sepaha

25 Impact of Social Media on the Functioning of the Indian Government: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Priya Sepaha

Abstract:

Social media has loomed as the most effective tool in recent times to flag the causes, contents, opinions and direction of any social movement and has demonstrated that it will have a far-reaching effect on government as well. This study focuses on India which has emerged as the fastest growing community on social media. Social movement activists, in particular, have extensively utilized the power of digital social media to streamline the effectiveness of social protest on a particular issue through extensive successful mass mobilizations. This research analyses the role and impact of social media as a power to catalyze the social movements in India and further seeks to describe how certain social movements are resisted, subverted, co-opted and/or deployed by social media. The impact assessment study has been made with the help of cases, policies and some social movement which India has witnessed the assertion of numerous social issues perturbing the public which eventually paved the way for remarkable judicial decisions. The paper concludes with the observations that despite its pros and cons, the impacts of social media on the functioning of the Indian Government have demonstrated that it has already become an indispensable tool in the hands of social media-suave Indians who are committed to bring about a desired change.

Keywords: Impact, Indian government, misuse, social media, social movement.

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24 First Person View Camera Based Quadcopter with Raspberry Pi

Authors: C. R. Balamurugan, P. Vijayakumar, P. Kiruba, S. Arun Kanna, E. R. Hariprasath, C. Anu Priya

Abstract:

This paper studies in details about the need of quadcopter in various fields especially in the place of remote area where the road transportation facility is very less. It is used to monitor and collect data in a specific region. The movement of this quadcopter is controlled by the Raspberry Pi. FPV camera is used for capturing the image and will transmit the image to the receiver which can be monitored using an android smart phone. This is mainly used for surveillance purpose and hidden activities can be captured.

Keywords: FPV camera, A2212 brushless direct current motor, Raspberry Pi, lithium polymer battery.

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23 Unified Method to Block Pornographic Images in Websites

Authors: Sakthi Priya Balaji R., Vijayendar G.

Abstract:

This paper proposes a technique to block adult images displayed in websites. The filter is designed so as to perform even in exceptional cases such as, where face detection is not possible or improper face visibility. This is achieved by using an alternative phase to extract the MFC (Most Frequent Color) from the Human Body regions estimated using a biometric of anthropometric distances between fixed rigidly connected body locations. The logical results generated can be protected from overriding by a firewall or intrusion, by encrypting the result in a SSH data packet.

Keywords: Face detection, characteristics extraction andclassification, Component based shape analysis and classification, open source SSH V2 protocol

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22 An Analysis of Abortion Laws and Sex Selective Abortion in India: A Case Study of Rajasthan

Authors: Priya Bhakat

Abstract:

A son in every Hindu society pays his own father the debt and he owes him for his own life whereas a girl child is treated as a burden mainly in case of first child. Even today in India we have many societies which does not welcome girl child. Although there is an increase in overall sex ratio, there is a continuous decline in child sex ratio. This paper focuses on issues of sex selective abortion in Rajasthan based on secondary data. It is found that 90.0 percentages of women in Rajasthan wants at least one son. Around 34.3 percentages of women wants more sons than daughters and only 1.5 percentages of women wants more daughters than sons. It is very common among the rich and educated people.

Keywords: Rajasthan, Family Planning Program (FPP), Sex Selective Abortion (SSA), Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB).

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21 IBFO_PSO: Evaluating the Performance of Bio-Inspired Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MANET Routing

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj, C. Rasi Priya, C. Rajan, S. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance of Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization (IBFO_PSO) technique in MANET routing. The BFO is a bio-inspired algorithm, which simulates the foraging behavior of bacteria. It is effectively applied in improving the routing performance in MANET. In results, it is proved that the PSO integrated with BFO reduces routing delay, energy consumption and communication overhead.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Hybrid Routing Intelligent Algorithm, Naturally inspired algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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20 Investigation on Novel Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, N. Shanthi, C. Rasi Priya, K. Geetha

Abstract:

Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, Naturally-inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

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19 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff’s migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modeling, Velocity model.

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18 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: Carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell.

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17 Reversible Signed Division for Computing Systems

Authors: D. Krishnaveni, M. Geetha Priya

Abstract:

Applications of reversible logic gates in the design of complex integrated circuits provide power optimization.  This technique finds a great use in low power CMOS design, optical computing, quantum computing and nanotechnology. This paper proposes a reversible signed division circuit that can divide an n-bit signed dividend with an n-bit signed divisor using non-restoration division logic. The proposed design adequately addresses the ‘delay’ there by improving the efficiency of the circuit. An attempt is made to design a reversible signed division circuit. This paper provides a threshold to build more complex arithmetic systems using reversible logic, thus increasing the performance of computing systems.

Keywords: Low power CMOS, quantum computing, reversible logic gates, shift register, signed division.

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16 A Review: Comparative Study of Enhanced Hierarchical Clustering Protocols in WSN

Authors: M. Sangeetha, A. Sabari, T. Shanthi Priya

Abstract:

Recent advances in wireless networking technologies introduce several energy aware routing protocols in sensor networks. Such protocols aim to extend the lifetime of network by reducing the energy consumption of nodes. Many researchers are looking for certain challenges that are predominant in the grounds of energy consumption. One such protocol that addresses this energy consumption issue is ‘Cluster based hierarchical routing protocol’. In this paper, we intend to discuss some of the major hierarchical routing protocols adhering towards sensor networks. Furthermore, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of few widely explored hierarchical clustering protocols, and its operations in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This paper also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of hierarchical clustering in WSNs.

Keywords: Clustering, Energy Efficiency, Hierarchical routing, Wireless sensor networks.

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15 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Simultaneous Co-Adsorptive Removal of Phenol and Cyanide Using Chitosan

Authors: Bhumica Agarwal, Priya Sengupta, Chandrajit Balomajumder

Abstract:

The present study analyses the potential of acid treated chitosan for simultaneous co-adsorptive removal of phenol and cyanide from a binary waste water solution. The effects of parameters like pH, temperature, initial concentration, adsorbent dose, and adsorbent size were studied. At an optimum pH of 8, temperature of 30⁰C, initial phenol and cyanide concentration of 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L respectively, adsorbent dose of 30 g/L and size between 0.4-0.6 mm the maximum percentage removal of phenol and cyanide was found to be 60.97% and 90.86% respectively. Amongst the adsorption isotherms applied extended Freundlich best depicted the adsorption of both phenol and cyanide based on lowest MPSD value. The kinetics depicted that chemisorption was the adsorption mechanism and intraparticle diffusion is not the only rate controlling step of the reaction. Thermodynamic studies revealed that phenol adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous whereas that of cyanide was an endothermic process.

 

Keywords: Chitosan, Co-adsorption, Cyanide, Phenol.

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14 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM2.5, fugitive, emission inventory.

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13 Investigation on Bio-Inspired Population Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, R. Sasikala

Abstract:

Nature is a great source of inspiration for solving complex problems in networks. It helps to find the optimal solution. Metaheuristic algorithm is one of the nature-inspired algorithm which helps in solving routing problem in networks. The dynamic features, changing of topology frequently and limited bandwidth make the routing, challenging in MANET. Implementation of appropriate routing algorithms leads to the efficient transmission of data in mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of naturally-distributed/collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems. Thus some of the bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms help to increase the efficiency of routing in ad hoc networks. This survey work presents the overview of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms which support the efficiency of routing in mobile ad hoc networks.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization algorithm, Genetic algorithm, naturally inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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12 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

Abstract:

Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: Ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium (Ba)- alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles.

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11 Investigation on Novel Based Naturally-Inspired Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Nature is the immense gifted source for solving complex problems. It always helps to find the optimal solution to solve the problem. Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is a wide research area of networks which has set of independent nodes. The characteristics involved in MANET’s are Dynamic, does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or centralized networks, High mobility. The Bio-Inspired algorithms are mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in MANET. The typical Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Modified Termite Algorithm, Bat Algorithm (BA), Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) and so on. This work mainly concentrated on nature of MANET and behavior of nodes. Also it analyses various performance metrics such as throughput, QoS and End-to-End delay etc.

Keywords: Ant Colony Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Bio-Inspired algorithm, Modified Termite Algorithm.

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10 Screening of Process Variables for the Production of Extracellular Lipase from Palm Oil by Trichoderma Viride using Plackett-Burman Design

Authors: R. Rajendiran, S. Gayathri devi, B.T. SureshKumar, V. Arul Priya

Abstract:

Plackett-Burman statistical screening of media constituents and operational conditions for extracellular lipase production from isolate Trichoderma viride has been carried out in submerged fermentation. This statistical design is used in the early stages of experimentation to screen out unimportant factors from a large number of possible factors. This design involves screening of up to 'n-1' variables in just 'n' number of experiments. Regression coefficients and t-values were calculated by subjecting the experimental data to statistical analysis using Minitab version 15. The effects of nine process variables were studied in twelve experimental trials. Maximum lipase activity of 7.83 μmol /ml /min was obtained in the 6th trail. Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance of the variables affecting the lipase production. The present study concludes that the most significant variables affecting lipase production were found to be palm oil, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and CaCl2.

Keywords: lipase, submerged fermentation, statistical optimization, Trichoderma viride

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9 An Approach to Measure Snow Depth of Winter Accumulation at Basin Scale Using Satellite Data

Authors: M. Geetha Priya, D. Krishnaveni

Abstract:

Snow depth estimation and monitoring studies have been carried out for decades using empirical relationship or extrapolation of point measurements carried out in field. With the development of advanced satellite based remote sensing techniques, a modified approach is proposed in the present study to estimate the winter accumulated snow depth at basin scale. Assessment of snow depth by differencing Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated at the beginning and end of winter season can be experimented for the region of interest (Himalayan and polar regions) accounting for winter accumulation (solid precipitation). The proposed approach is based on existing geodetic method that is being used for glacier mass balance estimation. Considering the satellite datasets purely acquired during beginning and end of winter season, it is possible to estimate the change in depth or thickness for the snow that is accumulated during the winter as it takes one year for the snow to get transformed into firn (snow that has survived one summer or one-year old snow).

Keywords: Digital elevation model, snow depth, geodetic method, snow cover.

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8 Convex Restrictions for Outage Constrained MU-MISO Downlink under Imperfect Channel State Information

Authors: A. Preetha Priyadharshini, S. B. M. Priya

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the MU-MISO downlink scenario, under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The main issue in imperfect CSI is to keep the probability of each user achievable outage rate below the given threshold level. Such a rate outage constraints present significant and analytical challenges. There are many probabilistic methods are used to minimize the transmit optimization problem under imperfect CSI. Here, decomposition based large deviation inequality and Bernstein type inequality convex restriction methods are used to perform the optimization problem under imperfect CSI. These methods are used for achieving improved output quality and lower complexity. They provide a safe tractable approximation of the original rate outage constraints. Based on these method implementations, performance has been evaluated in the terms of feasible rate and average transmission power. The simulation results are shown that all the two methods offer significantly improved outage quality and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: Imperfect channel state information, outage probability, multiuser- multi input single output.

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7 A Review: Comparative Analysis of Arduino Micro Controllers in Robotic Car

Authors: C. Rajan, B. Megala, A. Nandhini, C. Rasi Priya

Abstract:

Robotics brings together several very different engineering areas and skills. There are various types of robot such as humanoid robot, mobile robots, remotely operated vehicles, modern autonomous robots etc. This survey paper advocates the operation of a robotic car (remotely operated vehicle) that is controlled by a mobile phone (communicate on a large scale over a large distance even from different cities). The person makes a call to the mobile phone placed in the car. In the case of a call, if any one of the button is pressed, a tone equivalent to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency). The car recognizes this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the Arduino microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to acquire a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in the forward direction or backward direction or left or right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to cell phone stacked in the car act as a remote.

Keywords: Arduino Micro-controller, Arduino UNO, DTMF, Mobile phone, Robotic car.

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6 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander

Abstract:

Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: Pefloxacin, salmonella, surrogate marker.

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5 Prevalence of Headache among Adult Population in Urban Varanasi, India

Authors: Hari Shankar, Kshitij Raj, Priya Keshari, Pragya Singh

Abstract:

Headache is one of the most ubiquitous and frequent neurological disorders interfering with everyday life in all countries. India appears to be no exception. Objectives are to assess the prevalence of headache among adult population in urban area of Varanasi and to find out factors influencing the occurrence of headache. A community based cross sectional study was conducted among adult population in urban area of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Total 151 eligible respondents were interviewed by simple random sampling technique. Proportion percentage and Chisquare test were applied for data analysis. Out of 151 respondents, majority (58.3%) were females. In this study, 92.8% respondents belonged to age group 18-60 years while 7.2% was either 60 year of age or above. The overall prevalence of headache was found to be 51.1%. Highest and lowest prevalence of headache was recorded in age groups 18-29 year & 40-49 year respectively. Headache was 62.1% in illiterate and was 40.0% among graduate & above. Unskilled workers had more headache 73.1% than other type of occupation. Headache was more prevalent among unemployed (35.9%) than employed (6.4%). Females had higher family history of headache (48.9%) as compared to males (41.3%). Study subjects having peaceful relation with family members, relatives and neighbors had more headache than those having no peaceful relation.  

Keywords: Family relationship, headache, neighbors, ration cards.

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4 Robust & Energy Efficient Universal Gates for High Performance Computer Networks at 22nm Process Technology

Authors: M. Geetha Priya, K. Baskaran, S. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Digital systems are said to be constructed using basic logic gates. These gates are the NOR, NAND, AND, OR, EXOR & EXNOR gates. This paper presents a robust three transistors (3T) based NAND and NOR gates with precise output logic levels, yet maintaining equivalent performance than the existing logic structures. This new set of 3T logic gates are based on CMOS inverter and Pass Transistor Logic (PTL). The new universal logic gates are characterized by better speed and lower power dissipation which can be straightforwardly fabricated as memory ICs for high performance computer networks. The simulation tests were performed using standard BPTM 22nm process technology using SYNOPSYS HSPICE. The 3T NAND gate is evaluated using C17 benchmark circuit and 3T NOR is gate evaluated using a D-Latch. According to HSPICE simulation in 22 nm CMOS BPTM process technology under given conditions and at room temperature, the proposed 3T gates shows an improvement of 88% less power consumption on an average over conventional CMOS logic gates. The devices designed with 3T gates will make longer battery life by ensuring extremely low power consumption.

Keywords: Low power, CMOS, pass-transistor, flash memory, logic gates.

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3 Revised PLWAP Tree with Non-frequent Items for Mining Sequential Pattern

Authors: R. Vishnu Priya, A. Vadivel

Abstract:

Sequential pattern mining is a challenging task in data mining area with large applications. One among those applications is mining patterns from weblog. Recent times, weblog is highly dynamic and some of them may become absolute over time. In addition, users may frequently change the threshold value during the data mining process until acquiring required output or mining interesting rules. Some of the recently proposed algorithms for mining weblog, build the tree with two scans and always consume large time and space. In this paper, we build Revised PLWAP with Non-frequent Items (RePLNI-tree) with single scan for all items. While mining sequential patterns, the links related to the nonfrequent items are not considered. Hence, it is not required to delete or maintain the information of nodes while revising the tree for mining updated transactions. The algorithm supports both incremental and interactive mining. It is not required to re-compute the patterns each time, while weblog is updated or minimum support changed. The performance of the proposed tree is better, even the size of incremental database is more than 50% of existing one. For evaluation purpose, we have used the benchmark weblog dataset and found that the performance of proposed tree is encouraging compared to some of the recently proposed approaches.

Keywords: Sequential pattern mining, weblog, frequent and non-frequent items, incremental and interactive mining.

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2 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Priya

Abstract:

The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.

Keywords: Sleep scheduling, mobile cloud computing, wireless sensor network, integration, location, network lifetime.

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1 Reversible Binary Arithmetic for Integrated Circuit Design

Authors: D. Krishnaveni, M. Geetha Priya

Abstract:

Application of reversible logic in integrated circuits results in the improved optimization of power consumption. This technology can be put into use in a variety of low power applications such as quantum computing, optical computing, nano-technology, and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design etc. Logic gates are the basic building blocks in the design of any logic network and thus integrated circuits. In this paper, reversible Dual Key Gate (DKG) and Dual key Gate Pair (DKGP) gates that work singly as full adder/full subtractor are used to realize the basic building blocks of logic circuits. Reversible full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/ subtractor are designed using other reversible gates available in the literature and compared with that of DKG & DKGP gates. Efficient performance of reversible logic circuits relies on the optimization of the key parameters viz number of constant inputs, garbage outputs and number of reversible gates. The full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/subtractor design with reversible DKGP and DKG gates results in least number of constant inputs, garbage outputs, and number of reversible gates compared to the other designs. Thus, this paper provides a threshold to build more complex arithmetic systems using these reversible logic gates, leading to the enhanced performance of computing systems.

Keywords: Low power CMOS, quantum computing, reversible logic gates, full adder, full subtractor, parallel adder/subtractor, basic gates, universal gates.

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