Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Pressure Wave

8 Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow

Authors: Jae-Young Lee, Woo-Young Jung, Myeong-Jun Nam

Abstract:

Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.

Keywords: Water hammer, hydraulic transient, pipe systems, characteristics method.

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7 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev

Abstract:

Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: Liquid systems, negative pressure, temperature, wave, metastable state.

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6 Computational Study on Cardiac-Coronary Interaction in Terms of Coronary Flow-Pressure Waveforms in Presence of Drugs: Comparison Between Simulated and In Vivo Data

Authors: C. De Lazzari, E. Del Prete, I. Genuini, F. Fedele

Abstract:

Cardiovascular human simulator can be a useful tool in understanding complex physiopathological process in cardiocirculatory system. It can also be a useful tool in order to investigate the effects of different drugs on hemodynamic parameters. The aim of this work is to test the potentiality of our cardiovascular numerical simulator CARDIOSIM© in reproducing flow/pressure coronary waveforms in presence of two different drugs: Amlodipine (AMLO) and Adenosine (ADO). In particular a time-varying intramyocardial compression, assumed to be proportional to the left ventricular pressure, was related to the venous coronary compliances in order to study its effects on the coronary blood flow and the flow/pressure loop. Considering that coronary circulation dynamics is strongly interrelated with the mechanics of the left ventricular contraction, relaxation, and filling, the numerical model allowed to analyze the effects induced by the left ventricular pressure on the coronary flow.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Coronary blood flow, Hemodynamic, Numerical simulation.

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5 Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Jalil Emadi, Abbas Solemani

Abstract:

Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of each input parameter of the application relative to the maximum amount of water hammer estimated by the software. The study determines estimated maximum water hammer variations due to variations of input parameters including water temperature, pipe type, thickness and diameter, electromotor rpm and power, and moment of inertia of electromotor and pump. In our study, Kuhrang Pumping Station was modeled using WaterGEMS Software. The pumping station is characterized by total discharge of 200 liters per second, dynamic height of 194 meters and 1.5 kilometers of steel conveyance pipeline and transports water to Cheshme Morvarid for farmland irrigation. The model was run in steady hydraulic condition and transferred to Hammer Software. Then, the model was run in several unsteady hydraulic conditions and sensitivity of maximum water hammer to each input parameter was calculated. It is shown that parameters to which maximum water hammer is most sensitive are moment of inertia of pump and electromotor, diameter, type and thickness of pipe and water temperature, respectively.

Keywords: Pressure Wave, Water Hammer, Sensitivity Analysis, Hammer Software, Kuhrang, Cheshme Morvarid

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4 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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3 Large-Eddy Simulation of Hypersonic Configuration Aerodynamics

Authors: Huang Shengqin, Xiao Hong

Abstract:

LES with mixed subgrid-scale model has been used to simulate aerodynamic performance of hypersonic configuration. The simulation was conducted to replicate conditions and geometry of a model which has been previously tested. LES Model has been successful in predict pressure coefficient with the max error 1.5% besides afterbody. But in the high Mach number condition, it is poor in predict ability and product 12.5% error. The calculation error are mainly conducted by the distribution swirling. The fact of poor ability in the high Mach number and afterbody region indicated that the mixed subgrid-scale model should be improved in large eddied especially in hypersonic separate region. In the condition of attach and sideslip flight, the calculation results have waves. LES are successful in the prediction the pressure wave in hypersonic flow.

Keywords: Hypersonic, LES, mixed Subgrid-scale model, experiment.

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2 Measuring Pressure Wave Velocity in a Hydraulic System

Authors: Lari Kela, Pekka Vähäoja

Abstract:

Pressure wave velocity in a hydraulic system was determined using piezo pressure sensors without removing fluid from the system. The measurements were carried out in a low pressure range (0.2 – 6 bar) and the results were compared with the results of other studies. This method is not as accurate as measurement with separate measurement equipment, but the fluid is in the actual machine the whole time and the effect of air is taken into consideration if air is present in the system. The amount of air is estimated by calculations and comparisons between other studies. This measurement equipment can also be installed in an existing machine and it can be programmed so that it measures in real time. Thus, it could be used e.g. to control dampers.

Keywords: Bulk modulus, pressure wave, sound velocity.

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1 A Simulation for Estimation of the Blood Pressure using Arterial Pressure-volume Model

Authors: Gye-rok Jeon, Jae-hee Jung, In-cheol Kim, Ah-young Jeon, Sang-hwa Yoon, Jung-man Son, Jae-hyung Kim, Soo-young Ye, Jung-hoon Ro, Dong-hyun Kim, Chul-han Kim

Abstract:

A analysis on the conventional the blood pressure estimation method using an oscillometric sphygmomanometer was performed through a computer simulation using an arterial pressure-volume (APV) model. Traditionally, the maximum amplitude algorithm (MAP) was applied on the oscillation waveforms of the APV model to obtain the mean arterial pressure and the characteristic ratio. The estimation of mean arterial pressure and characteristic ratio was significantly affected with the shape of the blood pressure waveforms and the cutoff frequency of high-pass filter (HPL) circuitry. Experimental errors are due to these effects when estimating blood pressure. To find out an algorithm independent from the influence of waveform shapes and parameters of HPL, the volume oscillation of the APV model and the phase shift of the oscillation with fast fourier transform (FFT) were testified while increasing the cuff pressure from 1 mmHg to 200 mmHg (1 mmHg per second). The phase shift between the ranges of volume oscillation was then only observed between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures. The same results were also obtained from the simulations performed on two different the arterial blood pressure waveforms and one hyperthermia waveform.

Keywords: Arterial blood pressure, oscillometric method

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