Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1224

Search results for: Population aging in the Czech Republic

984 Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam

Abstract:

Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

Keywords: Efficiency, double ranked set sampling, median ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling, stratified.

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983 Mathematical Model for the Transmission of P. Falciparum and P. Vivax Malaria along the Thai-Myanmar Border

Authors: Puntani Pongsumpun, I-Ming Tang

Abstract:

The most Malaria cases are occur along Thai-Mynmar border. Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in a mixed population of Thais and migrant Burmese living along the Thai-Myanmar Border is studied. The population is separated into two groups, Thai and Burmese. Each population is divided into susceptible, infected, dormant and recovered subclasses. The loss of immunity by individuals in the infected class causes them to move back into the susceptible class. The person who is infected with Plasmodium vivax and is a member of the dormant class can relapse back into the infected class. A standard dynamical method is used to analyze the behaviors of the model. Two stable equilibrium states, a disease-free state and an epidemic state, are found to be possible in each population. A disease-free equilibrium state in the Thai population occurs when there are no infected Burmese entering the community. When infected Burmese enter the Thai community, an epidemic state can occur. It is found that the disease-free state is stable when the threshold number is less than one. The epidemic state is stable when a second threshold number is greater than one. Numerical simulations are used to confirm the results of our model.

Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Burmese, local stability, Plasmodium Vivax malaria.

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982 Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Patrick May Mukonki

Abstract:

KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined the impact of the accuracy of the geological information on a long-term mine plan for a big copper mine such as KOV pit. The approach taken, discussed three main scenarios and outlined some weaknesses on the geological information side, and now, in this paper that we are going to develop here, we are going to highlight, as an overview, those weaknesses, strengths and opportunities, in a global SWOT analysis. The approach we are taking here is essentially descriptive in terms of steps taken to optimize KOV pit and, at every step, we categorized the challenges we faced to have a better tradeoff between what we called strengths and what we called weaknesses. The same logic is applied in terms of the opportunities and threats. The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper demonstrates that, despite a general poor ore body definition, and very rude ground water conditions, there is room for improvement for such high grade ore body.

Keywords: Mine planning, mine optimization, mine scheduling, SWOT analysis.

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981 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: U. Achutha Kini, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, P. R. Prabhu, Gowri Shankar M. C.

Abstract:

Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: Hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, heat treatment, pin on disc wear testing machine.

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980 Paranoid Thoughts and Thought Control Strategies in a Nonclinical Population

Authors: Takashi Yamauchi, Anju Sudo, Yoshihiko Tanno

Abstract:

Recently, it has been suggested that thought control strategies aimed at controlling unwanted thoughts may be used to cope with paranoid thoughts in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The current study aims to examine the type of thought control strategies that were associated with the frequency of paranoid thoughts in nonclinical samples. A total of 159 Japanese undergraduate students completed the two scales–the Paranoia Checklist and the Thought Control Questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that worry-based control strategies were associated with paranoid thoughts, whereas distraction- and social-based control strategies were inversely associated with paranoid thoughts. Our findings suggest that in a nonclinical population, worry-based strategies may be especially maladaptive, whereas distraction- and social-based strategies may be adaptive to paranoid thoughts.

Keywords: Nonclinical population, paranoid thoughts, thoughtcontrol strategies.

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979 Aging Evaluation of Ammonium Perchlorate/Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene-Based Solid Rocket Engine by Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Thermal Analysis

Authors: R. F. B. Gonçalves, E. N. Iwama, J. A. F. F. Rocco, K. Iha

Abstract:

Propellants based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene/Ammonium Perchlorate (HTPB/AP) are the most commonly used in most of the rocket engines used by the Brazilian Armed Forces. This work aimed at the possibility of extending its useful life (currently in 10 years) by performing kinetic-chemical analyzes of its energetic material via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and also performing computer simulation of aging process using the software Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). Thermal analysis via DSC was performed in triplicates and in three heating ratios (5 ºC, 10 ºC, and 15 ºC) of rocket motor with 11 years shelf-life, using the Arrhenius equation to obtain its activation energy, using Ozawa and Kissinger kinetic methods, allowing comparison with manufacturing period data (standard motor). In addition, the kinetic parameters of internal pressure of the combustion chamber in 08 rocket engines with 11 years of shelf-life were also acquired, for comparison purposes with the engine start-up data.

Keywords: Shelf-life, thermal analysis, Ozawa method, Kissinger method, LAMMPS software, thrust.

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978 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and  number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water  during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was  designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded  using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and  nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance  model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux  from q=20 kw/m2 to q= 102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation  rates of bubbles.

 

Keywords: Heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model.

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977 Development of the Algorithm for Detecting Falls during Daily Activity using 2 Tri-Axial Accelerometers

Authors: Ahyoung Jeon, Geunchul Park, Jung-Hoon Ro, Gye-rok Geon

Abstract:

Falls are the primary cause of accidents in people over the age of 65, and frequently lead to serious injuries. Since the early detection of falls is an important step to alert and protect the aging population, a variety of research on detecting falls was carried out including the use of accelerators, gyroscopes and tilt sensors. In exiting studies, falls were detected using an accelerometer with errors. In this study, the proposed method for detecting falls was to use two accelerometers to reject wrong falls detection. As falls are accompanied by the acceleration of gravity and rotational motion, the falls in this study were detected by using the z-axial acceleration differences between two sites. The falls were detected by calculating the difference between the analyses of accelerometers placed on two different positions on the chest of the subject. The parameters of the maximum difference of accelerations (diff_Z) and the integration of accelerations in a defined region (Sum_diff_Z) were used to form the fall detection algorithm. The falls and the activities of daily living (ADL) could be distinguished by using the proposed parameters without errors in spite of the impact and the change in the positions of the accelerometers. By comparing each of the axial accelerations, the directions of falls and the condition of the subject afterwards could be determined.In this study, by using two accelerometers without errors attached to two sites to detect falls, the usefulness of the proposed fall detection algorithm parameters, diff_Z and Sum_diff_Z, were confirmed.

Keywords: Tri-axial accelerometer, fall detection.

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976 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: Public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue.

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975 Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Population Model on Time Scales

Authors: Kejun Zhuang, Zhaohui Wen

Abstract:

This paper deals with a delayed single population model on time scales. With the assistance of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained. Furthermore, the better estimations for bounds of periodic solutions are established.

Keywords: Coincidence degree, continuation theorem, periodic solutions, time scales

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974 Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different Heat Treatments on Phase Transformation and Superelasticity of NiTi Alloy

Authors: Erfan Asghari Fesaghandis, Reza Ghaffari Adli, Abbas Kianvash, Hossein Aghajani, Homa Homaie

Abstract:

NiTi alloys possess magnificent superelastic, shape memory, high strength and biocompatible properties. For improving mechanical properties, foremost, superelasticity behavior, heat treatment process is carried out. In this paper, two different heat treatment methods were undertaken: (1) solid solution, and (2) aging. The effect of each treatment in a constant time is investigated. Five samples were prepared to study the structure and optimize mechanical properties under different time and temperature. For measuring the upper plateau stress, lower plateau stress and residual strain, tensile test is carried out. The samples were aged at two different temperatures to see difference between aging temperatures. The sample aged at 500 °C has a bigger crystallite size and lower amount of Ni which causes the mentioned sample to possess poor pseudo elasticity behaviour than the other aged sample. The sample aged at 460 °C has shown remarkable superelastic properties. The mentioned sample’s higher plateau is 580 MPa with the lowest residual strain (0.17%) while other samples have possessed higher residual strains. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the produced phases.

Keywords: Heat treatment, phase transformation, superelasticity, NiTi alloy.

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973 An FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Visual Based Fall Detection

Authors: Peng Shen Ong, Yoong Choon Chang, Chee Pun Ooi, Ettikan K. Karuppiah, Shahirina Mohd Tahir

Abstract:

Falling has been one of the major concerns and threats to the independence of the elderly in their daily lives. With the worldwide significant growth of the aging population, it is essential to have a promising solution of fall detection which is able to operate at high accuracy in real-time and supports large scale implementation using multiple cameras. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a highly promising tool to be used as a hardware accelerator in many emerging embedded vision based system. Thus, it is the main objective of this paper to present an FPGA-based solution of visual based fall detection to meet stringent real-time requirements with high accuracy. The hardware architecture of visual based fall detection which utilizes the pixel locality to reduce memory accesses is proposed. By exploiting the parallel and pipeline architecture of FPGA, our hardware implementation of visual based fall detection using FGPA is able to achieve a performance of 60fps for a series of video analytical functions at VGA resolutions (640x480). The results of this work show that FPGA has great potentials and impacts in enabling large scale vision system in the future healthcare industry due to its flexibility and scalability.

Keywords: Fall detection, FPGA, hardware implementation.

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972 Simulation of Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti using Climate Dependent Model

Authors: Nuraini Yusoff, Harun Budin, Salemah Ismail

Abstract:

A climate dependent model is proposed to simulate the population of Aedes aegypti mosquito. In developing the model, average temperature of Shah Alam, Malaysia was used to determine the development rate of each stage of the life cycle of mosquito. Rainfall dependent function was proposed to simulate the hatching rate of the eggs under several assumptions. The proposed transition matrix was obtained and used to simulate the population of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults mosquito. It was found that the peak of mosquito abundance comes during a relatively dry period following a heavy rainfall. In addition, lag time between the peaks of mosquito abundance and dengue fever cases in Shah Alam was estimated.

Keywords: simulation, Aedes aegypti, Lefkovitch matrix, rainfall dependent model, Shah Alam

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971 Systolic Blood Pressure and Its Determinants: Study in a Population Attending Pharmacies in a Portuguese Coastal City

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. Brito, C. Lemos, A. Mascarenhas, E. Teixeira Lemos

Abstract:

Hypertension is a common condition causing cardio and cerebrovascular complications. Portugal has one of the highest mortality rates from stroke and a high prevalence of hypertension. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in a Portuguese population living in a coastal city and to identify some of its determinants (namely gender, age, the body mass index and physical activity frequency). A total of 91 adults who attended three pharmacies of a coastal city in the center of Portugal, between May and August of 2013 were evaluated. Attendants who reported to have diabetes or taking antihypertensive drugs in the 2 previous weeks were excluded from the study. Sociodemographic factors, BMI, habits of exercise and BP were assessed. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. The majority of the studied population was constituted by women (75.8%), with a mean age of 54.2±1.6 years old, married or living in civil union and that had completed secondary school or had higher education (40%). They presented a mean BMI of 26.2±4.76 Kg/m2., and were sedentary. The mean BP was 127.0±17.77mmHg- 74.69 ± 9.53. In this population we found 4.3% of people with hypertension and 16.1% with normal high blood pressure. Men exhibit a tendency to present higher systolic blood pressure values than women. Of all the factors considered, SBP values also tended to be higher with age and higher BMI values. Despite the fact that the mean values of SBP did not present values higher than 140 mmHg we must be concerned because the studied population is undiagnosed for hypertension. Although this is a preliminary study, it might be a prelude to the upcoming research about the underlying factors responsible for the occurrence of SBP.

Keywords: Hypertension, age, exercise, obesity, gender.

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970 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: A. Chennaf, M. Yahia, W. Bouafia, S. Benbia, D. Khellaf

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in  certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL and  CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential  pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this  population of women. This practical work was focused on a  population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls,  subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to  be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of  infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference  between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P  <0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02).  The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility,  but no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility  has been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to  determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female  infertility.

 

Keywords: Obesity, fertility, infertility, biochemical, women.

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969 Combine a Population-based Incremental Learning with Artificial Immune System for Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Jheng-Long Wu, Pei-Chann Chang, Hsuan-Ming Chen

Abstract:

This research focus on the intrusion detection system (IDS) development which using artificial immune system (AIS) with population based incremental learning (PBIL). AIS have powerful distinguished capability to extirpate antigen when the antigen intrude into human body. The PBIL is based on past learning experience to adjust new learning. Therefore we propose an intrusion detection system call PBIL-AIS which combine two approaches of PBIL and AIS to evolution computing. In AIS part we design three mechanisms such as clonal selection, negative selection and antibody level to intensify AIS performance. In experimental result, our PBIL-AIS IDS can capture high accuracy when an intrusion connection attacks.

Keywords: Artificial immune system, intrusion detection, population-based incremental learning, evolution computing.

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968 An Adaptive Memetic Algorithm With Dynamic Population Management for Designing HIV Multidrug Therapies

Authors: Hassan Zarei, Ali Vahidian Kamyad, Sohrab Effati

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is utilized and an optimization problem is proposed, with the final goal of implementing an optimal 900-day structured treatment interruption (STI) protocol. Two type of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI), are considered. In order to solving the proposed optimization problem an adaptive memetic algorithm with population management (AMAPM) is proposed. The AMAPM uses a distance measure to control the diversity of population in genotype space and thus preventing the stagnation and premature convergence. Moreover, the AMAPM uses diversity parameter in phenotype space to dynamically set the population size and the number of crossovers during the search process. Three crossover operators diversify the population, simultaneously. The progresses of crossover operators are utilized to set the number of each crossover per generation. In order to escaping the local optima and introducing the new search directions toward the global optima, two local searchers assist the evolutionary process. In contrast to traditional memetic algorithms, the activation of these local searchers is not random and depends on both the diversity parameters in genotype space and phenotype space. The capability of AMAPM in finding optimal solutions compared with three popular metaheurestics is introduced.

Keywords: HIV therapy design, memetic algorithms, adaptivealgorithms, nonlinear integer programming.

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967 Target Concept Selection by Property Overlap in Ontology Population

Authors: Seong-Bae Park, Sang-Soo Kim, Sewook Oh, Zooyl Zeong, Hojin Lee, Seong Rae Park

Abstract:

An ontology is widely used in many kinds of applications as a knowledge representation tool for domain knowledge. However, even though an ontology schema is well prepared by domain experts, it is tedious and cost-intensive to add instances into the ontology. The most confident and trust-worthy way to add instances into the ontology is to gather instances from tables in the related Web pages. In automatic populating of instances, the primary task is to find the most proper concept among all possible concepts within the ontology for a given table. This paper proposes a novel method for this problem by defining the similarity between the table and the concept using the overlap of their properties. According to a series of experiments, the proposed method achieves 76.98% of accuracy. This implies that the proposed method is a plausible way for automatic ontology population from Web tables.

Keywords: Ontology population, domain knowledge consolidation, target concept selection, property overlap.

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966 Association of G-174C Polymorphism of the Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter with Obesity in Iranian Population

Authors: Rostami F, Haj Hosseini R, Sharifi K, Daneshpour M, Azizi F, Hedayati M

Abstract:

Expression and secretion of inflammation markers are disturbed in obesity. Interleukin-6 reduces body fat mass. The common G-174C polymorphism in the promoter of IL-6 gene has been reported that effects on transcriptional regulation. The objective was to investigate association of the common polymorphism G-174C with obesity in Iranian population. The present study is cross sectional association study that included 242 individuals (110 men and 132 women). Serum IL-6 levels, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose and blood lipids profile were measured .BMI and WHR were calculated. Genotyping is carried out by PCR and RFLP. The frequencies of G and C allele were 64.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The G-174C polymorphism was not associated with BMI and WHR. However in obese individual, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in carrier of C allele compared with the noncarrier. The IL-6 G-174C polymorphism is not a risk factor for obesity in Iranian population.

Keywords: Interleukin 6, Polymorphism genetic, Obesity.

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965 Sustainable Control of Taro Beetles via Scoliid Wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae

Authors: F. O. Faithpraise, J. Idung, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, P. Birch, H. Lu

Abstract:

Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear ordinary differential equations that track the populations of the beetle life cycle stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult and the population of the scoliid parasitoid wasps, which attack beetle larvae. In spite of the challenge driven by the longevity of the scarab beetles, the combined effect of the larval wasps and the fungal bio-control agent is able to control and drive down the population of both the adult and the beetle eggs below the environmental carrying capacity within an interval of 120 days, offering the long term prospect of a stable and eco-friendly environment; where the population of scarab beetles is: regulated by parasitoid wasps and beneficial soil saprophytes.

Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, Scoliid wasps, Sustainable control, Taro beetles, parasitoids.

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964 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

Abstract:

Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: Population Growth, Sustainable Development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws.

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963 Population Structure of European Pond Turtles, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Narta Lagoon (Vlora Bay, Albania)

Authors: Enerit Saçdanaku, Idriz Haxhiu

Abstract:

In this study was monitored the population of the European Pond Turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in the area of Narta Lagoon, Vlora Bay (Albania), from August to October 2014. A total of 54 individuals of E. orbicularis were studied using different methodologies. Curved Carapace Length (CCL), Plastron Length (PL) and Curved Carapace Width (CCW) were measured for each individual of E. orbicularis and were statistically analyzed. All captured turtles were separated in seven different size – classes based on their carapace length (CCL). Each individual of E. orbicularis was marked by notching the carapace (marginal scutes). Form all individuals captured resulted that 37 were females (68.5%), 14 males (25.9%), 3 juveniles (5.5%), while 18 individuals of E. orbicularis were recaptured for the first and some for the second time.

Keywords: Emys orbicularis, female, juvenile, male, population, size – classes.

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962 Improved Body Mass Index Classification for Football Code Masters Athletes, A Comparison to the Australian National Population

Authors: Joe Walsh, Mike Climstein, Ian Timothy Heazlewood, Stephen Burke, Jyrki Kettunen, Kent Adams, Mark DeBeliso

Abstract:

Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG), yet this cohort of athletes remains proportionately under-investigated. Due to a growing global obesity pandemic in context of benefits of physical activity across the lifespan, the prevalence of obesity in this unique population was of particular interest. Data gathered on a sub-sample of 535 football code athletes, aged 31-72 yrs ( =47.4, s =±7.1), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009) demonstrated a significantly (p<0.001), reduced classification of obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) when compared to data on the Australian national population. This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (BMI<30) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport. Given the worldwide focus on the obesity epidemic and the need for a multi-faceted solution to this problem, demonstration of these middle to older aged adults having improved BMI over the general population is of particular interest.

Keywords: BMI, masters athlete, rugby union, soccer, touch football

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961 Analysing the Changes of the Tourist Functions of the Seaside Resorts with the Growth in the Number of Second Homes

Authors: A. Tannai, V. Herbert, C. Rufin-Soler

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, we have been observing in some seaside resorts aging demography, combined with an increase in second homes. These seaside resorts are said to have become places undergoing profound changes, leading to hybridization of functions (personal services, health, residential, etc.) and practices. All of these issues are part of the challenges of silver tourism, which stems from the silver economy. The Hauts-de-France region is made up of numerous seaside resorts that have a significant proportion of second homes in their real estate stock. The seaside resorts have tourist offers based on sports and leisure activities. They also offer a suitable environment for the installation of this category of the population. This set of attractive criteria in the choice of installation in seaside resorts is likely to be replaced by personal and health services due to the advanced age of the population. The resorts of Le Touquet Paris-Plage, Bray-Dunes, Neufchâtel-Hardelot and Le Crotoy seem to be evolving towards other functions of residential resorts, as opposed to seaside resorts This paper will be an opportunity to present the results of the surveys we conducted in 4 seaside resorts in the Hauts-de-France region, where more than 420 retired secondary residents were questioned. The results show that nearly 90% of retirees spend their time in their second home at any time of the year. The criteria that lead them there are school vacations and the weather. More than 40% of them have been living there for more than 20 years. The reasons for the installations are the living environment (83%) and the quality of life (79%). Their activities are walking and strolling, as well as sports. More than 99% of the respondents do not take into account the health service offers. Personal services are also little taken into account - around 60% of respondents say they do not know whether personal services exist in the resort. 80% of respondents answer that their grandchildren benefit from activities organized by the commune and the tourist offices during their stay. To conclude, the influx of retired secondary residents will not lead to a change in the functions of the seaside resorts. Their classic tourist offers - leisure and sports activities, the environment - will remain the attractive criteria of the seaside resorts.  The results of the study prove that personal services and health services are not the first choice criteria in the installation of retired secondary residents, quite the contrary. We can even complete that retirees in secondary residences are demanding and concerned about living in a calm, safe and clean environment and quality of life.

Keywords: Health services, people care, second home, seniors, silver tourism, tourism, tourist functions.

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960 Nonlinear Control of a Continuous Bioreactor Based on Cell Population Model

Authors: Mahdi Sharifian, Mohammad Ali Fanaei

Abstract:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker-s yeast) can exhibit sustained oscillations during the operation in a continuous bioreactor that adversely affects its stability and productivity. Because of heterogeneous nature of cell populations, the cell population balance models can be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such cultures. In this paper an unstructured, segregated model is used which is based on population balance equation(PBE) and then in order to simulation, the 4th order Rung-Kutta is used for time dimension and three methods, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements and Galerkin finite element are used for discretization of the cell mass domain. The results indicate that the orthogonal collocation on finite element not only is able to predict the oscillating behavior of the cell culture but also needs much little time for calculations. Therefore this method is preferred in comparison with other methods. In the next step two controllers, a globally linearizing control (GLC) and a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are designed for controlling the total cell mass per unit volume, and performances of these controllers are compared through simulation. The results show that although the PI controller has simpler structure, the GLC has better performance.

Keywords: Bioreactor, cell population balance, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements, Galerkin finite element, feedback linearization, PI controller.

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959 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan, H. Ali, M. N. Naser

Abstract:

As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, Monopterus cuchia, population, RAPD, Bangladesh.

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958 The Agricultural Governance in Bangladesh: A Case Study

Authors: Noor Mohammad

Abstract:

Agriculture is one of the single largest sectors of Bangladesh economy. Bangladesh is an agro based country and predominantly is an agrarian economy. It is the backbone of the economy of Bangladesh. Around 75% of the total population directly or indirectly depends on agriculture and near about 84% of the total population lives in rural areas almost depend on agriculture for livelihood. Agriculture includes the sub-sectors of crop, livestock, forestry and fisheries. The contribution of all sub sectors is around 22.83 percent to national GDP in 2003-2004. The crops sub sector alone contributes 12.94 percent of GDP.

Keywords: Agricultural Governance

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957 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga, F. Ahmed

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers, South Africa.

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956 Dose due the Incorporation of Radionuclides Using Teeth as Bioindicators nearby Caetité Uranium Mines

Authors: Viviane S. Guimarães, Ícaro M. M. Brasil, Simara S. Campos, Roseli F. Gennari, Márcia R. P. Attie, Susana O. Souza.

Abstract:

Uranium mining and processing in Brazil occur in a northeastern area near to Caetité-BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is a pollutant causing health risks to the local population,but those in charge of the complex extraction and production of“yellow cake" for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. This study aimed at identifying potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetité. In this, work,the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K radioisotopes in the teeth of the Caetité population were determined by ICP-MS. Teeth are used as bioindicators of incorporated radionuclides. Cumulative radiation doses in the skeleton were also determined. The concentration values were below 0.008 ppm, and annual effective dose due to radioisotopes are below to the reference values. Therefore, it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetité increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way.

Keywords: bioindicators, radiation dose, radioisotopesincorporation, uranium.

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955 Representing Collective Unconsciousness Using Neural Networks

Authors: Pierre Abou-Haila, Richard Hall, Mark Dawes

Abstract:

Instead of representing individual cognition only, population cognition is represented using artificial neural networks whilst maintaining individuality. This population network trains continuously, simulating adaptation. An implementation of two coexisting populations is compared to the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction. Applications include multi-agent systems such as artificial life or computer games.

Keywords: Collective unconsciousness, neural networks, adaptation, predator-prey simulation.

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