Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4055

Search results for: Photovoltaic System and Simulation Results

4055 A Simulation Method to Find the Optimal Design of Photovoltaic Home System in Malaysia, Case Study: A Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Putra Jaya

Authors: Riza Muhida, Maisarah Ali, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Agus G.E. Sutjipto, Afzeri

Abstract:

Over recent years, the number of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations for home systems have been increasing in Malaysia. The paper concerns an analysis - as part of current Research and Development (R&D) efforts - to integrate photovoltaics as an architectural feature of a detached house in the new satellite township of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The analysis was undertaken using calculation and simulation tools to optimize performance of BIPV home system. In this study, a the simulation analysis was undertaken for selected bungalow units based on a long term recorded weather data for city of Kuala Lumpur. The simulation and calculation was done with consideration of a PV panels' tilt and direction, shading effect and economical considerations. A simulation of the performance of a grid connected BIPV house in Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. This case study uses a 60 PV modules with power output of 2.7 kW giving an average of PV electricity output is 255 kWh/month..

Keywords: Building integrated photovoltaic, Malaysia, Simulation, panels' tilt and direction.

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4054 Implementation of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module with IC and P&O Method

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased. Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution, maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Incremental conductance algorithm, modeling of PV panel, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system and simulation results.

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4053 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: Incremental conductance Algorithm, Perturb and Observe Algorithm, Photovoltaic System and Simulation Results.

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4052 Optimal Design and Simulation of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Power System for an Electrical Department in University of Tripoli-Libya

Authors: Mustafa A. Al-Refai

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal design and simulation of a grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) system to supply electric power to meet the energy demand by Electrical Department in University of Tripoli Libya. Solar radiation is the key factor determining electricity produced by photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper is designed to develop a novel method to calculate the solar photovoltaic generation capacity on the basis of Mean Global Solar Radiation data available for Tripoli Libya and finally develop a system design of possible plant capacity for the available roof area. MatLab/Simulink Programming tools and monthly average solar radiation data are used for this design and simulation. The specifications of equipments are provided based on the availability of the components in the market. Simulation results and analyses are presented to validate the proposed system configuration.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), solar energy, solar irradiation, Simulink.

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4051 Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic based LED Lighting System

Authors: Ankit R Patel, Ankit A Patel, Mahesh A Patel, Dhaval R Vyas

Abstract:

Although lighting systems powered by Photovoltaic (PV) cells have existed for many years, they are not widely used, especially in lighting for buildings, due to their high initial cost and low conversion efficiency. One of the technical challenges facing PV powered lighting systems has been how to use dc power generated by the PV module to energize common light sources that are designed to operate efficiently under ac power. Usually, the efficiency of the dc light sources is very poor compared to ac light sources. Rapid developments in LED lighting systems have made this technology a potential candidate for PV powered lighting systems. This study analyzed the efficiency of each component of PV powered lighting systems to identify optimum system configurations for different applications.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, LED, Modeling of systems, Photovoltaic.

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4050 Development of a Real-Time Energy Models for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Ammar Mahjoubi, Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Belgacem Mahdhaoui, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

This purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model to accurately predict the cell temperature of a PV module that adapts to various mounting configurations, mounting locations, and climates while only requiring readily available data from the module manufacturer. Results from this model are also compared to results from published cell temperature models. The models were used to predict real-time performance from a PV water pumping systems in the desert of Medenine, south of Tunisia using 60-min intervals of measured performance data during one complete year. Statistical analysis of the predicted results and measured data highlight possible sources of errors and the limitations and/or adequacy of existing models, to describe the temperature and efficiency of PV-cells and consequently, the accuracy of performance of PV water pumping systems prediction models.

Keywords: Temperature of a photovoltaic module, Predicted models, PV water pumping systems efficiency, Simulation, Desert of southern Tunisia.

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4049 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack

Abstract:

Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photovoltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: Electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests.

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4048 Effects of Photovoltaic System Introduction in Detached Houses with All-Electrified Residential Equipment in Japan

Authors: Qingrong Liu, Tetsuo Hayashi, Yuji Ryu

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to investigate the effects of photovoltaic system introduction to detached houses in Japan, two kinds of works were done. Firstly, the hourly generation amount of a 4.2kW photovoltaic system were simulated in 46 cities to investigate the potential of the system in different regions in Japan using a simulation model of photovoltaic system. Secondly, based on the simulated electricity generation amount, the energy saving, the environmental and the economic effect of the photovoltaic system were examined from hourly to annual timescales, based upon calculations of typical electricity, heating, cooling and hot water supply load profiles for Japanese dwellings. The above analysis was carried out using a standard year-s hourly weather data for the different city provided by the Expanded AMeDAS Weather Data issued by AIJ (Architectural Institute of Japan).

Keywords: Photovoltaic system, Energy saving, Environmental effect, Japanese dwelling, Detached house.

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4047 Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Designed for 10kW Solar Photovoltaic System with Different Membership Functions

Authors: S. Karthika, K. Velayutham, P. Rathika, D. Devaraj

Abstract:

The electric power supplied by a photovoltaic power generation systems depends on the solar irradiation and temperature. The PV system can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as maximum power point (MPP), at which the entire PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum power. Hence, a Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. The proposed MPPT controller is designed for 10kW solar PV system installed at Cape Institute of Technology. This paper presents the fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm. However, instead of one type of membership function, different structures of fuzzy membership functions are used in the FLC design. The proposed controller is combined with the system and the results are obtained for each membership functions in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results are decided that which membership function is more suitable for this system.

Keywords: MPPT, DC-DC Converter, Fuzzy logic controller, Photovoltaic (PV) system.

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4046 A Case Study on Suitable Area and Resource for Development of Floating Photovoltaic System

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi

Abstract:

In development of floating photovoltaic generation system, finding a suitable place of installation is as important as development of economically feasible and stable structure. Especially since floating photovoltaic system has its facility floating on water surface, it is extremely important to review the effects of weather conditions such as wind, water flow and floating matters, various factors (such as fogs) that can reduce generation efficiency, possibility of connection with power system, and legal restrictions. The method of investigating suitable area and resource for development of tracking-type floating photovoltaic generation system was proposed in this paper, which can be used for development of floating and ocean photovoltaic system in the future.

Keywords: Floating PV system, On-site Survey, Resources Survey of Photovoltaic, Tracking-type Floating PV.

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4045 Renewable Energy System Eolic-Photovoltaic for the Touristic Center La Tranca-Chordeleg in Ecuador

Authors: Christian Castro Samaniego, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Juan Portoviejo Brito

Abstract:

For this research work, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (SHEF) systems were considered as renewable energy sources that take advantage of wind energy and solar radiation to transform into electrical energy. In the present research work, the feasibility of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid generation system was analyzed for the La Tranca tourist viewpoint of the Chordeleg canton in Ecuador. The research process consisted of the collection of data on solar radiation, temperature, wind speed among others by means of a meteorological station. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink based on a mathematical model. In the end, we compared the theoretical radiation-power curves and the measurements made at the site.

Keywords: Hybrid system, wind turbine, modeling, simulation, validation, experimental data, panel, Ecuador.

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4044 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini

Abstract:

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, neural networks, photovoltaic, P&O.

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4043 Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid El Bachtiri

Abstract:

The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Photovoltaic water pumping system, DC motor-pump, AC motor-pump, DC-DC boost converter.

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4042 Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamic Loads acting on top of the SMART Centre for PV Applications

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. Toniato, E. Benini

Abstract:

The flow filed around a flatted-roof compound has been investigated by means of 2D and 3D numerical simulations. A constant wind velocity profile, based both on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for a 50- year return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated in order to determine the wind-induced loads on top of the roof. After determining the influence of the incoming wind directions on the induced roof loads, a 2D analysis of the most severe load condition has been performed, achieving a numerical quantification of the expected wind-induced forces on the PV panels on top of the roof.

Keywords: CFD, wind-induced loads, flow around buildings, photovoltaic system

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4041 Comparison of Irradiance Decomposition and Energy Production Methods in a Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: Tisciane Perpetuo e Oliveira, Dante Inga Narvaez, Marcelo Gradella Villalva

Abstract:

Installations of solar photovoltaic systems have increased considerably in the last decade. Therefore, it has been noticed that monitoring of meteorological data (solar irradiance, air temperature, wind velocity, etc.) is important to predict the potential of a given geographical area in solar energy production. In this sense, the present work compares two computational tools that are capable of estimating the energy generation of a photovoltaic system through correlation analyzes of solar radiation data: PVsyst software and an algorithm based on the PVlib package implemented in MATLAB. In order to achieve the objective, it was necessary to obtain solar radiation data (measured and from a solarimetric database), analyze the decomposition of global solar irradiance in direct normal and horizontal diffuse components, as well as analyze the modeling of the devices of a photovoltaic system (solar modules and inverters) for energy production calculations. Simulated results were compared with experimental data in order to evaluate the performance of the studied methods. Errors in estimation of energy production were less than 30% for the MATLAB algorithm and less than 20% for the PVsyst software.

Keywords: Energy production, meteorological data, irradiance decomposition, solar photovoltaic system.

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4040 A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: S. Abdourraziq, R. El Bachtiri

Abstract:

The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application. The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system. This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond) MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional (INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results found are satisfactory.

Keywords: Photovoltaic pumping system (PVPS), incremental conductance (INC), MPPT algorithm, boost converter.

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4039 Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, A. Rabeh, A. K. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.

Keywords: Renewable energies, photovoltaic systems, DC link, voltage source inverter, space vector SVPWM, unbalanced voltage dips, symmetrical components.

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4038 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, three-phase optimal power flow, unbalanced system.

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4037 Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya, R. Kumaravelan

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Boost converter, Stepped Perturb & Observe method (Stepped P&O).

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4036 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation is obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: Renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation.

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4035 Performance Analysis of Evolutionary ANN for Output Prediction of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

Authors: S.I Sulaiman, T.K Abdul Rahman, I. Musirin, S. Shaari

Abstract:

This paper presents performance analysis of the Evolutionary Programming-Artificial Neural Network (EPANN) based technique to optimize the architecture and training parameters of a one-hidden layer feedforward ANN model for the prediction of energy output from a grid connected photovoltaic system. The ANN utilizes solar radiation and ambient temperature as its inputs while the output is the total watt-hour energy produced from the grid-connected PV system. EP is used to optimize the regression performance of the ANN model by determining the optimum values for the number of nodes in the hidden layer as well as the optimal momentum rate and learning rate for the training. The EPANN model is tested using two types of transfer function for the hidden layer, namely the tangent sigmoid and logarithmic sigmoid. The best transfer function, neural topology and learning parameters were selected based on the highest regression performance obtained during the ANN training and testing process. It is observed that the best transfer function configuration for the prediction model is [logarithmic sigmoid, purely linear].

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), Correlation coefficient (R), Evolutionary programming-ANN (EPANN), Photovoltaic (PV), logarithmic sigmoid and tangent sigmoid.

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4034 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: D. Nebbali, R. Nebbali, A. Ouibrahim

Abstract:

This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: Energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell.

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4033 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, losses, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, reactive power control.

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4032 Comparative Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative analysis of photovoltaic systems (PVS) and propose practical techniques to improve operational efficiency of the PVS. The best engineering and construction practices for PVS are identified and field oriented recommendation are made. Comparative analysis of central and string inverter based, as well as 600 and 1000VDC PVS are performed. In addition, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module based systems are compared. Comparison shows that 1000V DC String Inverters based PVS is the best choice.

Keywords: Photovoltaic module, photovoltaic systems, operational efficiency improvement, comparative analysis.

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4031 Maximum Power Point Tracking by ANN Controller for a Standalone Photovoltaic System

Authors: K. Ranjani, M. Raja, B. Anitha

Abstract:

In this paper, ANN controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed and PV modeling is discussed. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. ANN controller with hill-climbing algorithm offers fast and accurate converging to the maximum operating point during steady-state and varying weather conditions compared to conventional hill-climbing. The proposed algorithm gives a good maximum power operation of the PV system. Simulation results obtained are presented and compared with the conventional hill-climbing algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), hill-climbing, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT), photovoltaic.

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4030 Performance and Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System in Northern China

Authors: E. Sok, Y. Zhuo, S. Wang

Abstract:

A hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar system integrates photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single solar energy device, with dual generation of electricity and heat energy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential for introduction of the PV/T technology into Northern China. For this purpose, outdoor experiments were conducted on a prototype of a PV/T water-heating system. The annual thermal and electrical performances were investigated under the climatic conditions of Beijing. An economic analysis of the system was then carried out, followed by a sensitivity study. The analysis revealed that the hybrid system is not economically attractive with the current market and energy prices. However, considering the continuous commitment of the Chinese government towards policy development in the renewable energy sector, and technological improvements like the increasing cost-effectiveness of PV cells, PV/Thermal technology may become economically viable in the near future.

Keywords: Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T), Solar energy, Economic analysis

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4029 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara

Abstract:

The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, water pumping, losses, induction motor.

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4028 Finite Element Simulation of Multi-Stage Deep Drawing Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results

Authors: A. Pourkamali Anaraki, M. Shahabizadeh, B. Babaee

Abstract:

The plastic forming process of sheet plate takes an important place in forming metals. The traditional techniques of tool design for sheet forming operations used in industry are experimental and expensive methods. Prediction of the forming results, determination of the punching force, blank holder forces and the thickness distribution of the sheet metal will decrease the production cost and time of the material to be formed. In this paper, multi-stage deep drawing simulation of an Industrial Part has been presented with finite element method. The entire production steps with additional operations such as intermediate annealing and springback has been simulated by ABAQUS software under axisymmetric conditions. The simulation results such as sheet thickness distribution, Punch force and residual stresses have been extracted in any stages and sheet thickness distribution was compared with experimental results. It was found through comparison of results, the FE model have proven to be in close agreement with those of experiment.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Finite element method, Simulation.

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4027 Modeling and Simulation of Utility Interfaced PV/Hydro Hybrid Electric Power System

Authors: P. V. V. Rama Rao, B. Kali Prasanna, Y. T. R. Palleswari

Abstract:

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and bio-fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence how and where they are used. This paper presents the modeling the simulation of solar and hydro hybrid energy sources in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. It simulates all quantities of Hybrid Electrical Power system (HEPS) such as AC output current of the inverter that injected to the load/grid, load current, grid current. It also simulates power output from PV and Hydraulic Turbine Generator (HTG), power delivered to or from grid and finally power factor of the inverter for PV, HTG and grid. The proposed circuit uses instantaneous p-q (real-imaginary) power theory.

Keywords: Photovoltaic Array, Hydraulic Turbine Generator, Electrical Utility (EU), Hybrid Electrical Power Supply.

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4026 Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode

Authors: N. Ouldcherchali, M. S. Boucherit, L. Barazane, A. Morsli

Abstract:

In this study, we proposed two techniques to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system. The first is an intelligent control technique, and the second is robust used for variable structure system. In fact the characteristics I-V and P–V of the photovoltaic generator depends on the solar irradiance and temperature. These climate changes cause the fluctuation of maximum power point; a maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. For this we have adopted a control by fuzzy logic (FLC) famous for its stability and robustness. And a Siding Mode Control (SMC) widely used for variable structure system. The system comprises a photovoltaic panel (PV), a DC-DC converter, which is considered as an adaptation stage between the PV and the load. The modelling and simulation of the system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. SMC technique provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when the irradiation changes slowly or it is constant the panel power of FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less fluctuations.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, maximum power point, photovoltaic system, tracker, sliding mode controller.

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