Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Pathogenesis

6 Computer Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: Anjan Babu G, Sumana G, Rajasekhar M

Abstract:

Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multilayered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Further, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: Dialysis, Hereditary, Transplantation, Polycystic, Pathogenesis.

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5 Wasp Venom Peptides may play a role in the Pathogenesis of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Humans: A Structural Similarity Analysis

Authors: Permphan Dharmasaroja

Abstract:

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been reported to develop after a hymenoptera sting, but its pathogenesis is not known in detail. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- specific T cells have been detected in the blood of patients with ADEM, and a proportion of these patients develop multiple sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying ADEM, molecular mimicry between hymenoptera venom peptides and the human immunodominant MBP peptide was scrutinized, based on the sequence and structural similarities, whether it was the root of the disease. The results suggest that the three wasp venom peptides have low sequence homology with the human immunodominant MBP residues 85-99. Structural similarity analysis among the three venom peptides and the MS-related HLA-DR2b (DRA, DRB1*1501)-associated immunodominant MHC binding/TCR contact residues 88-93, VVHFFK showed that hyaluronidase residues 7-12, phospholipase A1 residues 98-103, and antigen 5 residues 109-114 showed a high degree of similarity 83.3%, 100%, and 83.3% respectively. In conclusion, some wasp venom peptides, particularly phospholipase A1, may potentially act as the molecular motifs of the human 3HLA-DR2b-associated immunodominant MBP88-93, and possibly present a mechanism for induction of wasp sting-associated ADEM.

Keywords: central nervous system, Hymenoptera, myelin basicprotein, molecular mimicry.

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4 Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Eryati Darwin

Abstract:

Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.

Keywords: IL-17, TGF-β, FoxP3, Graves’ disease.

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3 Role of Oxidative DNA Damage in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Anna Merecz, Agnieszka Sliwinska, Marcin Kosmalski, Jacek Kasznicki, Jozef Drzewoski

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is considered to be the cause for onset and the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications including neuropathy. It is a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures: protein, lipids and DNA. Data suggest that in patients with diabetes and diabetic neuropathy DNA repair is impaired, which prevents effective removal of lesions. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of the hOGG1 (326 Ser/Cys) and XRCC1 (194 Arg/Trp, 399 Arg/Gln) gene polymorphisms whose protein is involved in the BER pathway with DNA repair efficiency in patients with diabetes type 2 and diabetic neuropathy compared to the healthy subjects. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis in 385 subjects, including 117 with type 2 diabetes, 56 with diabetic neuropathy and 212 with normal glucose metabolism. The polymorphisms studied include codon 326 of hOGG1 and 194, 399 of XRCC1 in the base excision repair (BER) genes. Comet assay was carried out using peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patients and controls. This test enabled the evaluation of DNA damage in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide alone and in the combination with the endonuclease III (Nth). The results of the analysis of polymorphism were statistically examination by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using the ¤ç2-tests. Our data indicate that patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (including those with neuropathy) had higher frequencies of the XRCC1 399Arg/Gln polymorphism in homozygote (GG) (OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.07-3.22], P=0.3) and also increased frequency of 399Gln (G) allele (OR: 1.38 [95% CI: 1.03-1.83], P=0.3). No relation to other polymorphisms with increased risk of diabetes or diabetic neuropathy. In T2DM patients complicated by neuropathy, there was less efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in both the presence and absence of the Nth enzyme. The results of our study suggest that the XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism is a significant risk factor of T2DM in Polish population. Obtained data suggest a decreased efficiency of DNA repair in cells from patients with diabetes and neuropathy may be associated with oxidative stress. Additionally, patients with neuropathy are characterized by even greater sensitivity to oxidative damage than patients with diabetes, which suggests participation of free radicals in the pathogenesis of neuropathy.

Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy, oxidative stress, gene polymorphisms, oxidative DNA damage.

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2 A Pairwise-Gaussian-Merging Approach: Towards Genome Segmentation for Copy Number Analysis

Authors: Chih-Hao Chen, Hsing-Chung Lee, Qingdong Ling, Hsiao-Jung Chen, Sun-Chong Wang, Li-Ching Wu, H.C. Lee

Abstract:

Segmentation, filtering out of measurement errors and identification of breakpoints are integral parts of any analysis of microarray data for the detection of copy number variation (CNV). Existing algorithms designed for these tasks have had some successes in the past, but they tend to be O(N2) in either computation time or memory requirement, or both, and the rapid advance of microarray resolution has practically rendered such algorithms useless. Here we propose an algorithm, SAD, that is much faster and much less thirsty for memory – O(N) in both computation time and memory requirement -- and offers higher accuracy. The two key ingredients of SAD are the fundamental assumption in statistics that measurement errors are normally distributed and the mathematical relation that the product of two Gaussians is another Gaussian (function). We have produced a computer program for analyzing CNV based on SAD. In addition to being fast and small it offers two important features: quantitative statistics for predictions and, with only two user-decided parameters, ease of use. Its speed shows little dependence on genomic profile. Running on an average modern computer, it completes CNV analyses for a 262 thousand-probe array in ~1 second and a 1.8 million-probe array in 9 seconds

Keywords: Cancer, pathogenesis, chromosomal aberration, copy number variation, segmentation analysis.

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1 Visfatin and Apelin Are New Interrelated Adipokines Playing Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Hala O. El-Mesallamy, Salwa M. Suwailem, Mae M. Seleem

Abstract:

Visfatin and apelin are two new adipokines that recently gained a special interest in diabetes research. This study was conducted to study the interplay between these two adipokines and their correlation with other inflammatory and biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) postmenopausal women with CAD. Visfatin and apelin were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Visfatin was found to be significantly higher in the following groups: T2D patients without CAD, non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Apelin was found to be significantly lower in non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Visfatin and apelin were found to be significantly associated with each other and with other biochemical parameters. The current study provides evidence for the interplay between visfatin and apelin through the inflammatory milieu characteristic of T2D and their possible role in the pathogenesis of CAD complication of T2D. 

Keywords: Apelin, Coronary artery disease, Inflammation, Type 2 diabetes, Visfatin.

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