Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6265

Search results for: Parallel Production Systems

6115 Parallel Discrete Fourier Transform for Fast FIR Filtering Based on Overlapped-save Block Structure

Authors: Ying-Wen Bai, Ju-Maw Chen

Abstract:

To successfully provide a fast FIR filter with FTT algorithms, overlapped-save algorithms can be used to lower the computational complexity and achieve the desired real-time processing. As the length of the input block increases in order to improve the efficiency, a larger volume of zero padding will greatly increase the computation length of the FFT. In this paper, we use the overlapped block digital filtering to construct a parallel structure. As long as the down-sampling (or up-sampling) factor is an exact multiple lengths of the impulse response of a FIR filter, we can process the input block by using a parallel structure and thus achieve a low-complex fast FIR filter with overlapped-save algorithms. With a long filter length, the performance and the throughput of the digital filtering system will also be greatly enhanced.

Keywords: FIR Filter, Overlapped-save Algorithm, ParallelStructure

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6114 Application of Costing System in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) in Turkey

Authors: Hamide Özyürek, Metin Yılmaz

Abstract:

Standard processes, similar and limited production lines, the production of high direct costs will be more accurate than the use of parts of the traditional cost systems in the literature. However, direct costs, overhead expenses, in turn, decrease the burden of increasingly sophisticated production facilities, a situation that led the researchers to look for the cost of traditional systems of alternative techniques. Variety cost management approaches for example Total quality management (TQM), just-in-time (JIT), benchmarking, kaizen costing, targeting cost, life cycle costs (LLC), activity-based costing (ABC) value engineering have been introduced. Management and cost applications have changed over the past decade and will continue to change. Modern cost systems can provide relevant and accurate cost information. These methods provide the decisions about customer, product and process improvement. The aim of study is to describe and explain the adoption and application of costing systems in SME. This purpose reports on a survey conducted during 2014 small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in Ankara. The survey results were evaluated using SPSS18 package program.

Keywords: Cost Accounting, Costing, Modern Costing Systems, Managerial Accounting.

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6113 Study The Effects of Conventional and Low Input Production System on Energy Efficiency of Silybum marianum L.

Authors: M. Haj Seyed Hadi, M. Darzi, E. Sharifi Ashoorabadi

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are most suitable crops for ecological production systems because of their role in human health and the aim of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem efficiency and its products quality. Calculations include energy output (contents of energy in seed) and energy inputs (consumption of fertilizers, pesticides, labor, machines, fuel and electricity). The ratio of output of the production to inputs is called the energy outputs / inputs ratio or energy efficiency. One way to quantify essential parts of agricultural development is the energy flow method. The output / input energy ratio is proposed as the most comprehensive single factor in pursuing the objective of sustainability. Sylibum marianum L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and has effective role on health of growing population in Iran. The objective of this investigation was to find out energy efficiency in conventional and low input production system of Milk thistle. This investigation was carried out in the spring of 2005 – 2007 in the Research Station of Rangelands in Hamand - Damavand region of IRAN. This experiment was done in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were 2 production systems (Conventional and Low input system) in the main plots, 3 planting time (25 of March, 4 and 14 of April) in the sub plots and 2 seed types (Improved and Native of Khoozestan) in the sub-sub plots. Results showed that in conventional production system energy efficiency, because of higher inputs and less seed yield, was less than low input production system. Seed yield was 1199.5 and 1888 kg/ha in conventional and low input systems, respectively. Total energy inputs and out puts for conventional system was 10068544.5 and 7060515.9 kcal. These amounts for low input system were 9533885.6 and 11113191.8 kcal. Results showed that energy efficiency for seed production in conventional and low input system was 0.7 and 1.16, respectively. So, milk thistle seed production in low input system has 39.6 percent higher energy efficiency than conventional production system. Also, higher energy efficiency were found in sooner planting time (25 of March) and native seed of Khoozestan.

Keywords: energy efficiency, milk thistle, production system

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6112 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu

Abstract:

The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: Aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics.

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6111 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Singular Linear Systems

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods for linear systems with the coefficient matrices are singular H-matrices. And we present the sufficient and necessary conditions for convergence of the extrapolated iterative methods. Moreover, we apply the results to the GMAOR methods. Finally, we give one numerical example.

Keywords: Singular H-matrix, linear systems, extrapolated iterative method, GMAOR method, convergence.

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6110 Enhancement of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Closed Enclosure Using Parallel Fins

Authors: F. A. Gdhaidh, K. Hussain, H. S. Qi

Abstract:

A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in water filled cavity has been examined in 3-Dfor single phase liquid cooling system by using an array of parallel plate fins mounted to one wall of a cavity. The heat generated by a heat source represents a computer CPU with dimensions of 37.5∗37.5mm mounted on substrate. A cold plate is used as a heat sink installed on the opposite vertical end of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer case is created by an exhaust fan. A turbulent air flow is assumed and k-ε model is applied. The fins are installed on the substrate to enhance the heat transfer. The applied power energy range used is between 15 - 40W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the number of the parallel plate fins are investigated. The results illustrate that as the fin number increases the maximum heat source temperature decreases. However, when the fin number increases to critical value the temperature start to increase due to the fins are too closely spaced and that cause the obstruction of water flow. The introduction of parallel plate fins reduces the maximum heat source temperature by 10% compared to the case without fins. The cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 64.68°C when the heat input was at 40W that is much lower than the recommended computer chips limit temperature of no more than 85°C and hence the performance of the CPU is enhanced.

Keywords: Chips limit temperature, closed enclosure, natural convection, parallel plate, single phase liquid.

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6109 Production Scheduling Improvements in an Automotive Sector Company

Authors: Govind Sharan Dangayach, Himanshu Bhatt

Abstract:

The paper attempts to overcome the fluctuations occurring in demand of the components in an automotive sector company. Resource and time being the strict constraints, the production is not able to match the pace of the fluctuating demand. So, we introduce some production schedules that help in meeting out the required demand. The merits and demerits of the approaches are also highlighted.

Keywords: Production scheduling, Demand rise, Capacity constrained resource (CCR), Overtime.

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6108 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: J. Ranogajec, O. Rudic, S. Pasalic, S. Vucetic, D. Cjepa

Abstract:

The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: Cultural heritage. Materials compatibility. Pilot production. Self-cleaning.

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6107 Novel Trends in Manufacturing Systems with View on Implementation Possibilities of Intelligent Automation

Authors: Roman Ružarovský, Radovan Holubek, Peter Košťál

Abstract:

The current trend of increasing quality and demands of the final product is affected by time analysis of the entire manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition. These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing systems. The intelligent manufacturing paradigm includes a new approach to production system structure design. Intelligent behaviors are based on the monitoring of important parameters of system and its environment. The flexible reaction to changes. The realization and utilization of this design paradigm as an "intelligent manufacturing system" enables the flexible system reaction to production requirement as soon as environmental changes too. Results of these flexible reactions are a smaller layout space, be decreasing of production and investment costs and be increasing of productivity. Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in interaction with the surroundings.

Keywords: Sensory equipment, intelligent manufacturing systems, manufacturing process, control system, smart automation.

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6106 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: Production planning and control, energy, efficiency, flexibility.

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6105 Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto- Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The mathematical model has been validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort, and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.

Keywords: Base isolation, earthquake engineering, parallel elasto-plastic model, seismic isolators, softening hysteresis loops.

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6104 Heat Transfer in a Parallel-Plate Enclosure with Graded-Index Coatings on its Walls

Authors: Jiun-Wei Chen, Chih-Yang Wu, Ming-Feng Hou

Abstract:

A numerical study on the heat transfer in the thermal barrier coatings and the substrates of a parallel-plate enclosure is carried out. Some of the thermal barrier coatings, such as ceramics, are semitransparent and are of interest for high-temperature applications where radiation effects are significant. The radiative transfer equations and the energy equations are solved by using the discrete ordinates method and the finite difference method. Illustrative results are presented for temperature distributions in the coatings and the opaque walls under various heating conditions. The results show that the temperature distribution is more uniform in the interior portion of each coating away from its boundary for the case with a larger average of varying refractive index and a positive gradient of refractive index enhances radiative transfer to the substrates.

Keywords: Radiative transfer, parallel-plate enclosure, coatings, varying refractive index

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6103 Influence of Number Parallels Paths of a Winding on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters

Authors: Belassel Mohand-Tahar

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence of te number parallel path of a winding on overvoltage compared to the frame and between turns (sections) in a multiturn random winding of an asynchronous motors supplied with PWM- converters.

Keywords: Asynchronous Motors, Parallel path, PWMconverters, Undulatory process, Undulatory parameters, Undulatory voltage

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6102 Trajectory Tracking of a Redundant Hybrid Manipulator Using a Switching Control Method

Authors: Atilla Bayram

Abstract:

This paper presents the trajectory tracking control of a spatial redundant hybrid manipulator. This manipulator consists of two parallel manipulators which are a variable geometry truss (VGT) module. In fact, each VGT module with 3-degress of freedom (DOF) is a planar parallel manipulator and their operational planes of these VGT modules are arranged to be orthogonal to each other. Also, the manipulator contains a twist motion part attached to the top of the second VGT module to supply the missing orientation of the endeffector. These three modules constitute totally 7-DOF hybrid (parallel-parallel) redundant spatial manipulator. The forward kinematics equations of this manipulator are obtained, then, according to these equations, the inverse kinematics is solved based on an optimization with the joint limit avoidance. The dynamic equations are formed by using virtual work method. In order to test the performance of the redundant manipulator and the controllers presented, two different desired trajectories are followed by using the computed force control method and a switching control method. The switching control method is combined with the computed force control method and genetic algorithm. In the switching control method, the genetic algorithm is only used for fine tuning in the compensation of the trajectory tracking errors.

Keywords: Computed force control method, genetic algorithm, hybrid manipulator, inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators, variable geometry truss.

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6101 Robust Fuzzy Observer Design for Nonlinear Systems

Authors: Michal Polanský, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper shows a new method for design of fuzzy observers for Takagi-Sugeno systems. The method is based on Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and it allows to insert H constraint into the design procedure. The speed of estimation can tuned be specification of a decay rate of the observer closed loop system. We discuss here also the influence of parametric uncertainties at the output control system stability.

Keywords: H norm, Linear Matrix Inequalities, Observers, Takagi-Sugeno Systems, Parallel Distributed Compensation

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6100 Determination of Alkaline Protease Production In Serratia Marcescens Sp7 Using Agro Wastes As Substrate Medium, Optimization Of Production Parameters And Purification Of The Enzyme

Authors: Baby Joseph, Sankarganesh Palaniyandi

Abstract:

The enzyme alkaline protease production was determined under solid state fermentation using the soil bacteria Serratia marcescens sp7. The maximum production was obtained from wheat bran medium than ground nut shell and chemically defined medium. The physiological fermentation factors such as pH of the medium (pH 8), Temperature (40oC) and incubation time (48 hrs) played a vital role in alkaline protease production in all the above. 100Mm NaCl has given better resolution during elution of the enzymes. The enzyme production was found to be associated with growth of the bacterial culture.

Keywords: Alkaline protease, Wheat bran, Ground nut shell, Serratia marcescens

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6099 Stochastic Comparisons of Heterogeneous Samples with Homogeneous Exponential Samples

Authors: Nitin Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

In the present communication, stochastic comparison of a series (parallel) system having heterogeneous components with random lifetimes and series (parallel) system having homogeneous exponential components with random lifetimes has been studied. Further, conditions under which such a comparison is possible has been established.

Keywords: Exponential distribution, Order statistics, Star ordering, Stochastic ordering.

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6098 Modeling and Simulation of a Serial Production Line with Constant Work-In-Process

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for an unreliable production line, which is operated according to demand with constant work-in-process (CONWIP). A simulation model is developed based on the discrete model and several case problems are analyzed using the model. The model is utilized to optimize storage space capacities at intermediate stages and the number of kanbans at the last stage, which is used to trigger the production at the first stage. Furthermore, effects of several line parameters on production rate are analyzed using design of experiments.

Keywords: Production line simulator, Push-pull system, JIT system, Constant WIP, Machine failures.

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6097 The Use of Minor Setups in an EPQ Model with Constrained Production Period Length

Authors: Behrouz Afshar Nadjafi

Abstract:

Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ) problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where production period length is constrained. In this paper, we address the problem of deciding the optimal production quantity and the number of minor setups within each cycle, in which, production period length is constrained but a minor setup is possible for pass the constraint. A mathematical model is developed and Iterated Local Search (ILS) is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, solution procedure illustrated with a numerical example and results are analyzed.

Keywords: EPQ, Inventory control, minor setup, ILS.

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6096 Parallel Algorithm for Numerical Solution of Three-Dimensional Poisson Equation

Authors: Alibek Issakhov

Abstract:

In this paper developed and realized absolutely new algorithm for solving three-dimensional Poisson equation. This equation used in research of turbulent mixing, computational fluid dynamics, atmospheric front, and ocean flows and so on. Moreover in the view of rising productivity of difficult calculation there was applied the most up-to-date and the most effective parallel programming technology - MPI in combination with OpenMP direction, that allows to realize problems with very large data content. Resulted products can be used in solving of important applications and fundamental problems in mathematics and physics.

Keywords: MPI, OpenMP, three dimensional Poisson equation

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6095 Parallel Branch and Bound Model Using Logarithmic Sampling (PBLS) for Symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Sheikh Muhammad Azam, Masood-ur-Rehman, Adnan Khalid Bhatti, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

Very Large and/or computationally complex optimization problems sometimes require parallel or highperformance computing for achieving a reasonable time for computation. One of the most popular and most complicate problems of this family is “Traveling Salesman Problem". In this paper we have introduced a Branch & Bound based algorithm for the solution of such complicated problems. The main focus of the algorithm is to solve the “symmetric traveling salesman problem". We reviewed some of already available algorithms and felt that there is need of new algorithm which should give optimal solution or near to the optimal solution. On the basis of the use of logarithmic sampling, it was found that the proposed algorithm produced a relatively optimal solution for the problem and results excellent performance as compared with the traditional algorithms of this series.

Keywords: Parallel execution, symmetric traveling salesman problem, branch and bound algorithm, logarithmic sampling.

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6094 Fractal Shapes Description with Parametric L-systems and Turtle Algebra

Authors: Ikbal Zammouri, Béchir Ayeb

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to describe fractal shapes using parametric l-systems. First we introduce scaling factors in the production rules of the parametric l-systems grammars. Then we decorticate these grammars with scaling factors using turtle algebra to show the mathematical relation between l-systems and iterated function systems (IFS). We demonstrate that with specific values of the scaling factors, we find the exact relationship established by Prusinkiewicz and Hammel between l-systems and IFS.

Keywords: Fractal shapes, IFS, parametric l-systems, turtlealgebra.

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6093 Qualitative Parametric Comparison of Load Balancing Algorithms in Parallel and Distributed Computing Environment

Authors: Amit Chhabra, Gurvinder Singh, Sandeep Singh Waraich, Bhavneet Sidhu, Gaurav Kumar

Abstract:

Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. One of the biggest issues in such systems is the development of effective techniques/algorithms for the distribution of the processes/load of a parallel program on multiple hosts to achieve goal(s) such as minimizing execution time, minimizing communication delays, maximizing resource utilization and maximizing throughput. Substantive research using queuing analysis and assuming job arrivals following a Poisson pattern, have shown that in a multi-host system the probability of one of the hosts being idle while other host has multiple jobs queued up can be very high. Such imbalances in system load suggest that performance can be improved by either transferring jobs from the currently heavily loaded hosts to the lightly loaded ones or distributing load evenly/fairly among the hosts .The algorithms known as load balancing algorithms, helps to achieve the above said goal(s). These algorithms come into two basic categories - static and dynamic. Whereas static load balancing algorithms (SLB) take decisions regarding assignment of tasks to processors based on the average estimated values of process execution times and communication delays at compile time, Dynamic load balancing algorithms (DLB) are adaptive to changing situations and take decisions at run time. The objective of this paper work is to identify qualitative parameters for the comparison of above said algorithms. In future this work can be extended to develop an experimental environment to study these Load balancing algorithms based on comparative parameters quantitatively.

Keywords: SLB, DLB, Host, Algorithm and Load.

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6092 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.

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6091 The Effects of Methionine and Acetate Concentrations on Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in Submerged Culture

Authors: F. Ardestani, S.A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali, M. Hosseyni, G. Najafpour

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid “MPA" is a secondary metabolite of Penicillium bervicompactum with antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, fermentation process was established for production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L.h respectively. Glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during fermentation time. It was found that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of methionine and acetate concentrations on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity (1.763 g/L, 23.8 mg/g glucose and 6.30 mg/L. h respectively) were obtained with using 2.5 g/L methionine in culture medium. Further addition of methionine had not more positive effect on MPA production. Finally, results showed that the addition of acetate to the culture medium had not any observable effect on MPA production.

Keywords: Penicillium bervicompactum, Methionine, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture

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6090 Asynchronous Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm with Elite Migration

Authors: Kazunori Kojima, Masaaki Ishigame, Goutam Chakraborty, Hiroshi Hatsuo, Shozo Makino

Abstract:

In most of the popular implementation of Parallel GAs the whole population is divided into a set of subpopulations, each subpopulation executes GA independently and some individuals are migrated at fixed intervals on a ring topology. In these studies, the migrations usually occur 'synchronously' among subpopulations. Therefore, CPUs are not used efficiently and the communication do not occur efficiently either. A few studies tried asynchronous migration but it is hard to implement and setting proper parameter values is difficult. The aim of our research is to develop a migration method which is easy to implement, which is easy to set parameter values, and which reduces communication traffic. In this paper, we propose a traffic reduction method for the Asynchronous Parallel Distributed GA by migration of elites only. This is a Server-Client model. Every client executes GA on a subpopulation and sends an elite information to the server. The server manages the elite information of each client and the migrations occur according to the evolution of sub-population in a client. This facilitates the reduction in communication traffic. To evaluate our proposed model, we apply it to many function optimization problems. We confirm that our proposed method performs as well as current methods, the communication traffic is less, and setting of the parameters are much easier.

Keywords: Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm (PDGA), asynchronousPDGA, Server-Client configuration, Elite Migration

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6089 High Performance in Parallel Data Integration: An Empirical Evaluation of the Ratio Between Processing Time and Number of Physical Nodes

Authors: Caspar von Seckendorff, Eldar Sultanow

Abstract:

Many studies have shown that parallelization decreases efficiency [1], [2]. There are many reasons for these decrements. This paper investigates those which appear in the context of parallel data integration. Integration processes generally cannot be allocated to packages of identical size (i. e. tasks of identical complexity). The reason for this is unknown heterogeneous input data which result in variable task lengths. Process delay is defined by the slowest processing node. It leads to a detrimental effect on the total processing time. With a real world example, this study will show that while process delay does initially increase with the introduction of more nodes it ultimately decreases again after a certain point. The example will make use of the cloud computing platform Hadoop and be run inside Amazon-s EC2 compute cloud. A stochastic model will be set up which can explain this effect.

Keywords: Process delay, speedup, efficiency, parallel computing, data integration, E-Commerce, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Hadoop, Nutch.

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6088 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh

Abstract:

In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: Discrete Element Method, fluid flow, parametric study, sand production/bonds failure.

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6087 Simulation and Workspace Analysis of a Tripod Parallel Manipulator

Authors: A. Arockia Selvakumar, R. Sivaramakrishnan, Srinivasa Karthik.T.V, Valluri Siva Ramakrishna, B.Vinodh.

Abstract:

Industrial robots play a vital role in automation however only little effort are taken for the application of robots in machining work such as Grinding, Cutting, Milling, Drilling, Polishing etc. Robot parallel manipulators have high stiffness, rigidity and accuracy, which cannot be provided by conventional serial robot manipulators. The aim of this paper is to perform the modeling and the workspace analysis of a 3 DOF Parallel Manipulator (3 DOF PM). The 3 DOF PM was modeled and simulated using 'ADAMS'. The concept involved is based on the transformation of motion from a screw joint to a spherical joint through a connecting link. This paper work has been planned to model the Parallel Manipulator (PM) using screw joints for very accurate positioning. A workspace analysis has been done for the determination of work volume of the 3 DOF PM. The position of the spherical joints connected to the moving platform and the circumferential points of the moving platform were considered for finding the workspace. After the simulation, the position of the joints of the moving platform was noted with respect to simulation time and these points were given as input to the 'MATLAB' for getting the work envelope. Then 'AUTOCAD' is used for determining the work volume. The obtained values were compared with analytical approach by using Pappus-Guldinus Theorem. The analysis had been dealt by considering the parameters, link length and radius of the moving platform. From the results it is found that the radius of moving platform is directly proportional to the work volume for a constant link length and the link length is also directly proportional to the work volume, at a constant radius of the moving platform.

Keywords: Three Degrees of freedom Parallel Manipulator (3DOF PM), ADAMS, Work volume, MATLAB, AUTOCAD, Pappus- Guldinus Theorem.

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6086 HPM Solution of Momentum Equation for Darcy-Brinkman Model in a Parallel Plates Channel Subjected to Lorentz Force

Authors: Asghar Shirazpour, Seyed Moein Rassoulinejad Mousavi, Hamid Reza Seyf

Abstract:

In this paper an analytical solution is presented for fully developed flow in a parallel plates channel under the action of Lorentz force, by use of Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). The analytical results are compared with exact solution and an excellent agreement has been observed between them for both Couette and Poiseuille flows. Moreover, the effects of key parameters have been studied on the dimensionless velocity profile.

Keywords: Lorentz Force, Porous Media, Homotopy Perturbation method

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