Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

20 Pilot-Assisted Direct-Current Biased Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Visible Light Communication System

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulkafi, Shahir F. Nawaf, Mohammed K. Hussein, Ibrahim K. Sileh, Fouad A. Abdulkafi

Abstract:

Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.

Keywords: Channel estimation, OFDM, pilot-assist, VLC.

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19 Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique

Authors: Atif Elahi, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Mehreen Atif, Noor Gul

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, cancellation carriers, generalized sidelobe canceller, out-of-band radiation, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

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18 Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.

Keywords: CCDF, Clipping, OFDM, PAPR, SLM.

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17 Effect of Iterative Algorithm on the Performance of MC-CDMA System with Nonlinear Models of HPA

Authors: R. Blicha

Abstract:

High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is a serious problem in multicarrier systems (MC), such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), or in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems, due to large number of subcarriers. This effect is possible reduce with some PAPR reduction techniques. Spreading sequences at the presence of Saleh and Rapp models of high power amplifier (HPA) have big influence on the behavior of system. In this paper we investigate the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA systems. Basically we can see from simulations that the MC-CDMA system with Iterative algorithm can be providing significantly better results than the MC-CDMA system. The results of our analyses are verified via simulation.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, Iterative algorithm, PAPR, BER, Saleh, Rapp, Spreading Sequences.

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16 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based On ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol.

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15 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni

Abstract:

Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper present performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate ½. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 subcarrier transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 10dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system

Keywords: Convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER.

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14 Performance Analysis of Adaptive OFDM Pre and Post-FTT Beamforming System

Authors: S. Elnobi, Iman El-Zahaby, Amr M. Mahros

Abstract:

In mobile communication systems, performance and capacity are affected by multi-path fading, delay spread and Co-Channel Interference (CCI). For this reason Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and adaptive antenna array are used is required. The goal of the OFDM is to improve the system performance against Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). An array of adaptive antennas has been employed to suppress CCI by spatial technique. To suppress CCI in OFDM systems two main schemes the pre-FFT and the post-FFT have been proposed. In this paper, through a system level simulation, the behavior of the pre-FFT and post-FFT beamformers for OFDM system has been investigated based on two algorithms namely, Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The performance of the system is also discussed in multipath fading channel system specified by 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

Keywords: OFDM, Beamforming, Adaptive Antennas Array.

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13 PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix

Authors: Md. Mahmudul Hasan

Abstract:

OFDM systems are known to have a high PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) compared with single-carrier systems. In fact, the high PAPR is one of the most detrimental aspects in the OFDM system, as it can cause power degradation (Inband distortion) and spectral spreading (Out-of-band radiation). In this paper, from the foundation of the PAPR analysis an effective method of PAPR reduction has been proposed based on Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM) transform. Extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 4.4 dB can be obtained without introducing in-band distortion or out-of-band radiation in the system.

Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM).

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12 Analysis of Codebook Based Channel Feedback Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Ahmed Farhan Hanif, Adnan Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) feedback system combined with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The first feedback technique uses a combination of both the long-term and short-term channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, whereas the second technique uses only the short term CSI. The long-term and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The effectiveness of these techniques has been demonstrated through the simulation of a MIMO-OFDM feedback system. The results have been evaluated for 4x4 MIMO channels. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the MIMO-OFDM channel feedback system over the one without incorporating OFDM. Performance gain of about 3 dB is observed for MIMO-OFDM feedback system as compared to the one without employing OFDM. Hence MIMO-OFDM becomes an attractive approach for future high speed wireless communication systems.

Keywords: MIMO systems, OFDM, Codebooks, Channel Feedback

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11 Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO

Authors: Jaeyoon Lee, Dongweon Yoon, Hoon Yoo, Sanggoo Kim

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.

Keywords: Carrier frequency offset, Probability of error, Inter-channel interference, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

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10 Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM

Authors: Riddhi Parmar, Shilpi Gupta, Upena Dalal

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.

Keywords: BER, π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK), OFDM, phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying.

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9 Performance Analysis of MC-SS for the Indoor BPLC Systems

Authors: Justinian Anatory

Abstract:

power-line networks are promise infrastructure for broadband services provision to end users. However, the network performance is affected by stochastic channel changing which is due to load impedances, number of branches and branched line lengths. It has been proposed that multi-carrier modulations techniques such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS), wavelet OFDM can be used in such environment. This paper investigates the performance of different indoor topologies of power-line networks that uses MC-SS modulation scheme.It is observed that when a branch is added in the link between sending and receiving end of an indoor channel an average of 2.5dB power loss is found. In additional, when the branch is added at a node an average of 1dB power loss is found. Additionally when the terminal impedances of the branch change from line characteristic impedance to impedance either higher or lower values the channel performances were tremendously improved. For example changing terminal load from characteristic impedance (85 .) to 5 . the signal to noise ratio (SNR) required to attain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 24dB respectively. Also, changing the terminal load from channel characteristic impedance (85 .) to very higher impedance (1600 .) the SNR required to maintain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 23dB. The result concludes that MC-SS performs better compared with OFDM techniques in all aspects and especially when the channel is terminated in either higher or lower impedances.

Keywords: Communication channel model; Broadband Powerlinecommunication; Branched network; OFDM; Delay Spread, MCSS;impulsive noise; load impedance

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8 The Effects of Multipath on OFDM Systems for Broadband Power-Line Communications a Case of Medium Voltage Channel

Authors: Justinian Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, C. Mwase, N.H. Mvungi

Abstract:

Power-line networks are widely used today for broadband data transmission. However, due to multipaths within the broadband power line communication (BPLC) systems owing to stochastic changes in the network load impedances, branches, etc., network or channel capacity performances are affected. This paper attempts to investigate the performance of typical medium voltage channels that uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) sub carriers. It has been observed that when the load impedances are different from line characteristic impedance channel performance decreases. Also as the number of branches in the link between the transmitter and receiver increases a loss of 4dB/branch is found in the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The information presented in the paper could be useful for an appropriate design of the BPLC systems.

Keywords: Communication channel model, Power-line communication, Transfer function, Multipath, Branched network, OFDM, QAM, performance evaluation

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7 An Improved Algorithm for Channel Estimations of OFDM System based Pilot Signal

Authors: Ahmed N. H. Alnuaimy, Mahamod Ismail, Mohd. A. M. Ali, Kasmiran Jumari, Ayman A. El-Saleh

Abstract:

This paper presents a new algorithm for the channel estimation of the OFDM system based on a pilot signal for the new generation of high data rate communication systems. In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over fast-varying fading channels, channel estimation and tracking is generally carried out by transmitting known pilot symbols in given positions of the frequency-time grid. In this paper, we propose to derive an improved algorithm based on the calculation of the mean and the variance of the adjacent pilot signals for a specific distribution of the pilot signals in the OFDM frequency-time grid then calculating of the entire unknown channel coefficients from the equation of the mean and the variance. Simulation results shows that the performance of the OFDM system increase as the length of the channel increase where the accuracy of the estimated channel will be increased using this low complexity algorithm, also the number of the pilot signal needed to be inserted in the OFDM signal will be reduced which lead to increase in the throughput of the signal over the OFDM system in compared with other type of the distribution such as Comb type and Block type channel estimation.

Keywords: Channel estimation, orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), comb type channel estimation, block typechannel estimation.

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6 Broadband PowerLine Communications: Performance Analysis

Authors: Justinian Anatory, Nelson Theethayi, M. M. Kissaka, N. H. Mvungi

Abstract:

Power line channel is proposed as an alternative for broadband data transmission especially in developing countries like Tanzania [1]. However the channel is affected by stochastic attenuation and deep notches which can lead to the limitation of channel capacity and achievable data rate. Various studies have characterized the channel without giving exactly the maximum performance and limitation in data transfer rate may be this is due to complexity of channel modeling being used. In this paper the channel performance of medium voltage, low voltage and indoor power line channel is presented. In the investigations orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with phase shift keying (PSK) as carrier modulation schemes is considered, for indoor, medium and low voltage channels with typical ten branches and also Golay coding is applied for medium voltage channel. From channels, frequency response deep notches are observed in various frequencies which can lead to reduce the achievable data rate. However, is observed that data rate up to 240Mbps is realized for a signal to noise ratio of about 50dB for indoor and low voltage channels, however for medium voltage a typical link with ten branches is affected by strong multipath and coding is required for feasible broadband data transfer.

Keywords: Powerline Communications, branched network, channel model, modulation, channel performance, OFDM.

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5 A New Construction of 16-QAM Codewords with Low Peak Power

Authors: Jiaxiang Zhao

Abstract:

We present a novel construction of 16-QAM codewords of length n = 2k . The number of constructed codewords is 162×[4k-1×k-k+1] . When these constructed codewords are utilized as a code in OFDM systems, their peak-to-mean envelope power ratios (PMEPR) are bounded above by 3.6 . The principle of our scheme is illustrated with a four subcarrier example.

Keywords: Extended Rudin-Shapiro construction, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR)

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4 An Improved ICI Self-Cancellation Scheme for Multi-Carrier Communication Systems

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

For broadband wireless mobile communication systems the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a suitable modulation scheme. The frequency offset between transmitter and receiver local oscillator is main drawback of OFDM systems, which causes intercarrier interference (ICI) in the subcarriers of the OFDM system. This ICI degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. In this paper an improved self-ICI cancellation scheme is proposed to improve the system performance. The proposed scheme is based on discrete Fourier transform-inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT-IDFT). The simulation results show that there is satisfactory improvement in the bit error rate (BER) performance of the present scheme.

Keywords: OFDM, Intercarrier Interference, InterferenceCoefficients, DFT based Self-ICI Cancellation.

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3 Recovering the Clipped OFDM Figurebased on the Conic Function

Authors: Linjun Wu, Shihua Zhu, Xingle Feng

Abstract:

In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the peak to average power ratio (PAR) is much high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful method to reduce PAR. Clipping the OFDM signal, however, increases the overall noise level by introducing clipping noise. It is necessary to recover the figure of the original signal at receiver in order to reduce the clipping noise. Considering the continuity of the signal and the figure of the peak, we obtain a certain conic function curve to replace the clipped signal module within the clipping time. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheme can reduce the systems? BER (bit-error rate) 10 times when signal-to-interference-and noise-ratio (SINR) equals to 12dB. And the BER performance of the proposed scheme is superior to that of kim's scheme, too.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio, clipping time, conic function.

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2 Mitigating the Clipping Noise by Using the Oversampling Scheme in OFDM Systems

Authors: Linjun Wu, Shihua Zhu, Xingle Feng

Abstract:

In an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the Peak to Average power Ratio (PAR) is high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful and simple method to reduce the PAR. However, it introduces additional noise that degrades the systems performance. We propose an oversampling scheme to deal with the received signal in order to reduce the clipping noise by using Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. Coefficients of filter are obtained by correlation function of the received signal and the oversampling information at receiver. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated for frequency selective channel. Results show that the proposed scheme can mitigate the clipping noise significantly for OFDM systems and in order to maintain the system's capacity, the clipping ratio should be larger than 2.5.

Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, peak-to-average power ratio, oversampling.

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1 Performance Enhancement of Cellular OFDM Based Wireless LANs by Exploiting Spatial Diversity Techniques

Authors: S. Ali. Tajer, Babak H. Khalaj

Abstract:

This paper represents an investigation on how exploiting multiple transmit antennas by OFDM based wireless LAN subscribers can mitigate physical layer error rate. Then by comparing the Wireless LANs that utilize spatial diversity techniques with the conventional ones it will reveal how PHY and TCP throughputs behaviors are ameliorated. In the next step it will assess the same issues based on a cellular context operation which is mainly introduced as an innovated solution that beside a multi cell operation scenario benefits spatio-temporal signaling schemes as well. Presented simulations will shed light on the improved performance of the wide range and high quality wireless LAN services provided by the proposed approach.

Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), and WirelessLocal Area Network (WLAN).

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