Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2252

Search results for: Oil-water stratified flow

2252 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Santosh Kumar Senapati

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.

Keywords: Oil-water stratified flow, horizontal channel, CLSVOF, non–Newtonian behavior.

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2251 Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow Characteristics in Horizontal Pipeline – A Comprehensive CFD Study

Authors: Anand B. Desamala, Ashok Kumar Dasamahapatra, Tapas K. Mandal

Abstract:

In the present work, detailed analysis on flow characteristics of a pair of immiscible liquids through horizontal pipeline is simulated by using ANSYS FLUENT 6.2. Moderately viscous oil and water (viscosity ratio = 107, density ratio = 0.89 and interfacial tension = 0.024 N/m) have been taken as system fluids for the study. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed by assuming unsteady flow, immiscible liquid pair, constant liquid properties, and co-axial flow. Meshing has been done using GAMBIT. Quadrilateral mesh type has been chosen to account for the surface tension effect more accurately. From the grid independent study, we have selected 47037 number of mesh elements for the entire geometry. Simulation successfully predicts slug, stratified wavy, stratified mixed and annular flow, except dispersion of oil in water, and dispersion of water in oil. Simulation results are validated with horizontal literature data and good conformity is observed. Subsequently, we have simulated the hydrodynamics (viz., velocity profile, area average pressure across a cross section and volume fraction profile along the radius) of stratified wavy and annular flow at different phase velocities. The simulation results show that in the annular flow, total pressure of the mixture decreases with increase in oil velocity due to the fact that pipe cross section is completely wetted with water. Simulated oil volume fraction shows maximum at the centre in core annular flow, whereas, in stratified flow, maximum value appears at upper side of the pipeline. These results are in accord with the actual flow configuration. Our findings could be useful in designing pipeline for transportation of crude oil.

Keywords: CFD, Horizontal pipeline, Oil-water flow, VOF technique.

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2250 CFD Simulation and Validation of Flow Pattern Transition Boundaries during Moderately Viscous Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow through Horizontal Pipeline

Authors: Anand B. Desamala, Anjali Dasari, Vinayak Vijayan, Bharath K. Goshika, Ashok K. Dasmahapatra, Tapas K. Mandal

Abstract:

In the present study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been executed to investigate the transition boundaries of different flow patterns for moderately viscous oil-water (viscosity ratio 107, density ratio 0.89 and interfacial tension of 0.032 N/m.) two-phase flow through a horizontal pipeline with internal diameter and length of 0.025 m and 7.16 m respectively. Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach including effect of surface tension has been employed to predict the flow pattern. Geometry and meshing of the present problem has been drawn using GAMBIT and ANSYS FLUENT has been used for simulation. A total of 47037 quadrilateral elements are chosen for the geometry of horizontal pipeline. The computation has been performed by assuming unsteady flow, immiscible liquid pair, constant liquid properties, co-axial flow and a T-junction as entry section. The simulation correctly predicts the transition boundaries of wavy stratified to stratified mixed flow. Other transition boundaries are yet to be simulated. Simulated data has been validated with our own experimental results.

Keywords: CFD simulation, flow pattern transition, moderately viscous oil-water flow, prediction of flow transition boundary, VOF technique.

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2249 Visual Study on Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer during Convective Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth and Microfin Tubes

Authors: V.D. Hatamipour, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi

Abstract:

Evaporator is an important and widely used heat exchanger in air conditioning and refrigeration industries. Different methods have been used by investigators to increase the heat transfer rates in evaporators. One of the passive techniques to enhance heat transfer coefficient is the application of microfin tubes. The mechanism of heat transfer augmentation in microfin tubes is dependent on the flow regime of two-phase flow. Therefore many investigations of the flow patterns for in-tube evaporation have been reported in literatures. The gravitational force, surface tension and the vapor-liquid interfacial shear stress are known as three dominant factors controlling the vapor and liquid distribution inside the tube. A review of the existing literature reveals that the previous investigations were concerned with the two-phase flow pattern for flow boiling in horizontal tubes [12], [9]. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to obtain information about the two-phase flow patterns for evaporation of R-134a inside horizontal smooth and microfin tubes. Also Investigation of heat transfer during flow boiling of R-134a inside horizontal microfin and smooth tube have been carried out experimentally The heat transfer coefficients for annular flow in the smooth tube is shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton-s correlation [4]. All the flow patterns occurred in the test can be divided into three dominant regimes, i.e., stratified-wavy flow, wavy-annular flow and annular flow. Experimental data are plotted in two kinds of flow maps, i.e., Weber number for the vapor versus weber number for the liquid flow map and mass flux versus vapor quality flow map. The transition from wavy-annular flow to annular or stratified-wavy flow is identified in the flow maps.

Keywords: Flow boiling, Flow pattern, Heat transfer, Horizontal, Smooth tube, Microfin tube.

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2248 The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors: M. Abdulkadir, V. Hernandez-Perez

Abstract:

The characteristics of fluid flow and phase separation in an oil-water separator were numerically analysed as part of the work presented herein. Simulations were performed for different velocities and droplet diameters, and the way this parameters can influence the separator geometry was studied. The simulations were carried out using the software package Fluent 6.2, which is designed for numerical simulation of fluid flow and mass transfer. The model consisted of a cylindrical horizontal separator. A tetrahedral mesh was employed in the computational domain. The condition of two-phase flow was simulated with the two-fluid model, taking into consideration turbulence effects using the k-ε model. The results showed that there is a strong dependency of phase separation on mixture velocity and droplet diameter. An increase in mixture velocity will bring about a slow down in phase separation and as a consequence will require a weir of greater height. An increase in droplet diameter will produce a better phase separation. The simulations are in agreement with results reported in literature and show that CFD can be a useful tool in studying a horizontal oilwater separator.

Keywords: CFD, droplet diameter, mixture velocity

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2247 Performance Evaluation of A Stratified Chilled- Water Thermal Storage System

Authors: M. A. Karim

Abstract:

In countries with hot climates, air-conditioning forms a large proportion of annual peak electrical demand, requiring expansion of power plants to meet the peak demand, which goes unused most of the time. Use of well-designed cool storage can offset the peak demand to a large extent. In this study, an air conditioning system with naturally stratified storage tank was designed, constructed and tested. A new type of diffuser was designed and used in this study. Factors that influence the performance of chilled water storage tanks were investigated. The results indicated that stratified storage tank consistently stratified well without any physical barrier. Investigation also showed that storage efficiency decreased with increasing flow rate due to increased mixing of warm and chilled water. Diffuser design and layout primarily affected the mixing near the inlet diffuser and the extent of this mixing had primary influence on the shape of the thermocline. The heat conduction through tank walls and through the thermocline caused widening of mixed volume. Thermal efficiency of stratified storage tanks was as high as 90 percent, which indicates that stratified tanks can effectively be used as a load management technique.

Keywords: Cool Thermal Storage, Diffuser, Natural Stratification, Efficiency Improvement, Load management.

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2246 STRPRO Tool for Manipulation of Stratified Programs Based on SEPN

Authors: Chadlia Jerad, Amel Grissa-Touzi, Habib Ounelli

Abstract:

Negation is useful in the majority of the real world applications. However, its introduction leads to semantic and canonical problems. SEPN nets are well adapted extension of predicate nets for the definition and manipulation of stratified programs. This formalism is characterized by two main contributions. The first concerns the management of the whole class of stratified programs. The second contribution is related to usual operations optimization (maximal stratification, incremental updates ...). We propose, in this paper, useful algorithms for manipulating stratified programs using SEPN. These algorithms were implemented and validated with STRPRO tool.

Keywords: stratified programs, update operations, SEPN formalism, algorithms, STRPRO.

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2245 Estimating the Population Mean by Using Stratified Double Extreme Ranked Set Sample

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Amer I. Al-Omari

Abstract:

Stratified double extreme ranked set sampling (SDERSS) method is introduced and considered for estimating the population mean. The SDERSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS) and stratified simple set sampling (SSRS). It is shown that the SDERSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than the estimators using SRS, SRSS and SSRS when the underlying distribution of the variable of interest is symmetric or asymmetric.

Keywords: Double extreme ranked set sampling, Extreme ranked set sampling, Ranked set sampling, Stratified double extreme ranked set sampling.

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2244 New Approach for Manipulation of Stratified Programs

Authors: Amel Grissa-Touzi, Chadlia Jerad, Habib Ounelli

Abstract:

Negation is useful in the majority of the real world applications. However, its introduction leads to semantic and canonical problems. We propose in this paper an approach based on stratification to deal with negation problems. This approach is based on an extension of predicates nets. It is characterized with two main contributions. The first concerns the management of the whole class of stratified programs. The second contribution is related to usual operations optimizations on stratified programs (maximal stratification, incremental updates ...).

Keywords: stratified programs, stratification, standard model, update operations, SEPN formalism.

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2243 Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam

Abstract:

Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

Keywords: Efficiency, double ranked set sampling, median ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling, stratified.

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2242 Rotary Entrainment in Two Phase Stratified Gas-Liquid Layers: An Experimental Study

Authors: Yagya Sharma, Basanta K. Rana, Arup K. Das

Abstract:

Rotary entrainment is a phenomenon in which the interface of two immiscible fluids are subjected to external flux by means of rotation. Present work reports the experimental study on rotary motion of a horizontal cylinder between the interface of air and water to observe the penetration of gas inside the liquid. Experiments have been performed to establish entrainment of air mass in water alongside the cylindrical surface. The movement of tracer and seeded particles has been tracked to calculate the speed and path of the entrained air inside water. Simplified particle image velocimetry technique has been used to trace the movement of particles/tracers at the moment they are injected inside the entrainment zone and suspended beads have been used to replicate the particle movement with respect to time in order to determine the flow dynamics of the fluid along the cylinder. Present paper establishes a thorough experimental analysis of the rotary entrainment phenomenon between air and water keeping in interest the extent to which we can intermix the two and also to study its entrainment trajectories.

Keywords: Entrainment, gas-liquid flow, particle image velocimetry, stratified layer mixing.

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2241 Investigation of Buoyant Parameters of k-ε Turbulence Model in Gravity Stratified Flows

Authors: A. Majid Bahari, Kourosh Hejazi

Abstract:

Different variants for buoyancy-affected terms in k-ε turbulence model have been utilized to predict the flow parameters more accurately, and investigate applicability of alternative k-ε turbulence buoyant closures in numerical simulation of a horizontal gravity current. The additional non-isotropic turbulent stress due to buoyancy has been considered in production term, based on Algebraic Stress Model (ASM). In order to account for turbulent scalar fluxes, general gradient diffusion hypothesis has been used along with Boussinesq gradient diffusion hypothesis with a variable turbulent Schmidt number and additional empirical constant c3ε.To simulate buoyant flow domain a 2D vertical numerical model (WISE, Width Integrated Stratified Environments), based on Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, has been deployed and the model has been further developed for different k-ε turbulence closures. Results are compared against measured laboratory values of a saline gravity current to explore the efficient turbulence model.

Keywords: Buoyant flows, Buoyant k-ε turbulence model, saline gravity current.

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2240 Static Modeling of the Delamination of a Composite Material Laminate in Mode II

Authors: Y. Madani, H. Achache, B. Boutabout

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze numerically by the three-dimensional finite element method, using ABAQUS calculation code, the mechanical behavior of a unidirectional and multidirectional delaminated stratified composite under mechanical loading in Mode II. This study consists of the determination of the energy release rate G in mode II as well as the distribution of equivalent von Mises stresses along the damaged zone by varying several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination length. It allowed us to deduce that the high energy release rate favors delamination at the free edges of a stratified plate subjected to bending.

Keywords: Delamination, energy release rate, finite element method, stratified composite.

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2239 Effect of Mechanical Loading on the Delamination of Stratified Composite in Mode I

Authors: H. Achache, Y. Madani, A. Benzerdjeb

Abstract:

The present study is based on the three-dimensional digital analysis by the finite elements method of the mechanical loading effect on the delamination of unidirectional and multidirectional stratified composites. The aim of this work is the determination of the release energy rate G in mode I and the Von Mises equivalent constraint distribution along the damaged area under the influence of several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination size. The results obtained in this study show that the unidirectional composite laminates have better mechanical resistance one the loading line than the multidirectional composite laminates.

Keywords: Delamination, release energy rate, stratified composite, finite element method and ply.

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2238 Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

Authors: Zainal Abidin Akasah, Maizam Alias, Azuin Ramli

Abstract:

The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Keywords: Building management, stratified low-cost housing, Safety and health model

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2237 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Pressure measurement, Reverse flow, Vortex tube.

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2236 Numerical Study of Microscale Gas Flow-Separation Using Explicit Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Chaudhuri, C. Guha, T. K. Dutta

Abstract:

Pressure driven microscale gas flow-separation has been investigated by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) system of equations. A two dimensional explicit finite volume (FV) compressible flow solver has been developed using modified advection upwind splitting methods (AUSM+) with no-slip/first order Maxwell-s velocity slip conditions to predict the flowseparation behavior in microdimensions. The effects of scale-factor of the flow geometry and gas species on the microscale gas flowseparation have been studied in this work. The intensity of flowseparation gets reduced with the decrease in scale of the flow geometry. In reduced dimension, flow-separation may not at all be present under similar flow conditions compared to the larger flow geometry. The flow-separation patterns greatly depend on the properties of the medium under similar flow conditions.

Keywords: AUSM+, FVM, Flow-separation, Microflow.

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2235 Hydrological Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow (Case Study: Gharasou River, Ardabil)

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, Flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: Ardabil, Environmental flow, Flow Duration Curve, Gharasou River.

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2234 File Format of Flow Chart Simulation Software - CFlow

Authors: Syahanim Mohd Salleh, Zaihosnita Hood, Hairulliza Mohd Judi, Marini Abu Bakar

Abstract:

CFlow is a flow chart software, it contains facilities to draw and evaluate a flow chart. A flow chart evaluation applies a simulation method to enable presentation of work flow in a flow chart solution. Flow chart simulation of CFlow is executed by manipulating the CFlow data file which is saved in a graphical vector format. These text-based data are organised by using a data classification technic based on a Library classification-scheme. This paper describes the file format for flow chart simulation software of CFlow.

Keywords: CFlow, flow chart, file format.

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2233 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: Fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow.

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2232 Estimating the Flow Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor

Abstract:

Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is found. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: Flow generated sound, sound processing, speed, wave power.

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2231 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

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2230 Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves a numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 15°angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It reposes inputting a cylindrical rod upstream of the leading edge in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, non-stationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 51%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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2229 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: Crack, critical flow, leak, roughness.

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2228 Mathematical Programming on Multivariate Calibration Estimation in Stratified Sampling

Authors: Dinesh Rao, M.G.M. Khan, Sabiha Khan

Abstract:

Calibration estimation is a method of adjusting the original design weights to improve the survey estimates by using auxiliary information such as the known population total (or mean) of the auxiliary variables. A calibration estimator uses calibrated weights that are determined to minimize a given distance measure to the original design weights while satisfying a set of constraints related to the auxiliary information. In this paper, we propose a new multivariate calibration estimator for the population mean in the stratified sampling design, which incorporates information available for more than one auxiliary variable. The problem of determining the optimum calibrated weights is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that is solved using the Lagrange multiplier technique.

Keywords: Calibration estimation, Stratified sampling, Multivariate auxiliary information, Mathematical programming problem, Lagrange multiplier technique.

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2227 Tidal Flow Patterns Near A Coastal Headland

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Daoyi Chen

Abstract:

Experimental investigations were carried out in the Manchester Tidal flow Facility (MTF) to study the flow patterns in the region around and adjacent to a hypothetical headland in tidal (oscillatory) ambient flow. The Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used for visualization, with fluorescent dye released at specific points around the headland perimeter and in its adjacent recirculation zone. The flow patterns can be generalized into the acceleration, stable flow and deceleration stages for each halfcycle, with small variations according to location, which are more distinct for low Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) cases. Flow patterns in the mixing region are unstable and complex, especially in the recirculation zone. The flow patterns are in agreement with previous visualizations, and support previous results in steady ambient flow. It is suggested that the headland lee could be a viable location for siting of pollutant outfalls.

Keywords: Planar laser-induced Fluorescence, recirculation zone, tidal flow, wake flows

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2226 Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry

Authors: Zineddine Bouyahiaoui, Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.

Keywords: Hypersonic flow, nonequilibrium flow, shock wave, blunt body.

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2225 Use of Heliox during Spontaneous Ventilation: Model Study

Authors: Martin Rozanek, Karel Roubik

Abstract:

The study deals with the modelling of the gas flow during heliox therapy. A special model has been developed to study the effect of the helium upon the gas flow in the airways during the spontaneous breathing. Lower density of helium compared with air decreases the Reynolds number and it allows improving the flow during the spontaneous breathing. In the cases, where the flow becomes turbulent while the patient inspires air the flow is still laminar when the patient inspires heliox. The use of heliox decreases the work of breathing and improves ventilation. It allows in some cases to prevent the intubation of the patients.

Keywords: Gas flow, heliox, Reynolds number, turbulent flow.

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2224 Experimental Study of the Metal Foam Flow Conditioner for Orifice Plate Flowmeters

Authors: B. Manshoor, N. Ihsak, Amir Khalid

Abstract:

The sensitivity of orifice plate metering to disturbed flow (either asymmetric or swirling) is a subject of great concern to flow meter users and manufacturers. The distortions caused by pipe fittings and pipe installations upstream of the orifice plate are major sources of this type of non-standard flows. These distortions can alter the accuracy of metering to an unacceptable degree. In this work, a multi-scale object known as metal foam has been used to generate a predetermined turbulent flow upstream of the orifice plate. The experimental results showed that the combination of an orifice plate and metal foam flow conditioner is broadly insensitive to upstream disturbances. This metal foam demonstrated a good performance in terms of removing swirl and producing a repeatable flow profile within a short distance downstream of the device. The results of using a combination of a metal foam flow conditioner and orifice plate for non-standard flow conditions including swirling flow and asymmetric flow show this package can preserve the accuracy of metering up to the level required in the standards.

Keywords: Metal foam flow conditioner, flow measurement, orifice plate.

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2223 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: Flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction.

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