Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1014

Search results for: Object Oriented

1014 Simulation and 40 Years of Object-Oriented Programming

Authors: Eugene Kindler

Abstract:

2007 is a jubilee year: in 1967, programming language SIMULA 67 was presented, which contained all aspects of what was later called object-oriented programming. The present paper contains a description of the development unto the objectoriented programming, the role of simulation in this development and other tools that appeared in SIMULA 67 and that are nowadays called super-object-oriented programming.

Keywords: Simulation, super-object-oriented programming, object-oriented programming, SIMULA.

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1013 A Metric Framework for Analysis of Quality of Object Oriented Design

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Satwinder Singh, Dr. K. S. Kahlon

Abstract:

The impact of OO design on software quality characteristics such as defect density and rework by mean of experimental validation. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, reusability, Data hiding and message-passing are the major attribute of an Object Oriented system. In order to evaluate the quality of an Object oriented system the above said attributes can act as indicators. The metrics are the well known quantifiable approach to express any attribute. Hence, in this paper we tried to formulate a framework of metrics representing the attributes of object oriented system. Empirical Data is collected from three different projects based on object oriented paradigms to calculate the metrics.

Keywords: Object Oriented, Software metrics, Methods, Attributes, cohesion, coupling, Inheritance.

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1012 Contribution to the Query Optimization in the Object-Oriented Databases

Authors: Minyar Sassi, Amel Grissa-Touzi

Abstract:

Appeared toward 1986, the object-oriented databases management systems had not known successes knew five years after their birth. One of the major difficulties is the query optimization. We propose in this paper a new approach that permits to enrich techniques of query optimization existing in the object-oriented databases. Seen success that knew the query optimization in the relational model, our approach inspires itself of these optimization techniques and enriched it so that they can support the new concepts introduced by the object databases.

Keywords: Query, query optimization, relational databases, object-oriented databases.

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1011 A Design-Based Cohesion Metric for Object-Oriented Classes

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Class cohesion is an important object-oriented software quality attribute. It indicates how much the members in a class are related. Assessing the class cohesion and improving the class quality accordingly during the object-oriented design phase allows for cheaper management of the later phases. In this paper, the notion of distance between pairs of methods and pairs of attribute types in a class is introduced and used as a basis for introducing a novel class cohesion metric. The metric considers the methodmethod, attribute-attribute, and attribute-method direct interactions. It is shown that the metric gives more sensitive values than other well-known design-based class cohesion metrics.

Keywords: Object-oriented software quality, object-orienteddesign, class cohesion.

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1010 The Role of Object Oriented Simulation F Modeling in Maintenance Processes

Authors: Abdulsalam A. Al-Sudairi

Abstract:

Object-oriented simulation is considered one of the most sophisticated techniques that has been widely used in planning, designing, executing and maintaining construction projects. This technique enables the modeler to focus on objects which is extremely important for thorough understanding of a system. Thus, identifying an object is an essential point of building a successful simulation model. In a maintenance process an object is a maintenance work order (MWO). This study demonstrates a maintenance simulation model for the building maintenance division of Saudi Consolidated Electric Company (SCECO) in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The model focused on both types of maintenance processes namely: (1) preventive maintenance (PM) and (2) corrective maintenance (CM). It is apparent from the findings that object-oriented simulation is a good diagnostic and experimental tool. This is because problems, limitations, bottlenecks and so forth are easily identified. These features are very difficult to obtain when using other tools.

Keywords: Object oriented, simulation, maintenance, process, work orders

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1009 Object-Oriented Programming for Modeling and Simulation of Systems in Physiology

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete

Abstract:

Object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation of physiological systems through the use of the individual components of the model and its interconnections to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper we describe the use of both the SIMSCAPE and MODELICA simulation environments in the object-oriented modeling of the closed loop cardiovascular system. The performance of the controlled system was analyzed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical students.

Keywords: Object-Oriented Modeling, SIMSCAPE Simulation Language, MODELICA Simulation Language, Cardiovascular System.

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1008 Object-Oriented Multivariate Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of Hydraulic Systems

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, S. Fernandez-Calvo, I. García-Moral

Abstract:

This paper presents and discusses the application of the object-oriented modelling software SIMSCAPE to hydraulic systems, with particular reference to multivariable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. As a result, a particular modelling approach of a double cylinder-piston coupled system is proposed and motivated, and the SIMULINK based PID tuning tool has also been used to select the proper controller parameters. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the object-oriented approach when both physical modelling and control are tackled.

Keywords: Object-oriented modeling, multivariable hydraulic system, multivariable PID control, computer simulation.

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1007 An UML Statechart Diagram-Based MM-Path Generation Approach for Object-Oriented Integration Testing

Authors: Ruilian Zhao, Ling Lin

Abstract:

MM-Path, an acronym for Method/Message Path, describes the dynamic interactions between methods in object-oriented systems. This paper discusses the classifications of MM-Path, based on the characteristics of object-oriented software. We categorize it according to the generation reasons, the effect scope and the composition of MM-Path. A formalized representation of MM-Path is also proposed, which has considered the influence of state on response method sequences of messages. .Moreover, an automatic MM-Path generation approach based on UML Statechart diagram has been presented, and the difficulties in identifying and generating MM-Path can be solved. . As a result, it provides a solid foundation for further research on test cases generation based on MM-Path.

Keywords: MM-Path, Message Sequence, Object-Oriented Integration Testing, Response Method Sequence, UML Statechart Diagram.

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1006 Implicit Authorization Mechanism of Object-Oriented Database

Authors: Haibo Hu, Hong Xiang

Abstract:

Due to its special data structure and manipulative principle, Object-Oriented Database (OODB) has a particular security protection and authorization methods. This paper first introduces the features of security mechanism about OODB, and then talked about authorization checking process of OODB. Implicit authorization mechanism is based on the subject hierarchies, object hierarchies and access hierarchies of the security authorization modes, and simplifies the authorization mode. In addition, to combine with other authorization mechanisms, implicit authorization can make protection on the authorization of OODB expediently and effectively.

Keywords: Object-oriented database(OODB), security protection, authorization mechanism, implicit authorization, authorization check.

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1005 Dynamic Metrics for Polymorphism in Object Oriented Systems

Authors: Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Gurdev Singh

Abstract:

Metrics is the process by which numbers or symbols are assigned to attributes of entities in the real world in such a way as to describe them according to clearly defined rules. Software metrics are instruments or ways to measuring all the aspect of software product. These metrics are used throughout a software project to assist in estimation, quality control, productivity assessment, and project control. Object oriented software metrics focus on measurements that are applied to the class and other characteristics. These measurements convey the software engineer to the behavior of the software and how changes can be made that will reduce complexity and improve the continuing capability of the software. Object oriented software metric can be classified in two types static and dynamic. Static metrics are concerned with all the aspects of measuring by static analysis of software and dynamic metrics are concerned with all the measuring aspect of the software at run time. Major work done before, was focusing on static metric. Also some work has been done in the field of dynamic nature of the software measurements. But research in this area is demanding for more work. In this paper we give a set of dynamic metrics specifically for polymorphism in object oriented system.

Keywords: Metrics, Software, Quality, Object oriented system, Polymorphism.

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1004 VISUAL JESS: AN Expandable Visual Generator of Oriented Object Expert systems

Authors: Amel Grissa-Touzi, Habib Ounally, Aissa Boulila

Abstract:

The utility of expert system generators has been widely recognized in many applications. Several generators based on concept of the paradigm object, have been recently proposed. The generator of oriented object expert system (GSEOO) offers languages that are often complex and difficult to use. We propose in this paper an extension of the expert system generator, JESS, which permits a friendly use of this expert system. The new tool, called VISUAL JESS, bring two main improvements to JESS. The first improvement concerns the easiness of its utilization while giving back transparency to the syntax and semantic aspects of the JESS programming language. The second improvement permits an easy access and modification of the JESS knowledge basis. The implementation of VISUAL JESS is made so that it is extensible and portable.

Keywords: Generator of Systems Expert, Programming oriented object classifies, object, inheritance, polymorphism.

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1003 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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1002 Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures

Authors: Varun Gupta, Jitender Kumar Chhabra

Abstract:

Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.

Keywords: cognitive complexity, software comprehension, software metrics, spatial complexity, Object-oriented software

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1001 Impact Analysis Based on Change Requirement Traceability in Object Oriented Software Systems

Authors: Sunil Tumkur Dakshinamurthy, Mamootil Zachariah Kurian

Abstract:

Change requirement traceability in object oriented software systems is one of the challenging areas in research. We know that the traces between links of different artifacts are to be automated or semi-automated in the software development life cycle (SDLC). The aim of this paper is discussing and implementing aspects of dynamically linking the artifacts such as requirements, high level design, code and test cases through the Extensible Markup Language (XML) or by dynamically generating Object Oriented (OO) metrics. Also, non-functional requirements (NFR) aspects such as stability, completeness, clarity, validity, feasibility and precision are discussed. We discuss this as a Fifth Taxonomy, which is a system vulnerability concern.

Keywords: Artifacts, NFRs, OO metrics, SDLC, XML.

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1000 Change Management in Business Process Modeling Based on Object Oriented Petri Net

Authors: Bassam Atieh Rajabi, Sai Peck Lee

Abstract:

Business Process Modeling (BPM) is the first and most important step in business process management lifecycle. Graph based formalism and rule based formalism are the two most predominant formalisms on which process modeling languages are developed. BPM technology continues to face challenges in coping with dynamic business environments where requirements and goals are constantly changing at the execution time. Graph based formalisms incur problems to react to dynamic changes in Business Process (BP) at the runtime instances. In this research, an adaptive and flexible framework based on the integration between Object Oriented diagramming technique and Petri Net modeling language is proposed in order to support change management techniques for BPM and increase the representation capability for Object Oriented modeling for the dynamic changes in the runtime instances. The proposed framework is applied in a higher education environment to achieve flexible, updatable and dynamic BP.

Keywords: Business Process Modeling, Change Management, Graph Based Modeling, Rule Based Modeling, Object Oriented PetriNet.

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999 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure.

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998 Adequacy of Object-Oriented Framework System-Based Testing Techniques

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

An application framework provides a reusable design and implementation for a family of software systems. If the framework contains defects, the defects will be passed on to the applications developed from the framework. Framework defects are hard to discover at the time the framework is instantiated. Therefore, it is important to remove all defects before instantiating the framework. In this paper, two measures for the adequacy of an object-oriented system-based testing technique are introduced. The measures assess the usefulness and uniqueness of the testing technique. The two measures are applied to experimentally compare the adequacy of two testing techniques introduced to test objectoriented frameworks at the system level. The two considered testing techniques are the New Framework Test Approach and Testing Frameworks Through Hooks (TFTH). The techniques are also compared analytically in terms of their coverage power of objectoriented aspects. The comparison study results show that the TFTH technique is better than the New Framework Test Approach in terms of usefulness degree, uniqueness degree, and coverage power.

Keywords: Object-oriented framework, object-oriented framework testing, test case generation, testing adequacy.

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997 Understanding the Programming Techniques Using a Complex Case Study to Teach Advanced Object-Oriented Programming

Authors: M. Al-Jepoori, D. Bennett

Abstract:

Teaching Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) as part of a Computing-related university degree is a very difficult task; the road to ensuring that students are actually learning object oriented concepts is unclear, as students often find it difficult to understand the concept of objects and their behavior. This problem is especially obvious in advanced programming modules where Design Pattern and advanced programming features such as Multi-threading and animated GUI are introduced. Looking at the students’ performance at their final year on a university course, it was obvious that the level of students’ understanding of OOP varies to a high degree from one student to another. Students who aim at the production of Games do very well in the advanced programming module. However, the students’ assessment results of the last few years were relatively low; for example, in 2016-2017, the first quartile of marks were as low as 24.5 and the third quartile was 63.5. It is obvious that many students were not confident or competent enough in their programming skills. In this paper, the reasons behind poor performance in Advanced OOP modules are investigated, and a suggested practice for teaching OOP based on a complex case study is described and evaluated.

Keywords: Complex programming case study, design pattern, learning advanced programming, object oriented programming.

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996 Applications for Accounting of Inherited Object-Oriented Class Members

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

A class in an Object-Oriented (OO) system is the basic unit of design, and it encapsulates a set of attributes and methods. In OO systems, instead of redefining the attributes and methods that are included in other classes, a class can inherit these attributes and methods and only implement its unique attributes and methods, which results in reducing code redundancy and improving code testability and maintainability. Such mechanism is called Class Inheritance. However, some software engineering applications may require accounting for all the inherited class members (i.e., attributes and methods). This paper explains how to account for inherited class members and discusses the software engineering applications that require such consideration.

Keywords: Object-oriented design, inheritance, internal quality attribute, external quality attribute, class flattening.

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995 Coupled Dynamics in Host-Guest Complex Systems Duplicates Emergent Behavior in the Brain

Authors: Sergio Pissanetzky

Abstract:

The ability of the brain to organize information and generate the functional structures we use to act, think and communicate, is a common and easily observable natural phenomenon. In object-oriented analysis, these structures are represented by objects. Objects have been extensively studied and documented, but the process that creates them is not understood. In this work, a new class of discrete, deterministic, dissipative, host-guest dynamical systems is introduced. The new systems have extraordinary self-organizing properties. They can host information representing other physical systems and generate the same functional structures as the brain does. A simple mathematical model is proposed. The new systems are easy to simulate by computer, and measurements needed to confirm the assumptions are abundant and readily available. Experimental results presented here confirm the findings. Applications are many, but among the most immediate are object-oriented engineering, image and voice recognition, search engines, and Neuroscience.

Keywords: AI, artificial intelligence, complex system, object oriented, OO, refactoring.

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994 Service-Oriented Architecture for Object- Centric Information Fusion

Authors: Jeffrey A. Dunne, Kevin Ligozio

Abstract:

In many applications there is a broad variety of information relevant to a focal “object" of interest, and the fusion of such heterogeneous data types is desirable for classification and categorization. While these various data types can sometimes be treated as orthogonal (such as the hull number, superstructure color, and speed of an oil tanker), there are instances where the inference and the correlation between quantities can provide improved fusion capabilities (such as the height, weight, and gender of a person). A service-oriented architecture has been designed and prototyped to support the fusion of information for such “object-centric" situations. It is modular, scalable, and flexible, and designed to support new data sources, fusion algorithms, and computational resources without affecting existing services. The architecture is designed to simplify the incorporation of legacy systems, support exact and probabilistic entity disambiguation, recognize and utilize multiple types of uncertainties, and minimize network bandwidth requirements.

Keywords: Data fusion, distributed computing, service-oriented architecture, SOA

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993 Applying GQM Approach towards Development of Criterion-Referenced Assessment Model for OO Programming Courses

Authors: Norazlina Khamis, Sufian Idris, Rodina Ahmad

Abstract:

The most influential programming paradigm today is object oriented (OO) programming and it is widely used in education and industry. Recognizing the importance of equipping students with OO knowledge and skills, it is not surprising that most Computer Science degree programs offer OO-related courses. How do we assess whether the students have acquired the right objectoriented skills after they have completed their OO courses? What are object oriented skills? Currently none of the current assessment techniques would be able to provide this answer. Traditional forms of OO programming assessment provide a ways for assigning numerical scores to determine letter grades. But this rarely reveals information about how students actually understand OO concept. It appears reasonable that a better understanding of how to define and assess OO skills is needed by developing a criterion referenced model. It is even critical in the context of Malaysia where there is currently a growing concern over the level of competency of Malaysian IT graduates in object oriented programming. This paper discussed the approach used to develop the criterion-referenced assessment model. The model can serve as a guideline when conducting OO programming assessment as mentioned. The proposed model is derived by using Goal Questions Metrics methodology, which helps formulate the metrics of interest. It concluded with a few suggestions for further study.

Keywords: Object-oriented programming, programmingassessment, criterion-referenced assessment model, goal questionsmetrics.

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992 Similarity Detection in Collaborative Development of Object-Oriented Formal Specifications

Authors: Fathi Taibi, Fouad Mohammed Abbou, Md. Jahangir Alam

Abstract:

The complexity of today-s software systems makes collaborative development necessary to accomplish tasks. Frameworks are necessary to allow developers perform their tasks independently yet collaboratively. Similarity detection is one of the major issues to consider when developing such frameworks. It allows developers to mine existing repositories when developing their own views of a software artifact, and it is necessary for identifying the correspondences between the views to allow merging them and checking their consistency. Due to the importance of the requirements specification stage in software development, this paper proposes a framework for collaborative development of Object- Oriented formal specifications along with a similarity detection approach to support the creation, merging and consistency checking of specifications. The paper also explores the impact of using additional concepts on improving the matching results. Finally, the proposed approach is empirically evaluated.

Keywords: Collaborative Development, Formal methods, Object-Oriented, Similarity detection

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991 Alternative Methods to Rank the Impact of Object Oriented Metrics in Fault Prediction Modeling using Neural Networks

Authors: Kamaldeep Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Ruchika Malhotra

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to rank the impact of Object Oriented(OO) metrics in fault prediction modeling using Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs). Past studies on empirical validation of object oriented metrics as fault predictors using ANNs have focused on the predictive quality of neural networks versus standard statistical techniques. In this empirical study we turn our attention to the capability of ANNs in ranking the impact of these explanatory metrics on fault proneness. In ANNs data analysis approach, there is no clear method of ranking the impact of individual metrics. Five ANN based techniques are studied which rank object oriented metrics in predicting fault proneness of classes. These techniques are i) overall connection weights method ii) Garson-s method iii) The partial derivatives methods iv) The Input Perturb method v) the classical stepwise methods. We develop and evaluate different prediction models based on the ranking of the metrics by the individual techniques. The models based on overall connection weights and partial derivatives methods have been found to be most accurate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS), Backpropagation, Fault Prediction Modeling.

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990 A Genetic Algorithm Based Classification Approach for Finding Fault Prone Classes

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Satish Kumar Dhiman, Anmol Goyal

Abstract:

Fault-proneness of a software module is the probability that the module contains faults. A correlation exists between the fault-proneness of the software and the measurable attributes of the code (i.e. the static metrics) and of the testing (i.e. the dynamic metrics). Early detection of fault-prone software components enables verification experts to concentrate their time and resources on the problem areas of the software system under development. This paper introduces Genetic Algorithm based software fault prediction models with Object-Oriented metrics. The contribution of this paper is that it has used Metric values of JEdit open source software for generation of the rules for the classification of software modules in the categories of Faulty and non faulty modules and thereafter empirically validation is performed. The results shows that Genetic algorithm approach can be used for finding the fault proneness in object oriented software components.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Software Fault, Classification, Object Oriented Metrics.

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989 COTT – A Testability Framework for Object-Oriented Software Testing

Authors: A. Goel, S.C. Gupta, S.K.Wasan

Abstract:

Testable software has two inherent properties – observability and controllability. Observability facilitates observation of internal behavior of software to required degree of detail. Controllability allows creation of difficult-to-achieve states prior to execution of various tests. In this paper, we describe COTT, a Controllability and Observability Testing Tool, to create testable object-oriented software. COTT provides a framework that helps the user to instrument object-oriented software to build the required controllability and observability. During testing, the tool facilitates creation of difficult-to-achieve states required for testing of difficultto- test conditions and observation of internal details of execution at unit, integration and system levels. The execution observations are logged in a test log file, which are used for post analysis and to generate test coverage reports.

Keywords: Controllability, Observability, Test Coverage and Testing Tool.

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988 Utilizing Ontologies Using Ontology Editor for Creating Initial Unified Modeling Language (UML)Object Model

Authors: Waralak Vongdoiwang Siricharoen

Abstract:

One of object oriented software developing problem is the difficulty of searching the appropriate and suitable objects for starting the system. In this work, ontologies appear in the part of supporting the object discovering in the initial of object oriented software developing. There are many researches try to demonstrate that there is a great potential between object model and ontologies. Constructing ontology from object model is called ontology engineering can be done; On the other hand, this research is aiming to support the idea of building object model from ontology is also promising and practical. Ontology classes are available online in any specific areas, which can be searched by semantic search engine. There are also many helping tools to do so; one of them which are used in this research is Protégé ontology editor and Visual Paradigm. To put them together give a great outcome. This research will be shown how it works efficiently with the real case study by using ontology classes in travel/tourism domain area. It needs to combine classes, properties, and relationships from more than two ontologies in order to generate the object model. In this paper presents a simple methodology framework which explains the process of discovering objects. The results show that this framework has great value while there is possible for expansion. Reusing of existing ontologies offers a much cheaper alternative than building new ones from scratch. More ontologies are becoming available on the web, and online ontologies libraries for storing and indexing ontologies are increasing in number and demand. Semantic and Ontologies search engines have also started to appear, to facilitate search and retrieval of online ontologies.

Keywords: Software Developing, Ontology, Ontology Library, Artificial Intelligent, Protégé, Object Model.

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987 Quantifying the Stability of Software Systems via Simulation in Dependency Networks

Authors: Weifeng Pan

Abstract:

The stability of a software system is one of the most important quality attributes affecting the maintenance effort. Many techniques have been proposed to support the analysis of software stability at the architecture, file, and class level of software systems, but little effort has been made for that at the feature (i.e., method and attribute) level. And the assumptions the existing techniques based on always do not meet the practice to a certain degree. Considering that, in this paper, we present a novel metric, Stability of Software (SoS), to measure the stability of object-oriented software systems by software change propagation analysis using a simulation way in software dependency networks at feature level. The approach is evaluated by case studies on eight open source Java programs using different software structures (one employs design patterns versus one does not) for the same object-oriented program. The results of the case studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed metric. The approach has been fully automated by a tool written in Java.

Keywords: Software stability, change propagation, design pattern, software maintenance, object-oriented (OO) software.

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986 Information Retrieval: A Comparative Study of Textual Indexing Using an Oriented Object Database (db4o) and the Inverted File

Authors: Mohammed Erritali

Abstract:

The growth in the volume of text data such as books and articles in libraries for centuries has imposed to establish effective mechanisms to locate them. Early techniques such as abstraction, indexing and the use of classification categories have marked the birth of a new field of research called "Information Retrieval". Information Retrieval (IR) can be defined as the task of defining models and systems whose purpose is to facilitate access to a set of documents in electronic form (corpus) to allow a user to find the relevant ones for him, that is to say, the contents which matches with the information needs of the user. Most of the models of information retrieval use a specific data structure to index a corpus which is called "inverted file" or "reverse index". This inverted file collects information on all terms over the corpus documents specifying the identifiers of documents that contain the term in question, the frequency of each term in the documents of the corpus, the positions of the occurrences of the word... In this paper we use an oriented object database (db4o) instead of the inverted file, that is to say, instead to search a term in the inverted file, we will search it in the db4o database. The purpose of this work is to make a comparative study to see if the oriented object databases may be competing for the inverse index in terms of access speed and resource consumption using a large volume of data.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, indexation, oriented object database (db4o), inverted file.

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985 SOA Embedded in BPM: A High Level View of Object Oriented Paradigm

Authors: Imran S.Bajwa

Abstract:

The trends of design and development of information systems have undergone a variety of ongoing phases and stages. These variations have been evolved due to brisk changes in user requirements and business needs. To meet these requirements and needs, a flexible and agile business solution was required to come up with the latest business trends and styles. Another obstacle in agility of information systems was typically different treatment of same diseases of two patients: business processes and information services. After the emergence of information technology, the business processes and information systems have become counterparts. But these two business halves have been treated under totally different standards. There is need to streamline the boundaries of these both pillars that are equally sharing information system's burdens and liabilities. In last decade, the object orientation has evolved into one of the major solutions for modern business needs and now, SOA is the solution to shift business on ranks of electronic platform. BPM is another modern business solution that assists to regularize optimization of business processes. This paper discusses how object orientation can be conformed to incorporate or embed SOA in BPM for improved information systems.

Keywords: Object Oriented Business Solutions, Services forBusiness Processes; Mixing SOA and BPM.

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