Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Nuri Orhan

17 Biocompatibility of NiTi Alloy Implants in vivo

Authors: Gul Tosun, Emine Ünsaldi Latif Özler, Nuri Orhan, Ali Said Durmus, Hatice Eröksüz

Abstract:

In this study, the powders of Ni and Ti with 50.5 at.% Ni for 12 h were blended and cold pressed at the different pressures (50, 75 and100 MPa).The porous product obtained after Ni-Ti compacts were synthesized by SHS (self-propagating hightemperature synthesis) in the different preheating temperatures (200, 250 and 300oC) and heating rates (30, 60 and 90oC/min). The effects of the pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were investigated on biocompatibility in vivo. The porosity in the synthesized products was in the range of 50.7–59.7 vol. %. The pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were found to have an important effect on the biocompatibility in-vivo of the synthesized products. Max. fibrotic tissue within the porous implant was found in vivo periods (6 months), in which compacting pressure 100MPa.

Keywords: NiTi, biomaterial, SHS, biocompatibility.

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16 Effective Features for Disambiguation of Turkish Verbs

Authors: Zeynep Orhan, Zeynep Altan

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the results of some experiments for finding the effective features for disambiguation of Turkish verbs. Word sense disambiguation is a current area of investigation in which verbs have the dominant role. Generally verbs have more senses than the other types of words in the average and detecting these features for verbs may lead to some improvements for other word types. In this paper we have considered only the syntactical features that can be obtained from the corpus and tested by using some famous machine learning algorithms.

Keywords: Word sense disambiguation, feature selection.

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15 The Efficiency of Irrigation System and Nitrogen Fixation for inoculated Soybeans by using N15 Tracer Techniques

Authors: Hisham Nuri Akrim, Abubaker Edkymish, Nissreen Gryani

Abstract:

Repeated additions of the unfertilized bacteria led to increase the activity of Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root zone with drip irrigation system compared to traditional manual vaccination to increase the proportion of Nitrogen from 29% to 64%, and the efficiency of adding Nitrogen fertilizer did not exceed 9.5% while dropped to 4%, due to the amount of fertilizer added was not exceed 20kg N/h, and the second was the existence of a large amount of available Nitrogen in the soil by fixation, while the efficiency of irrigation system between 2.08 to 2.26 kg/m3.

Keywords: Drip irrigation system, Nitrogen Biological Fixation, Neutron Probe, N-15 Tracer Techniques

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14 Determining Senses for Word Sense Disambiguation in Turkish

Authors: Zeynep Orhan, Zeynep Altan

Abstract:

Word sense disambiguation is an important intermediate stage for many natural language processing applications. The senses of an ambiguous word are the classification of usages for that specific word. This paper deals with the methodologies of determining the senses for a given word if they can not be obtained from an already available resource like WordNet. We offer a method that helps us to determine the sense boundaries gradually. In this method, first we decide on some features that are thought to be effective on the senses and divide the instances first into two, then according to the results of evaluations we continue dividing instances gradually. In a second method we use the pseudo words. We devise artificial words depending on some criteria and evaluate classification algorithms on these previously classified words.

Keywords: Word sense disambiguation, sense determination, pseudo words, sense granularity.

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13 Increasing Performance of Autopilot Guided Small Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mustafa Soylak, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Orhan Kizilkaya

Abstract:

In this paper, autonomous performance of a small manufactured unmanned helicopter is tried to be increased. For this purpose, a small unmanned helicopter is manufactured in Erciyes University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is called as ZANKA-Heli-I. For performance maximization, autopilot parameters are determined via minimizing a cost function consisting of flight performance parameters such as settling time, rise time, overshoot during trajectory tracking. For this purpose, a stochastic optimization method named as simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation is benefited. Using this approach, considerable autonomous performance increase (around %23) is obtained.

Keywords: Small helicopters, hierarchical control, stochastic optimization, autonomous performance maximization, autopilots.

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12 Health Expenditure and its Place in Economy: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Ayşe Coban, Orhan Coban, Haldun Soydal, Sükrü Sürücü

Abstract:

While health is a source of prosperity for individuals, it is also one of the most important determinants of economic growth for a country. Health, by increasing the productivity of labor, contributes to economic growth. Therefore, countries should give the necessary emphasis to health services. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the changes occurring in health services in Turkey by examining the developments in the sector. In this scope, the second aim of the study is to reveal the place of health expenditures in the Turkish economy. As a result of the analysis in the dataset, in which the 1999-2013 periods is considered, it was determined that some increase in health expenditures took place and that the increase in the share of health expenditures in GDP was too small. Furthermore, analysis of the results points out that in financing health expenditures, the public sector is prominent compared to the private sector.

Keywords: Healthcare, health service, health expenditures, Turkey.

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11 Numerical Simulation of Flow and Combustionin an Axisymmetric Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Nureddin Dinler, Nuri Yucel

Abstract:

Improving the performance of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of researchers. Experimental studies are more expensive than computational studies. Also using computational techniques allows one to obtain all the required data for the cylinder, some of which could not be measured. In this study, an axisymmetric homogeneous charged spark ignition engine was modeled. Fluid motion and combustion process were investigated numerically. Turbulent flow conditions were considered. Standard k- ε turbulence model for fluid flow and eddy break-up model for turbulent combustion were utilized. The effects of valve angle on the fluid flow and combustion are analyzed for constant air/fuel and compression ratios. It is found that, velocities and strength of tumble increases in-cylinder flow and due to increase in turbulence strength, the flame propagation is faster for small valve angles.

Keywords: CFD simulation, eddy break-up model, k-εturbulence model, reciprocating engine flow and combustion.

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10 Evaluation of New Product Development Projects using Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Orhan Feyzioğlu, Gülçin Büyüközkan

Abstract:

As a vital activity for companies, new product development (NPD) is also a very risky process due to the high uncertainty degree encountered at every development stage and the inevitable dependence on how previous steps are successfully accomplished. Hence, there is an apparent need to evaluate new product initiatives systematically and make accurate decisions under uncertainty. Another major concern is the time pressure to launch a significant number of new products to preserve and increase the competitive power of the company. In this work, we propose an integrated decision-making framework based on neural networks and fuzzy logic to make appropriate decisions and accelerate the evaluation process. We are especially interested in the two initial stages where new product ideas are selected (go/no go decision) and the implementation order of the corresponding projects are determined. We show that this two-staged intelligent approach allows practitioners to roughly and quickly separate good and bad product ideas by making use of previous experiences, and then, analyze a more shortened list rigorously.

Keywords: Decision Making, Neural Networks, Fuzzy Theory and Systems, Choquet Integral, New Product Development.

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9 Eco-Innovation as a New Sustainable Development Strategy: Case Studies

Authors: Orhan Çoban, Nuryağdı Rozıyev, Fehmi Karasioğlu

Abstract:

Sustainable development is one of the most debated issues, recently. In terms of providing more livable Earth continuity, while Production activities are going on, on the other hand protecting the environment has importance. As a strategy for sustainable development, eco-innovation is the application of innovations to reduce environmental burdens. Endeavors to understand ecoinnovation processes have been affected from environmental economics and innovation economics from neoclassical economics, and evolutionary economics other than neoclassical economics. In the light of case study analyses, this study aims to display activities in this field through case studies after explaining the theoretical framework of eco-innovations. This study consists of five sections including introduction and conclusion. In the second part of the study identifications of the concepts related with eco-innovation are described and eco-innovations are classified. Third section considers neoclassical and evolutionary approaches from neoclassical economics and evolutionary economics, respectively. Fourth section gives the case studies of successful eco-innovations. Last section is the conclusion part and offers suggestions for future eco-innovation research according to the theoretical framework and the case studies.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Innovation, Ecoinnovation, Neoclassical Approach, Evolutionary Approach, Case Studies

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8 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: Ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery, poultry manure.

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7 The Islamic Element of Al-‘Adl in Critical Thinking: the Perception of Muslim Engineering Undergraduates in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Nuri Al-Amin Endut, Wan Suhaimi Wan Abdullah, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar

Abstract:

The element of justice or al-‘adl in the context of Islamic critical thinking deals with the notion of justice in a thinking process which critically rationalizes the truth in a fair and objective manner with no irrelevant interference that can jeopardize a sound judgment. This Islamic axiological element is vital in technological decision making as it addresses the issues of religious values and ethics that are primarily set to fulfill the purpose of human life on earth. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyze the perception of Muslim engineering students in Malaysian higher education institutions towards the concept of al-‘adl as an essential element of Islamic critical thinking. The study employed mixed methods approach that comprises data collection from the questionnaire survey and the interview responses. A total of 557 Muslim engineering undergraduates from six Malaysian universities participated in the study. The study generally indicated that Muslim engineering undergraduates in the higher institutions have rather good comprehension and consciousness for al-‘adl with a slight awareness on the importance of objective thinking. Nonetheless there were a few items on the concept that have implied a comparatively low perception on the rational justice in Islam as the means to grasp the ultimate truth.

Keywords: Engineering education, Islamic critical thinking, rational justice, perception, tertiary education.

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6 Effect of High-Heeled Shoes on Gait: A Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Based Approach

Authors: Harun Sumbul, Orhan Ozyurt

Abstract:

The accelerations generated by the shoes in the body should be known in order to prevent balance problems, degradation of body shape and to spend less energy. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of the shoe heel height on the human body. The working group has been created as five women (range 27-32 years) with different characteristics and five shoes with different heel heights (1, 3.5, 5, 7 and 9 cm). Individuals in the study group wore shoes and walked along a 20-meter racecourse. The accelerations created by the shoes are measured in three axes (30.270 accelerometric data) and analyzed. Results show us that; while walking with high-heeled shoes, the foot is lifted more; in this case, more effort has been spent. So, more weight has occurred at ankles and joints. Since high-heeled shoes cause greater acceleration, women wearing high-heeled shoes tend to pay more attention when taking a step. As a result, for foot and body health, shoe heel must be designed to absorb the reaction from the ground. High heels disrupt the structure of the foot and it is damaging the body shape. In this respect, this study is considered to be a remarkable method to find of effect of high-heeled shoes on gait by using accelerometer in the literature.

Keywords: Acceleration, sensor, gait analysis, high shoe heel, micro-electro-mechanical-systems.

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5 Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Authors: Ceren Kaya, Okan Erkaymaz, Orhan Ayar, Mahmut Özer

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, discrete wavelet transform, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, video-oculography.

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4 Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Fire in a Scaled Underground Station

Authors: Nuri Yucel, Muhammed Ilter Berberoglu, Salih Karaaslan, Nureddin Dinler

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate fire behaviors, experimentally and numerically, in a scaled version of an underground station. The effect of ventilation velocity on the fire is examined. Fire experiments are simulated by burning 10 ml isopropyl alcohol fuel in a fire pool with dimensions 5cm x 10cm x 4 mm at the center of 1/100 scaled underground station model. A commercial CFD program FLUENT was used in numerical simulations. For air flow simulations, k-ω SST turbulence model and for combustion simulation, non-premixed combustion model are used. This study showed that, the ventilation velocity is increased from 1 m/s to 3 m/s the maximum temperature in the station is found to be less for ventilation velocity of 1 m/s. The reason for these experimental result lies on the relative dominance of oxygen supply effect on cooling effect. Without piston effect, maximum temperature occurs above the fuel pool. However, when the ventilation velocity increased the flame was tilted in the direction of ventilation and the location of maximum temperature moves along the flow direction. The velocities measured experimentally in the station at different locations are well matched by the CFD simulation results. The prediction of general flow pattern is satisfactory with the smoke visualization tests. The backlayering in velocity is well predicted by CFD simulation. However, all over the station, the CFD simulations predicted higher temperatures compared to experimental measurements.

Keywords: Fire, underground station, flame propagation, CFDsimulation, k-ω SST turbulence model, non-premixed combustionmodel.

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3 Incidence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Cakes and Tarts Displayed for Sale in Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Sabrin M. Al-Jafaeri, Nuri S. Madi, Mohamed H. Nahaisi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria: Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157 and Staphylococcus aureus in cakes and tarts collected from thirtyfive confectionery producing and selling premises located within Tripoli city, Libya. The results revealed an incidence of S. aureus with 94.4 and 48.0 %, E. coli O157 with 14.7 and 4.0 % and Salmonella sp. with 5.9 and 8.0 % in cakes and tarts samples respectively; while Shigella was not detected in all samples. In order to determine the source of these pathogenic bacteria, cotton swabs were taken from the hands of workers on the production line, the surfaces of preparation tables and cream whipping instruments. The results showed that the cotton swabs obtained from the hands of workers contained S. aureus and Salmonella sp. with an incidence of 42.9 and 2.9 %, the cotton swabs obtained from the surfaces of preparation tables 22.9 and 2.9 % and the cotton swabs obtained from the cream whipping instruments 14.3 and 0.0 % respectively; while E. coli O157 and Shigella sp. were not detected in all swabs. Additionally, other bacteria were isolated from the hands of workers and the Surfaces of producing equipments included: Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Serratia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. These results indicate that some of the cakes and tarts might pose threat to consumer's health. Meanwhile, occurrences of pathogenic bacteria on the hands of those who are working in production line and the surfaces of equipments reflect poor hygienic practices at most confectionery premises examined in this study. Thus, firm and continuous surveillance of these premises is needed to insure the consumer's health and safety.

Keywords: Pathogenic bacteria, Cakes, Tarts, Confectionery producing and selling premises.

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2 Environmental Accounting Practice: Analyzing the Extent and Qualification of Environmental Disclosures of Turkish Companies Located in BIST-XKURY Index

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Mustafa Nihat Demirci, Mehmet Nuri Salur

Abstract:

Environmental pollution has detrimental effects on the quality of our life and its scope has reached such an extent that measures are being taken both at the national and international levels to reduce, prevent and mitigate its impact on social, economic and political spheres. Therefore, awareness of environmental problems has been increasing among stakeholders and accordingly among companies. It is seen that corporate reporting is expanding beyond environmental performance. Primary purpose of publishing an environmental report is to provide specific audiences with useful, meaningful information. This paper is intended to analyze the extent and qualification of environmental disclosures of Turkish publicly quoted firms and see how it varies from one sector to another. The data for the study were collected from annual activity reports of companies, listed on the corporate governance index (BIST-XKURY) of Istanbul Stock Exchange. Content analysis was the research methodology used to measure the extent of environmental disclosure. Accordingly, 2015 annual activity reports of companies that carry out business in some particular fields were acquired from Capital Market Board, websites of Public Disclosure Platform and companies’ own websites. These reports were categorized into five main aspects: Environmental policies, environmental management systems, environmental protection and conservation activities, environmental awareness and information on environmental lawsuits. Subsequently, each component was divided into several variables related to what each firm is supposed to disclose about environmental information. In this context, the nature and scope of the information disclosed on each item were assessed according to five different ways (N.I: No Information; G.E.: General Explanations; Q.E.: Qualitative Detailed Explanations; N.E.: Quantitative (numerical) Detailed Explanations; Q.&N.E.: Both Qualitative and Quantitative Explanations).

Keywords: Environmental accounting, disclosure, corporate governance, content analysis.

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1 Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane using (PECVD) Method

Authors: Hisham M. Abourayana, Nuri A. Zreiba, Abdulkader M. Elamin

Abstract:

Polymer-like organic thin films were deposited on both aluminum alloy type 6061 and glass substrates at room temperature by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) methodusing benzene and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor materials. The surface and physical properties of plasma-polymerized organic thin films were investigated at different r.f. powers. The effects of benzene/argon ratio on the properties of plasma polymerized benzene films were also investigated. It is found that using benzene alone results in a non-coherent and non-adherent powdery deposited material. The chemical structure and surface properties of the asgrown plasma polymerized thin films were analyzed on glass substrates with FTIR and contact angle measurements. FTIR spectra of benzene deposited film indicated that the benzene rings are preserved when increasing benzene ratio and/or decreasing r.f. powers. FTIR spectra of HMDSO deposited films indicated an increase of the hydrogen concentration and a decrease of the oxygen concentration with the increase of r.f. power. The contact angle (θ) of the films prepared from benzene was found to increase by about 43% as benzene ratio increases from 10% to 20%. θ was then found to decrease to the original value (51°) when the benzene ratio increases to 100%. The contact angle, θ, for both benzene and HMDSO deposited films were found to increase with r.f. power. This signifies that the plasma polymerized organic films have substantially low surface energy as the r.f power increases. The corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy substrate both bare and covered with plasma polymerized thin films was carried out by potentiodynamic polarization measurements in standard 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution at room temperature. The results indicate that the benzene and HMDSO deposited films are suitable for protection of the aluminum substrate against corrosion. The changes in the processing parameters seem to have a strong influence on the film protective ability. Surface roughness of films deposited on aluminum alloy substrate was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images indicate that the surface roughness of benzene deposited films increase with decreasing the benzene ratio. SEM images of benzene and HMDSO deposited films indicate that the surface roughness decreases with increasing r.f. power. Studying the above parameters indicate that the films produced are suitable for specific practical applications.

Keywords: Plasma polymerization, potentiodynamic test, Contact angle.

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