Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: Numerical Simulation

302 Prediction of Unsteady Forced Convection over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN

Authors: Ajoy Kumar Das, Prasenjit Dey

Abstract:

Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper nanoparticles in water and the volume fractions are considered here are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.

Keywords: Forced convection, Square cylinder, nanofluid, neural network.

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301 Numerical Simulation of the Bond Behavior between Concrete and Steel Reinforcing Bars in Specialty Concrete

Authors: Camille A. Issa, Omar Masri

Abstract:

In this study, the commercial finite element software ABAQUS was used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of simulating the pull-out test of reinforcing bars from underwater concrete. The results of thirty-two pull-out tests that have different parameters were implemented in the software to study the effect of the concrete cover, the bar size, the use of stirrups, and the compressive strength of concrete. The interaction properties used in the model provided accurate results in comparison with the experimental bond-slip results, thus the model has successfully simulated the pull-out test. The results of the finite element model are used to better understand and visualize the distribution of stresses in each component of the model, and to study the effect of the various parameters used in this study including the role of the stirrups in preventing the stress from reaching to the sides of the specimens.

Keywords: Bond strength, nonlinear finite element analysis, pull-out test, underwater concrete.

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300 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shakings. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: Masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response.

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299 Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Water Wave for the Flow around NACA 0012 Hydrofoil and Wigley Hull Using VOF Method

Authors: Saadia Adjali, Omar Imine, Mohammed Aounallah, Mustapha Belkadi

Abstract:

Steady three-dimensional and two free surface waves generated by moving bodies are presented, the flow problem to be simulated is rich in complexity and poses many modeling challenges because of the existence of breaking waves around the ship hull, and because of the interaction of the two-phase flow with the turbulent boundary layer. The results of several simulations are reported. The first study was performed for NACA0012 of hydrofoil with different meshes, this section is analyzed at h/c= 1, 0345 for 2D. In the second simulation a mathematically defined Wigley hull form is used to investigate the application of a commercial CFD code in prediction of the total resistance and its components from tangential and normal forces on the hull wetted surface. The computed resistance and wave profiles are used to estimate the coefficient of the total resistance for Wigley hull advancing in calm water under steady conditions. The commercial CFD software FLUENT version 12 is used for the computations in the present study. The calculated grid is established using the code computer GAMBIT 2.3.26. The shear stress k-ωSST model is used for turbulence modeling and the volume of fluid technique is employed to simulate the free-surface motion. The second order upwind scheme is used for discretizing the convection terms in the momentum transport equations, the Modified HRIC scheme for VOF discretization. The results obtained compare well with the experimental data.

Keywords: Free surface flows, Breaking waves, Boundary layer, Wigley hull, Volume of fluid.

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298 Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Water Wave for the Flow around NACA 0012 Hydrofoil and Wigley Hull Using VOF Method

Authors: Saadia Adjali, Omar Imine, Mohammed Aounallah, Mustapha Belkadi

Abstract:

Steady three-dimensional and two free surface waves generated by moving bodies are presented, the flow problem to be simulated is rich in complexity and poses many modeling challenges because of the existence of breaking waves around the ship hull, and because of the interaction of the two-phase flow with the turbulent boundary layer. The results of several simulations are reported. The first study was performed for NACA0012 of hydrofoil with different meshes, this section is analyzed at h/c= 1, 0345 for 2D. In the second simulation a mathematically defined Wigley hull form is used to investigate the application of a commercial CFD code in prediction of the total resistance and its components from tangential and normal forces on the hull wetted surface. The computed resistance and wave profiles are used to estimate the coefficient of the total resistance for Wigley hull advancing in calm water under steady conditions. The commercial CFD software FLUENT version 12 is used for the computations in the present study. The calculated grid is established using the code computer GAMBIT 2.3.26. The shear stress k-ωSST model is used for turbulence modeling and the volume of fluid technique is employed to simulate the free-surface motion. The second order upwind scheme is used for discretizing the convection terms in the momentum transport equations, the Modified HRIC scheme for VOF discretization. The results obtained compare well with the experimental data.

Keywords: Free surface flows, breaking waves, boundary layer, Wigley hull, volume of fluid.

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297 Heat and Mass Transfer in a Saturated Porous Medium Confined in Cylindrical Annular Geometry

Authors: A. Ja, J. Belabid, A. Cheddadi

Abstract:

This paper reports the numerical simulation of doublediffusive natural convection flows within a horizontal annular filled with a saturated porous medium. The analysis concerns the influence of the different parameters governing the problem, namely, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Lewis number Le and the buoyancy ratio N, on the heat and mass transfer and on the flow structure, in the case of a fixed radius ratio R = 2. The numerical model used for the discretization of the dimensionless equations governing the problem is based on the finite difference method, using the ADI scheme. The study is focused on steady-state solutions in the cooperation situation.

Keywords: Natural convection, double-diffusion, porous medium, annular geometry, finite differences.

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296 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.

Keywords: Water inflow, Tunnel, Discontinues rock, Numerical simulation.

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295 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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294 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: Swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, MIKE21, sediment.

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293 Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays under Hot Bomb Conditions

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, F. Noor, M. J. Rashid

Abstract:

It has experimentally been proved that the performance of compression ignition (C.I.) engine is spray characteristics related. In modern diesel engine the spray formation and the eventual combustion process are the vital processes that offer more challenges towards enhancing the engine performance. In the present work the numerical simulation has been carried out for evaporating diesel sprays using Fluent software. For computational fluid dynamics simulation “Meshing” is done using Gambit software before transmitting it into Fluent. The simulation is carried out using hot bomb conditions under varying chamber conditions such as gas pressure, nozzle diameter and fuel injection pressure. For comparison purpose, the numerical simulations the chamber conditions were kept the same as that of the experimental data. At varying chamber conditions the spray penetration rates are compared with the existing experimental results.

Keywords: Evaporating diesel sprays, Penetration rates, Hot bomb conditions.

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292 Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal

Abstract:

This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0^o/+45^o/-45^o/0^o] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.

Keywords: CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell, Asymmetric Meshing Technique, Primary Buckling, Secondary Buckling, Linear Eigenvalue Analysis, Non-linear Riks Analysis.

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291 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Hydraulic L-Shaped Check Ball Behavior

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara

Abstract:

The spring-driven ball-type check valve is one of the most important components of hydraulic systems: it controls the position of the ball and prevents backward flow. To simplify the structure, the spring must be eliminated, and to accomplish this, the flow pattern and the behavior of the check ball in L-shaped pipe must be determined. In this paper, we present a full-scale model of a check ball made of acrylic resin, and we determine the relationship between the initial position of the ball, the position and diameter of the inflow port. The check flow rate increases in a standard center inflow model, and it is possible to greatly decrease the check-flow rate by shifting the inflow from the center.

Keywords: Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Numerical Simulation, Flow Visualization, Check ball, L-shaped Pipe.

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290 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa

Abstract:

An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation.

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289 Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Fluid Behavior in Wavy Microchannel Used in Microelectronic Devices

Authors: A. Balabel, A. F. Khadrawi, Ali S. Al-Osaimy

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of fluid flow in wavy microchannel are investigated numerically. Effects of Reynolds number on the hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors are investigated. Three cases of Reynolds number (580, 1244, and 1910) are adopted in this study. It is found that the separation zone begin appears when Reynolds number is greater than 1910 at the endsection of the wave. Also it is found that dimensionless maximum velocity at the mid-section of the wave decreases and becomes as a turbulent behavior as Reynolds numbers increases. The maximum temperature at the center line at the mid-section of the wave increases as Reynolds number increases until it reaches the turbulent behavior when Reynolds number is equal or greater than 1244, while this behavior will be achieved at very high velocities at the end section of the wave.

Keywords: Thermo-Fluid Behavior, Microelectronic Devices, Numerical Simulation, Wavy Microchannel.

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288 Frequency Domain Analysis for Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed Competitive Web-site Model

Authors: Changjin Xu, Yusen Wu

Abstract:

In this paper, applying frequency domain approach, a delayed competitive web-site system is investigated. By choosing the parameter α as a bifurcation parameter, it is found that Hopf bifurcation occurs as the bifurcation parameter α passes a critical values. That is, a family of periodic solutions bifurcate from the equilibrium when the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value. Some numerical simulations are included to justify the theoretical analysis results. Finally, main conclusions are given.

Keywords: Web-site system, stability, Nyquist criterion, Hopf bifurcation, frequency domain.

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287 Modeling the Transport of Charge Carriers in the Active Devices MESFET, Based of GaInP by the Monte Carlo Method

Authors: N. Massoum, A. Guen. Bouazza, B. Bouazza, A. El Ouchdi

Abstract:

The progress of industry integrated circuits in recent years has been pushed by continuous miniaturization of transistors. With the reduction of dimensions of components at 0.1 micron and below, new physical effects come into play as the standard simulators of two dimensions (2D) do not consider. In fact the third dimension comes into play because the transverse and longitudinal dimensions of the components are of the same order of magnitude. To describe the operation of such components with greater fidelity, we must refine simulation tools and adapted to take into account these phenomena. After an analytical study of the static characteristics of the component, according to the different operating modes, a numerical simulation is performed of field-effect transistor with submicron gate MESFET GaInP. The influence of the dimensions of the gate length is studied. The results are used to determine the optimal geometric and physical parameters of the component for their specific applications and uses.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, transient electron transport, MESFET device.

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286 Numerical Simulation of Fiber Bragg Grating Spectrum for Mode-І Delamination Detection

Authors: O. Hassoon, M. Tarfoui, A. El Malk

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg optic sensor is embedded in composite material to detect and monitor the damage that occurs in composite structures. In this paper, we deal with the mode-Ι delamination to determine the material strength to crack propagation, using the coupling mode theory and T-matrix method to simulate the FBGs spectrum for both uniform and non-uniform strain distribution. The double cantilever beam test is modeled in FEM to determine the longitudinal strain. Two models are implemented, the first is the global half model, and the second is the sub-model to represent the FBGs with higher refined mesh. This method can simulate damage in composite structures and converting strain to a wavelength shifting in the FBG spectrum.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg grating, Delamination detection, DCB, FBG spectrum, Structure health monitoring.

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285 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka

Abstract:

Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: Ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel.

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284 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H.A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Mixed convection, Horizontal rectangular duct, Nanofluids.

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283 Numerical Simulation of the Kurtosis Effect on the EHL Problem

Authors: S. Gao, S. Srirattayawong

Abstract:

In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed for studying the effect of surface roughness profile on the EHL problem. The cylinders contact geometry, meshing and calculation of the conservation of mass and momentum equations are carried out using the commercial software packages ICEMCFD and ANSYS Fluent. The user defined functions (UDFs) for density, viscosity and elastic deformation of the cylinders as the functions of pressure and temperature are defined for the CFD model. Three different surface roughness profiles are created and incorporated into the CFD model. It is found that the developed CFD model can predict the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in the EHL problem, including the main parameters such as pressure distribution, minimal film thickness, viscosity, and density changes. The results obtained show that the pressure profile at the center of the contact area directly relates to the roughness amplitude. A rough surface with kurtosis value of more than 3 has greater influence over the fluctuated shape of pressure distribution than in other cases.

Keywords: CFD, EHL, Kurtosis, Surface roughness.

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282 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: D. Nebbali, R. Nebbali, A. Ouibrahim

Abstract:

This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: Energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell.

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281 Back Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Blood Glucose for Type I Diabetes

Authors: N. Tadrisi Parsa, A. R. Vali, R. Ghasemi

Abstract:

Diabetes is a growing health problem in worldwide. Especially, the patients with Type 1 diabetes need strict glycemic control because they have deficiency of insulin production. This paper attempts to control blood glucose based on body mathematical body model. The Bergman minimal mathematical model is used to develop the nonlinear controller. A novel back-stepping based sliding mode control (B-SMC) strategy is proposed as a solution that guarantees practical tracking of a desired glucose concentration. In order to show the performance of the proposed design, it is compared with conventional linear and fuzzy controllers which have been done in previous researches. The numerical simulation result shows the advantages of sliding mode back stepping controller design to linear and fuzzy controllers.

Keywords: Back stepping, Bergman Model, Nonlinear control, Sliding mode control.

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280 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. The research approach develops Schlichting and Wang decomposition method. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: Oscillating cylinder, Secondary Streaming, Flow Regimes, Asymptotic and Bifurcation Analysis.

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279 Development of a New Method for T-joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: R. Doubrava, R. Růžek

Abstract:

Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: T-joint, shear, composite, mechanical testing, Finite Element analysis, methodology.

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278 Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Drops Suspended in Poiseuille Flow: Effect of Reynolds Number

Authors: A. Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

A finite difference/front tracking method is used to study the motion of three-dimensional deformable drops suspended in plane Poiseuille flow at non-zero Reynolds numbers. A parallel version of the code was used to study the behavior of suspension on a reasonable grid resolution (grids). The viscosity and density of drops are assumed to be equal to that of the suspending medium. The effect of the Reynolds number is studied in detail. It is found that drops with small deformation behave like rigid particles and migrate to an equilibrium position about half way between the wall and the centerline (the Segre-Silberberg effect). However, for highly deformable drops there is a tendency for drops to migrate to the middle of the channel, and the maximum concentration occurs at the centerline. The effective viscosity of suspension and the fluctuation energy of the flow across the channel increases with the Reynolds number of the flow.

Keywords: Suspensions, Poiseuille flow, Effective viscosity, Reynolds number.

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277 Experimental Performance and Numerical Simulation of Double Glass Wall

Authors: Thana Ananacha

Abstract:

This paper reports the numerical and experimental performances of Double Glass Wall are investigated. Two configurations were considered namely, the Double Clear Glass Wall (DCGW) and the Double Translucent Glass Wall (DTGW). The coupled governing equations as well as boundary conditions are solved using the finite element method (FEM) via COMSOLTM Multiphysics. Temperature profiles and flow field of the DCGW and DTGW are reported and discussed. Different constant heat fluxes were considered as 400 and 800 W.m-2 the corresponding initial condition temperatures were 30.5 and 38.5ºC respectively. The results show that the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. Conclusively, the model considered in this study could reasonable be used simulate the thermal and ventilation performance of the DCGW and DTGW configurations.

Keywords: Thermal simulation, Double Glass Wall, Velocity field.

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276 Discrete Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots: Backstepping Design Approach

Authors: Alexander S. Andreev, Olga A. Peregudova

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a discrete tracking control of nonholonomic mobile robots with two degrees of freedom. The electromechanical model of a mobile robot moving on a horizontal surface without slipping, with two rear wheels controlled by two independent DC electric, and one front roal wheel is considered. We present backstepping design based on the Euler approximate discretetime model of a continuous-time plant. Theoretical considerations are verified by numerical simulation.

Keywords: Actuator Dynamics, Backstepping, Discrete-Time Controller, Lyapunov Function, Wheeled Mobile Robot.

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275 Haemodynamics Study in Subject Specific Carotid Bifurcation Using FSI

Authors: S. M. Abdul Khader, Anurag Ayachit, Raghuvir Pai, K. A. Ahmed, V. R. K. Rao, S. Ganesh Kamath

Abstract:

The numerical simulation has made tremendous advances in investigating the blood flow phenomenon through elastic arteries. Such study can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and hemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient specific case diagnosed with partially stenosed complete right ICA and normal left carotid bifurcation without any atherosclerotic plaque formation is considered. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation model is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-4.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI solver in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while the artery wall is assumed to be linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles. The hemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress, pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the bifurcation and critical zones such as stenosis. The variation in flow behavior is studied throughout the pulse cycle. Also, the simulation results reveal that there is a considerable increase in the flow behavior in stenosed carotid in contrast to the normal carotid bifurcation system. The investigation also demonstrates the disturbed flow pattern especially at the bifurcation and stenosed zone elevating the hemodynamics, particularly during peak systole and later part of the pulse cycle. The results obtained agree well with the clinical observation and demonstrates the potential of patient specific numerical studies in prognosis of disease progression and plaque rupture.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, arterial stenosis, Wall Shear Stress, Carotid Artery Bifurcation.

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274 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: Phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization.

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273 3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications

Authors: R. Kanmaniraja, R. Freshipali, J. Abdullah, K. Niranjan, K. Balasubramani, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Keywords: Supersonic nozzle, Chevron, Acoustic level, Shape Optimization of Chevron Nozzles, Jet noise suppression.

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