Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 519

Search results for: NoC

399 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees

Abstract:

Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: Bioluminescence, antibacterial activity, natural preservative, Glycyrrhiza glabra

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398 Preparation and Characterization of Silk/Diopside Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Leila Ghorbanian, Iren Dabirian

Abstract:

This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Nanofibers, Silk Fibroin, diopside, composite scaffold

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397 Polymer Mediated Interaction between Grafted Nanosheets

Authors: Paresh Chokshi, Supriya Gupta

Abstract:

Polymer-particle interactions can be effectively utilized to produce composites that possess physicochemical properties superior to that of neat polymer. The incorporation of fillers with dimensions comparable to polymer chain size produces composites with extra-ordinary properties owing to very high surface to volume ratio. The dispersion of nanoparticles is achieved by inducing steric repulsion realized by grafting particles with polymeric chains. A comprehensive understanding of the interparticle interaction between these functionalized nanoparticles plays an important role in the synthesis of a stable polymer nanocomposite. With the focus on incorporation of clay sheets in a polymer matrix, we theoretically construct the polymer mediated interparticle potential for two nanosheets grafted with polymeric chains. The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is employed to obtain the inhomogeneous composition field under equilibrium. Unlike the continuum models, SCFT is built from the microscopic description taking in to account the molecular interactions contributed by both intra- and inter-chain potentials. We present the results of SCFT calculations of the interaction potential curve for two grafted nanosheets immersed in the matrix of polymeric chains of dissimilar chemistry to that of the grafted chains. The interaction potential is repulsive at short separation and shows depletion attraction for moderate separations induced by high grafting density. It is found that the strength of attraction well can be tuned by altering the compatibility between the grafted and the mobile chains. Further, we construct the interaction potential between two nanosheets grafted with diblock copolymers with one of the blocks being chemically identical to the free polymeric chains. The interplay between the enthalpic interaction between the dissimilar species and the entropy of the free chains gives rise to a rich behavior in interaction potential curve obtained for two separate cases of free chains being chemically similar to either the grafted block or the free block of the grafted diblock chains.

Keywords: Polymer Nanocomposites, clay nanosheets, polymer brush, self-consistent field theory

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396 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi

Abstract:

This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Gas Chromatography, degradation, feedstock recycling, thermogravimetric analysis. DSC

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395 Self-Sensing Concrete Nanocomposites for Smart Structures

Authors: A. D'Alessandro, F. Ubertini, A. L. Materazzi

Abstract:

In the field of civil engineering, Structural Health Monitoring is a topic of growing interest. Effective monitoring instruments permit the control of the working conditions of structures and infrastructures, through the identification of behavioral anomalies due to incipient damages, especially in areas of high environmental hazards as earthquakes. While traditional sensors can be applied only in a limited number of points, providing a partial information for a structural diagnosis, novel transducers may allow a diffuse sensing. Thanks to the new tools and materials provided by nanotechnology, new types of multifunctional sensors are developing in the scientific panorama. In particular, cement-matrix composite materials capable of diagnosing their own state of strain and tension, could be originated by the addition of specific conductive nanofillers. Because of the nature of the material they are made of, these new cementitious nano-modified transducers can be inserted within the concrete elements, transforming the same structures in sets of widespread sensors. This paper is aimed at presenting the results of a research about a new self-sensing nanocomposite and about the implementation of smart sensors for Structural Health Monitoring. The developed nanocomposite has been obtained by inserting multi walled carbon nanotubes within a cementitious matrix. The insertion of such conductive carbon nanofillers provides the base material with piezoresistive characteristics and peculiar sensitivity to mechanical modifications. The self-sensing ability is achieved by correlating the variation of the external stress or strain with the variation of some electrical properties, such as the electrical resistance or conductivity. Through the measurement of such electrical characteristics, the performance and the working conditions of an element or a structure can be monitored. Among conductive carbon nanofillers, carbon nanotubes seem to be particularly promising for the realization of self-sensing cement-matrix materials. Some issues related to the nanofiller dispersion or to the influence of the nano-inclusions amount in the cement matrix need to be carefully investigated: the strain sensitivity of the resulting sensors is influenced by such factors. This work analyzes the dispersion of the carbon nanofillers, the physical properties of the fresh dough, the electrical properties of the hardened composites and the sensing properties of the realized sensors. The experimental campaign focuses specifically on their dynamic characterization and their applicability to the monitoring of full-scale elements. The results of the electromechanical tests with both slow varying and dynamic loads show that the developed nanocomposite sensors can be effectively used for the health monitoring of structures.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Structural health monitoring, self-sensing nanocomposites, smart cement-matrix sensors

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394 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: poultry manure, ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery

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393 Effect of Biostimulants to Control the Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel in Processing Tomato Crop

Authors: G. Disciglio, F. Lops, G. Gatta, A. Tarantino, E. Tarantino, A. Libutti

Abstract:

The experimental trial was carried out in open field at Foggia district (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), during the spring-summer season 2014, in order to evaluate the effect of four biostimulant products (RadiconÒ, Viormon plusÒ, LysodinÒ and SiaptonÒ 10L), compared with a control (no biostimulant), on the infestation of processing tomato crop (cv Dres) by the chlorophyll-lacking root parasite Phelipanche ramosa. Biostimulants consist in different categories of products (microbial inoculants, humic and fulvic acids, hydrolyzed proteins and aminoacids, seaweed extracts) which play various roles in plant growing, including the improvement of crop resistance and quali-quantitative characteristics of yield. The experimental trial was arranged according to a complete randomized block design with five treatments, each of one replicated three times. The processing tomato seedlings were transplanted on 5 May 2014. Throughout the crop cycle, P. ramosa infestation was assessed according to the number of emerged shoots (branched plants) counted in each plot, at 66, 78 and 92 day after transplanting. The tomato fruits were harvested at full-stage of maturity on 8 August 2014. From each plot, the marketable yield was measured and the quali-quantitative yield parameters (mean weight, dry matter content, colour coordinate, colour index and soluble solids content of the fruits) were determined. The whole dataset was tested according to the basic assumptions for the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between the means were determined using Tukey’s tests at the 5% probability level. The results of the study showed that none of the applied biostimulants provided a whole control of Phelipanche, although some positive effects were obtained from their application. To this respect, the RadiconÒ appeared to be the most effective in reducing the infestation of this root-parasite in tomato crop. This treatment also gave the higher tomato yield.

Keywords: Control Methods, Biostimulants, Phelipanche ramosa, processing tomato crop

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392 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: Soil, biodegradation, endosulfan, organochlorine pesticide, Nocardia sp

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391 Fermentation of Germinated Native Black Rice Milk Mixture by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: N. Mongkontanawat

Abstract:

This research aimed to demonstrate probiotic germinated native black rice juice fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei TISTR 390). Germinated native black rice juice was inoculated with a 24-h old lactic culture and incubated at 30 °C for 72 hours. Changes in pH, acidity, total soluble solid, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions at 0-h, 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h fermentations were evaluated. The study found out that the change in pH and total soluble solid of probiotic germinated black rice juice significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased at 72-h fermentation (5.67±0.12 to 2.86±0.04 and 7.00±0.00 to 6.40±0.00 ºbrix at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). On the other hand, the amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid and the viable cell count significantly (p≤0.05) increased at 72-h fermentation (0.11±0.06 to 0.43±0.06 (% lactic acid) and 3.60 x 106 to 2.75 x 108 CFU/ml at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). Interestingly, the amount of γ-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) had a significant difference (p≤0.05) twice as high as that of the control group (0.25±0.01 and 0.13±0.01 mg/100g, respectively). In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity assayed by DPPH method also showed that the IC50 values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the control (147.71±0.96 and 202.55±1.24 mg/ml, respectively). After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 °C, the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reduced to 1.37 x 106 CFU/ml. In conclusion, fermented germinated native black rice juice could be served as a healthy beverage for vegans and people who are allergic to cow milk products.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, probiotic, Lactobacillus casei, Germinated native black rice

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390 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Mechanical Properties, Melt Processing, Polypropylene, nanoclay, polyamide

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389 Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana Souza M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.

Keywords: Composites materials, FTIR, PVDF, MWNTs, UVVis

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388 Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Yulia V. Emelyanova, Anastasia A. Levina, Elena S. Buyanova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Sofia A. Petrova

Abstract:

The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, LaNbO4, lanthanum ortho-niobates

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387 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad

Abstract:

Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Electrical Conductivity, Activation Energy, montmorillonite, exfoliation, polycaprolactone, organoclay, intercalation

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386 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya

Abstract:

In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: Texture Analysis, PET, cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma

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385 Mechanical Testing of Composite Materials for Monocoque Design in Formula Student Car

Authors: Hirpa G. Lemu, Erik Vassøy Olsen

Abstract:

Inspired by the Formula-1 competition, IMechE (Institute of Mechanical Engineers) and Formula SAE (Society of Mechanical Engineers) organize annual competitions for University and College students worldwide to compete with a single-seat racecar they have designed and built. Design of the chassis or the frame is a key component of the competition because the weight and stiffness properties are directly related with the performance of the car and the safety of the driver. In addition, a reduced weight of the chassis has direct influence on the design of other components in the car. Among others, it improves the power to weight ratio and the aerodynamic performance. As the power output of the engine or the battery installed in the car is limited to 80 kW, increasing the power to weight ratio demands reduction of the weight of the chassis, which represents the major part of the weight of the car. In order to reduce the weight of the car, ION Racing team from University of Stavanger, Norway, opted for a monocoque design. To ensure fulfilment of the competition requirements of the chassis, the monocoque design should provide sufficient torsional stiffness and absorb the impact energy in case of possible collision. The study reported in this article is based on the requirements for Formula Student competition. As part of this study, diverse mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties and performances of the monocoque design. Upon a comprehensive theoretical study of the mechanical properties of sandwich composite materials and the requirements of monocoque design in the competition rules, diverse tests were conducted including 3-point bending test, perimeter shear test and test for absorbed energy. The test panels were homemade and prepared with equivalent size of the side impact zone of the monocoque, i.e. 275 mm x 500 mm, so that the obtained results from the tests can be representative. Different layups of the test panels with identical core material and the same number of layers of carbon fibre were tested and compared. Influence of the core material thickness was also studied. Furthermore, analytical calculations and numerical analysis were conducted to check compliance to the stated rules for Structural Equivalency with steel grade SAE/AISI 1010. The test results were also compared with calculated results with respect to bending and torsional stiffness, energy absorption, buckling, etc. The obtained results demonstrate that the material composition and strength of the composite material selected for the monocoque design has equivalent structural properties as a welded frame and thus comply with the competition requirements. The developed analytical calculation algorithms and relations will be useful for future monocoque designs with different lay-ups and compositions.

Keywords: Composite Material, formula student, ION racing, monocoque design, structural equivalence

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384 Hydrodynamic Performance of a Moored Barge in Irregular Wave

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Shihas A. Khader

Abstract:

Motion response of floating structures is of great concern in marine engineering. Nonlinearity is an inherent property of any floating bodies subjected to irregular waves. These floating structures are continuously subjected to environmental loadings from wave, current, wind etc. This can result in undesirable motions of the vessel which may challenge the operability. For a floating body to remain in its position, it should be able to induce a restoring force when displaced. Mooring is provided to enable this restoring force. This paper discusses the hydrodynamic performance and motion characteristics of an 8 point spread mooring system applied to a pipe laying barge operating in the West African sea. The modelling of the barge is done using a computer aided-design (CAD) software RHINOCEROS. Irregular waves are generated using a suitable wave spectrum. Both frequency domain and time domain analysis is done. Numerical simulations based on potential theory are carried out to find the responses and hydrodynamic performance of the barge in both free floating as well as moored conditions. Initially, potential flow frequency domain analysis is done to obtain the Response Amplitude Operator (RAO) which gives an idea about the structural motion in free floating state. RAOs for different wave headings are analyzed. In the following step, a time domain analysis is carried out to obtain the responses of the structure in the moored condition. In this study, wave induced motions are only taken into consideration. Wind and current loads are ruled out and shall be included in further studies. For the current study, 2000 seconds simulation is taken. The results represent wave induced motion responses, mooring line tensions and identify critical mooring lines.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, irregular wave, moored barge, time domain analysis

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383 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa

Abstract:

Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.

Keywords: PIN, ALDH1A1, BPH, prostatic adenocarcinoma

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382 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Ramji, K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, fiber volume fraction, delamination, e-glass-epoxy composite laminates, e-glass fiber

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381 Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures

Authors: Samir Al-Zobaidi

Abstract:

This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100oC. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.

Keywords: Crystallization, UV irradiation, LDPE/MMt nanocomposites, intercalation

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380 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Muge Sari Yilmaz, Sabriye Pişkin, Sibel Kasap

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction

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379 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp

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378 Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum

Authors: Moses F. Oduori, Enoch K. Musyoka, Thomas O. Mbuya

Abstract:

The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials. Thus, the processing of mechanical design considerations and material properties data into information that is suitable for use in a quantitative materials selection process is demonstrated for the case of a rope drum design. Moreover, Microsoft Excel®, a commonly available computer package, is used in the selection process. The results of the materials selection process are in agreement with current industry practice in rope drum design. The procedure that is demonstrated here should be adaptable to other design situations in which a need arises for the selection of engineering materials, and other engineering entities.

Keywords: Mechanical Design, Materials Selection, Design Decisions, Rope Drum Design

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377 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, grafting, olive pulp, Antimicrobial hydrogel

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376 Supramolecular Cocrystal of 2-Amino-4-Chloro-6- Methylpyrimidine with 4-Methylbenzoic Acid: Synthesis, Structural Determinations and Quantum Chemical Investigations

Authors: Nuridayanti Che Khalib, Ibrahim Abdul Razak, Suhana Arshad, Kaliyaperumal Thanigaimani

Abstract:

The 1:1 cocrystal of 2-amino-4-chloro-6- methylpyrimidine (2A4C6MP) with 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MBA) (I) has been prepared by slow evaporation method in methanol, which was crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 8, and a = 28.431 (2) Å, b = 7.3098 (5) Å, c = 14.2622 (10) Å and β = 109.618 (3)°. The presence of unionized –COOH functional group in cocrystal I was identified both by spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR, FTIR) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The 2A4C6MP molecule interact with the carboxylic group of the respective 4MBA molecule through N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a cyclic hydrogen–bonded motif R2 2(8). The crystal structure was stabilized by Npyrimidine—H⋯O=C and C=O—H⋯Npyrimidine types hydrogen bonding interactions. Theoretical investigations have been computed by HF and density function (B3LYP) method with 6–311+G (d,p)basis set. The vibrational frequencies together with 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated on the fully optimized geometry of cocrystal I. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Solvent–free formation of this cocrystal I is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis.

Keywords: Supramolecular Cocrystal, Hartree-Fock and DFT Studies, Spectroscopic Analysis

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375 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar, and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Irina Mikajlo, Jakub Elbl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora

Abstract:

Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical, and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source “Brezova nad Svitavou”. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.

Keywords: Biochar, Soil Microorganisms, Arbuscular mycorrhiza, PGPB inoculum

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374 Comparison of MODIS-Based Rice Extent Map and Landsat-Based Rice Classification Map in Determining Biomass Energy Potential of Rice Hull in Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Klathea Sevilla, Marjorie Remolador, Bryan Baltazar, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion Ang

Abstract:

The underutilization of biomass resources in the Philippines, combined with its growing population and the rise in fossil fuel prices confirms demand for alternative energy sources. The goal of this paper is to provide a comparison of MODIS-based and Landsat-based agricultural land cover maps when used in the estimation of rice hull’s available energy potential. Biomass resource assessment was done using mathematical models and remote sensing techniques employed in a GIS platform.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, biomass, Geographic Information System, GIS

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373 Development of a Wind Resource Assessment Framework Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Python Scripting and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Jerome T. Tolentino, Ma. Victoria Rejuso, Jara Kaye Villanueva

Abstract:

Wind energy is rapidly emerging as the primary source of electricity in the Philippines, although developing an accurate wind resource model is difficult. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, an open source mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, was used to produce a 1-year atmospheric simulation with 4 km resolution on the Ilocos Region of the Philippines. The WRF output (netCDF) extracts the annual mean wind speed data using a Python-based Graphical User Interface. Lastly, wind resource assessment was produced using a GIS software. Results of the study showed that it is more flexible to use Python scripts than using other post-processing tools in dealing with netCDF files. Using WRF Model, Python, and Geographic Information Systems, a reliable wind resource map is produced.

Keywords: Python, wind resource assessment, GIS software, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

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372 The Effect of Biochar, Inoculated Biochar and Compost Biological Component of the Soil

Authors: J. Elbl, J. Záhora, H. Dvořáčková, I. Mikajlo

Abstract:

Biochar can be produced from the waste matter and its application has been associated with returning of carbon in large amounts into the soil. The impacts of this material on physical and chemical properties of soil have been described. The biggest part of the research work is dedicated to the hypothesis of this material’s toxic effects on the soil life regarding its effect on the soil biological component. At present, it has been worked on methods which could eliminate these undesirable properties of biochar. One of the possibilities is to mix biochar with organic material, such as compost, or focusing on the natural processes acceleration in the soil. In the experiment has been used as the addition of compost as well as the elimination of toxic substances by promoting microbial activity in aerated water environment. Biochar was aerated for 7 days in a container with a volume of 20 l. This way modified biochar had six times higher biomass production and reduce mineral nitrogen leaching. Better results have been achieved by mixing biochar with compost.

Keywords: Soil, Biochar, compost, leaching of nitrogen

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371 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Material Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: A. A. Alugongo, P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: Nanostructured Materials, temperature, yield stress, grain size variants, strain rate sensitivity

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370 Utilization of Nanoclay to Reinforce Flax Fabric-Geopolymer Composites

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

Geopolymer composites reinforced with flax fabrics and nanoclay are fabricated and studied for physical and mechanical properties using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nanoclay platelets at a weight of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were added to geopolymer pastes. Nanoclay at 2.0 wt.% was found to improve density and decrease porosity while improving flexural strength and post-peak toughness. A microstructural analysis indicated that nanoclay behaves as filler and as an activator supporting geopolymeric reaction while producing a higher content geopolymer gel improving the microstructure of binders. The process enhances adhesion between the geopolymer matrix and flax fibres.

Keywords: Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, nanoclay, flax fibres

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