Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2520

Search results for: Melodic structure

2520 Melodic and Temporal Structure of Indonesian Sentences of Sitcom "International Class" Actors: Prosodic Study with Experimental Phonetics Approach

Authors: Tri Sulistyaningtyas, Yani Suryani, Dana Waskita, Linda Handayani Sukaemi, Ferry Fauzi Hermawan

Abstract:

The enthusiasm of foreigners studying the Indonesian language by Foreign Speakers (BIPA) was documented in a sitcom "International Class". Tone and stress when they speak the Indonesian language is unique and different from Indonesian pronunciation. By using the Praat program, this research aims to describe prosodic Indonesian language which is spoken by ‘International Class” actors consisting of Abbas from Nigeria, Lee from Korea, and Kotaro from Japan. Data for the research are taken from the video sitcom "International Class" that aired on Indonesian television. The results of this study revealed that pitch movement that arises when pronouncing Indonesian sentences was up and down gradually, there is also a rise and fall sharply. In terms of stress, respondents tend to contain a lot of stress when pronouncing Indonesian sentences. Meanwhile, in terms of temporal structure, the duration pronouncing Indonesian sentences tends to be longer than that of Indonesian speakers.

Keywords: Melodic structure, temporal structure, prosody, experimental phonetics, international class.

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2519 Carnatic Music Ragas and Their Role in Music Therapy

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

Abstract:

Raga, as the soul and base, is a distinctive musical entity, in the music system, with unique structure on its construction of srutis (musical sounds) and application. One of the essential components of the music system is the ‘tala’ that defines the rhythm of a song. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da and Ni in the carnatic music system that are analogous to the C, D, E, F, G, A and B of the western system. The carnatic music further builds on conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation) and rendering styles. It has basic 72 ragas known as melakarta ragas, and a plethora of ragas have been developed from them with permutations and combinations of the basic swaras. Among them, some ragas derived from a same melakarta raga are distinctly different from each other and could evoke a profound difference in the raga bhava (emotion) during rendering. Although these could bear similar arohana and avarohana swaras, their quintessential differences in the gamakas usage and srutis present therein offer varied melodic feelings; variations in the intonation and stress given to certain swara phrases are the root causes. This article enlightens a group of such allied ragas (AR) from the perspectives of their schema and raga alapana (improvisation), ranjaka prayogas (signature phrases), differences in rendering tempo, gamakas and delicate srutis along with the range of sancharas (musical phrases). The intricate differences on the sruti frequencies and use of AR in composing kritis (musical compositions) toward emotive accomplishments such as mood of valor, kindness, love, humor, anger, mercy to name few, have also been explored. A brief review on the existing scientific research on the music therapy on some of the Carnatic ragas is presented. Studying and comprehending the AR, indeed, enable the music aspirants to gain a thorough knowledge on the subtle nuances among the ragas. Such knowledge helps leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners and enable further research on the music therapy.

Keywords: Carnatic music, Allied rags, Raga analysis, Music therapy.

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2518 Comprehensive Evaluation on China-s Industrial Structure Optimization from the Perspective of Coordination

Authors: Ying Wang

Abstract:

From the perspective of industrial structure coordination and based on an explicit definition for the connotation of industrial structure coordination, the synergetic coefficients are used to measure the coordination degree between three industries' input structure and output structure, and then the efficacy function method is employed to comprehensively evaluate the level of China-s industrial structure optimization. It is showed that Chinese industrial structure presented a "v-shaped" variation tendency between 1996 and 2008, and its industrial structure adjustment got obvious achievements after 2003, with the industrial structure optimization level increasing continuously. However in 2009, the level of China-s industrial structure optimization declined sharply due to the decreasing contribution degree of value added structure and energy structure coordination and the lower coordination degree of value added structure and capital structure.

Keywords: China's industrial structure, Coordination degree, Efficacy function, Synergetic coefficients

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2517 On CR-Structure and F-Structure Satisfying Polynomial Equation

Authors: Manisha Kankarej

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show a relation between CR structure and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation. In this paper, we have checked the significance of CR structure and F-structure on Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor. It was proved that all the properties of Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor are satisfied by CR structures and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation.

Keywords: CR-submainfolds, CR-structure, Integrability condition & Nijenhuis tensor.

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2516 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations, and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: Absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty.

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2515 Family Structure between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin

Abstract:

Family structure that is culturally constructed in every society is the basic unit of social structure. Purpose of the study was to compare family structure, including marriage, residence, family size, type, role sharing, authority, and communication patterns between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that family structure with the elements was significantly different between the two communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were intensively interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire method. The results of Pearson Chi-Squire Test reveal that there were significant differences in the family structure followed by the two communities in the study area. Further cross-cultural study should be done on why family structure varies between the communities in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Family Structure, Muslim, Santal.

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2514 Weakly Generalized Closed Map

Authors: R. Parimelazhagan, N. Nagaveni

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a new class of mg-continuous mapping and studied some of its basic properties.We obtain some characterizations of such functions. Moreover we define sub minimal structure and further study certain properties of mg-closed sets.

Keywords: M-structure, mg-continuous mapping, minimal structure, mg T2 space, sub minimal structure, T12 space, mg-compact set.

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2513 Study and Evaluation of Added Stresses under Foundation due to Adjacent Structure

Authors: Alireza M. goltabar, Issa shooshpasha , Reza Shamstabar kami , Mostafa Habibi

Abstract:

Added stresses due to adjacent structure should be considered in foundation design and stress control in soil under the structure. This case is considered less than other cases in design and calculation whereas stresses in implementation are greater than analytical stress. Structure load are transmitted to earth by foundation and role of foundation is propagation of load on the continuous and half extreme soil. This act cause that, present stresses lessen to allowable strength of soil. Some researchers such as Boussinesq and westergaurd by using of some assumption studied on this issue, theorically. Target of this paper is study and evaluation of added stresses under structure due to adjacent structure. For this purpose, by using of assumption, theoric relation and numeral methods, effects of adjacent structure with 4 to 10 storeys on the main structure with 4 storeys are studied and effect of parameters and sensitivity of them are evaluated.

Keywords: stress, soil, adjacent structure, foundation, loading.

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2512 The Use of Themes and Variations in Early and Contemporary Juju Music

Authors: Olupemi E. Oludare

Abstract:

This paper discusses the thematic structure of Yoruba popular music of Southwest Nigeria. It examines the use of themes and variations in early and contemporary Juju music. The work is an outcome of a research developed by the author in his doctoral studies at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, with the aim of analyzing the thematic and motivic developments in Yoruba popular genres. Observations, interviews, live recordings and CDs were used as methods for eliciting information. Field recordings and CDs of selected musical samples were also transcribed and notated. The research established the prevalent use of string of themes by Juju musicians as a compositional technique in moving from one musical section to another, as they communicate the verbal messages in their song. These themes consist of the popular ‘call and response’ form found in most African music, analogous to the western ‘subject and answer’ style of the fugue or sonata form, although without the tonic– dominant relations. Due to the short and repetitive form of African melodies and rhythms, a theme is restated as a variation, where its rhythmic and melodic motifs are stylistically developed and repeated, but still retaining its recognizable core musical structure. The findings of this study showed that Juju musicians generally often employ a thematic plan where new themes are used to arrange the songs into sections, and each theme is developed into variations in order to further expand the music, eliminate monotony, and create musical aesthetics, serving as hallmark of its musical identity. The study established the musical and extra-musical attributes of the genre, while recommending further research towards analyzing the various compositional techniques employed in African popular genres.

Keywords: Compositional techniques, Popular music, Theme and variation, Thematic development.

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2511 Identifying Dynamic Structural Parameters of Soil-Structure System Based on Data Recorded during Strong Earthquakes

Authors: Vahidreza Mahmoudabadi, Omid Bahar, Mohammad Kazem Jafari

Abstract:

In many applied engineering problems, structural analysis is usually conducted by assuming a rigid bed, while imposing the effect of structure bed flexibility can affect significantly on the structure response. This article focuses on investigation and evaluation of the effects arising from considering a soil-structure system in evaluation of dynamic characteristics of a steel structure with respect to elastic and inelastic behaviors. The recorded structure acceleration during Taiwan’s strong Chi-Chi earthquake on different floors of the structure was our evaluation criteria. The respective structure is an eight-story steel bending frame structure designed using a displacement-based direct method assuring weak beam - strong column function. The results indicated that different identification methods i.e. reverse Fourier transform or transfer functions, is capable to determine some of the dynamic parameters of the structure precisely, rather than evaluating all of them at once (mode frequencies, mode shapes, structure damping, structure rigidity, etc.). Response evaluation based on the input and output data elucidated that the structure first mode is not significantly affected, even considering the soil-structure interaction effect, but the upper modes have been changed. Also, it was found that the response transfer function of the different stories, in which plastic hinges have occurred in the structure components, provides similar results.

Keywords: System identification, dynamic characteristics, soil-structure system, bending steel frame structure, displacement-based design.

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2510 CompPSA: A Component-Based Pairwise RNA Secondary Structure Alignment Algorithm

Authors: Ghada Badr, Arwa Alturki

Abstract:

The biological function of an RNA molecule depends on its structure. The objective of the alignment is finding the homology between two or more RNA secondary structures. Knowing the common functionalities between two RNA structures allows a better understanding and a discovery of other relationships between them. Besides, identifying non-coding RNAs -that is not translated into a protein- is a popular application in which RNA structural alignment is the first step A few methods for RNA structure-to-structure alignment have been developed. Most of these methods are partial structure-to-structure, sequence-to-structure, or structure-to-sequence alignment. Less attention is given in the literature to the use of efficient RNA structure representation and the structure-to-structure alignment methods are lacking. In this paper, we introduce an O(N2) Component-based Pairwise RNA Structure Alignment (CompPSA) algorithm, where structures are given as a component-based representation and where N is the maximum number of components in the two structures. The proposed algorithm compares the two RNA secondary structures based on their weighted component features rather than on their base-pair details. Extensive experiments are conducted illustrating the efficiency of the CompPSA algorithm when compared to other approaches and on different real and simulated datasets. The CompPSA algorithm shows an accurate similarity measure between components. The algorithm gives the flexibility for the user to align the two RNA structures based on their weighted features (position, full length, and/or stem length). Moreover, the algorithm proves scalability and efficiency in time and memory performance.

Keywords: Alignment, RNA secondary structure, pairwise, component-based, data mining.

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2509 Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Reet Kamal Kaur

Abstract:

Protein structure determination and prediction has been a focal research subject in the field of bioinformatics due to the importance of protein structure in understanding the biological and chemical activities of organisms. The experimental methods used by biotechnologists to determine the structures of proteins demand sophisticated equipment and time. A host of computational methods are developed to predict the location of secondary structure elements in proteins for complementing or creating insights into experimental results. However, prediction accuracies of these methods rarely exceed 70%.

Keywords: Protein, Secondary Structure, Prediction, DNA, RNA.

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2508 Demographic Progression in the Zlin Region

Authors: Z. Charvat

Abstract:

This paper considers the Zlin region in terms of the demographic conditions of the region - in particular the residential structure and the educational background of the inhabitants. The paper also considers migration of the population within the Zlin region. Migration is of importance in terms of conservation of the working potential of the region.

Keywords: Demographic structure, migration, inhabitants, residential structure, age structure, learning structure, Zlin region.

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2507 Simulation Study on the Thin-walled Tube Structure of a Vehicle Simulator Crash Testing Equipment

Authors: Xu Zhang, Qi Jiang, Liwei Li, Weiwei Cui, Jijun Cui, Yang Cao, Hairong Zhao

Abstract:

A kind of crash energy absorption structure adopted by vehicle simulator crash testing equipment based on mechanical energy storage was studied. Dynamic explicit finite element simulation was achieved for thin-walled tube structure under different conditions of section shape, thickness and inducement groove style. Crash energy absorption property of the structure was obtained. After optimization, a reasonable structure was given which can meet current vehicle crash regulation. And the optimized structure can be adopted in vehicle simulator, which can increase the practicability of the testing equipment.

Keywords: thin-walled tube structure, crash energy absorption, deceleration, finite element simulation

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2506 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: Fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, vibrations.

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2505 Mikrophonie I (1964) by Karlheinz Stockhausen - Between Idea and Auditory Image

Authors: Justyna Humięcka-Jakubowska

Abstract:

Background in music analysis: Traditionally, when we think about a composer’s sketches, the chances are that we are thinking in terms of the working out of detail, rather than the evolution of an overall concept. Since music is a “time art,” it follows that questions of a form cannot be entirely detached from considerations of time. One could say that composers tend to regard time either as a place gradually and partially intuitively filled, or they can look for a specific strategy to occupy it. It seems that the one thing that sheds light on Stockhausen’s compositional thinking is his frequent use of “form schemas,” that is often a single-page representation of the entire structure of a piece. Background in music technology: Sonic Visualiser is a program used to study a musical recording. It is an open source application for viewing, analyzing, and annotating music audio files. It contains a number of visualisation tools, which are designed with useful default parameters for musical analysis. Additionally, the Vamp plugin format of SV supports to provide analysis such as for example structural segmentation. Aims: The aim of paper is to show how SV may be used to obtain a better understanding of the specific musical work, and how the compositional strategy does impact on musical structures and musical surfaces. It is known that “traditional” music analytic methods don’t allow indicating interrelationships between musical surface (which is perceived) and underlying musical/acoustical structure. Main Contribution: Stockhausen had dealt with the most diverse musical problems by the most varied methods. A characteristic which he had never ceased to be placed at the center of his thought and works, it was the quest for a new balance founded upon an acute connection between speculation and intuition. In the case with Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and 6 players Stockhausen makes a distinction between the “connection scheme,” which indicates the ground rules underlying all versions, and the form scheme, which is associated with a particular version. The preface to the published score includes both the connection scheme, and a single instance of a “form scheme,” which is what one can hear on the CD recording. In the current study, the insight into the compositional strategy chosen by Stockhausen was been compared with auditory image, that is, with the perceived musical surface. Stockhausen’s musical work is analyzed both in terms of melodic/voice and timbre evolution. Implications: The current study shows how musical structures have determined of musical surface. The general assumption is this, that while listening to music we can extract basic kinds of musical information from musical surfaces. It is shown that interactive strategies of musical structure analysis can offer a very fruitful way of looking directly into certain structural features of music.

Keywords: Automated analysis, composer's strategy, Mikrophonie I, musical surface, Stockhausen.

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2504 Design and Production of Thin-Walled UHPFRC Footbridge

Authors: P. Tej, P. Kněž, M. Blank

Abstract:

The paper presents design and production of thin-walled U-profile footbridge made of UHPFRC. The main structure of the bridge is one prefabricated shell structure made of UHPFRC with dispersed steel fibers without any conventional reinforcement. The span of the bridge structure is 10 m and the clear width of 1.5 m. The thickness of the UHPFRC shell structure oscillated in an interval of 30-45 mm. Several calculations were made during the bridge design and compared with the experiments. For the purpose of verifying the calculations, a segment of 1.5 m was first produced, followed by the whole footbridge for testing. After the load tests were done, the design was optimized to cast the final footbridge.

Keywords: Footbridge, UHPFRC, non-linear analysis, shell structure.

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2503 Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage

Authors: Oh Hyeon Jeon, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from numerical analysis; this fragility function results could be used to determine the weakness of weir structure subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failur,e and the degree of damage of a weir structure.

Keywords: Weir structure, seepage, flood disaster fragility, probabilistic risk assessment, Monte-Carlo Simulation, permeability coefficient.

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2502 Module and Comodule Structures on Path Space

Authors: Lili Chen, Chao Yuan

Abstract:

On path space kQ, there is a trivial kQa-module structure determined by the multiplication of path algebra kQa and a trivial kQc-comodule structure determined by the comultiplication of path coalgebra kQc. In this paper, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQa-module structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial left kQa-module structure is isomorphic to the dual module structure of trivial right kQc-comodule. Dually, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQc-comodule structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial right kQc-comodule structure is isomorphic to the dual comodule structure of trivial left kQa-module. Finally, the trivial and nontrivial module structures on path space are compared from the aspect of submodule, and the trivial and nontrivial comodule structures on path space are compared from the aspect of subcomodule.

Keywords: Quiver, path space, module, comodule, dual.

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2501 The Features of Formation of Russian Agriculture’s Sectoral Structure

Authors: Natalya G. Filimonova, Mariya G. Ozerova, Irina N. Ermakova

Abstract:

The long-term strategy of the economic development of Russia up to 2030 is based on the concept of sustainable growth. The determining factor of such development is complex changes in the economic system which may be achieved by making progressive changes in its structure. The structural changes determine the character and the direction of economic development, as well as they include all elements of this system without exception, and their regulated character ensures the most rapid aim achievement. This article has discussed the industrial structure of the agriculture in Russia. With the use of the system of indexes, the article has determined the directions, intensity, and speed of structural shifts. The influence of structural changes on agricultural production development has been found out. It is noticed that the changes in the industrial structure are synchronized with the changes in the organisation and economic structure. Efficiency assessment of structural changes allowed to trace the efficiency of structural changes and elaborate the main directions for agricultural policy improvement.

Keywords: Russian agriculture system, sectoral structure, organizational and economic structure, structural changes.

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2500 A Global Condition for the Triviality of an Almost Split Quaternionic Structure on Split Complex Manifolds

Authors: Erhan Ata, Yusuf Yaylı

Abstract:

Let M be an almost split quaternionic manifold on which its almost split quaternionic structure is defined by a three dimensional subbundle V of ( T M) T (M) * Ôèù and {F,G,H} be a local basis for V . Suppose that the (global) (1, 2) tensor field defined[V ,V ]is defined by [V,V ] = [F,F]+[G,G] + [H,H], where [,] denotes the Nijenhuis bracket. In ref. [7], for the almost split-hypercomplex structureH = J α,α =1,2,3, and the Obata connection ÔêçH vanishes if and only if H is split-hypercomplex. In this study, we give a prof, in particular, prove that if either M is a split quaternionic Kaehler manifold, or if M is a splitcomplex manifold with almost split-complex structure F , then the vanishing [V ,V ] is equivalent to that of all the Nijenhuis brackets of {F,G,H}. It follows that the bundle V is trivial if and only if [V ,V ] = 0 .

Keywords: Almost split - hypercomplex structure, Almost split quaternionic structure, Almost split quaternion Kaehler manifold, Obata connection.

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2499 The Banzhaf-Owen Value for Fuzzy Games with a Coalition Structure

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized form of the Banzhaf-Owen value for cooperative fuzzy games with a coalition structure is proposed. Its axiomatic system is given by extending crisp case. In order to better understand the Banzhaf-Owen value for fuzzy games with a coalition structure, we briefly introduce the Banzhaf-Owen values for two special kinds of fuzzy games with a coalition structure, and give their explicit forms.

Keywords: Cooperative fuzzy game, Banzhaf-Owen value, multi linear extension, Choquet integral.

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2498 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya

Abstract:

The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure interaction, one-way method, two-way method.

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2497 Eigenwave Analysis and Simulation of Disc Loaded Interaction Structure for Wideband Gyro-TWT Amplifier

Authors: R. K. Singh, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

In the present paper, disc loaded interaction structure for potential application in wideband Gyro-TWT amplifier has been analyzed, taking all the space and modal harmonics into consideration, for the eigenwave solutions. The analysis has been restricted to azimuthally symmetric TE0,n mode. Dispersion characteristics have been plotted by varying the structure parameters and have been validated against HFSS simulation results. The variation of eigenvalue with respect to different structure parameters has also been presented. It has been observed that disc periodicity plays very important role for wideband operation of disc-loaded Gyro-TWT.

Keywords: Broadbanding, Disc-loaded interaction structure, Eigenvalue, Gyro-TWT, HFSS.

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2496 Detecting Community Structure in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

Authors: Omar GACI, Stefan BALEV, Antoine DUTOT

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein-s amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we observe that according to their structural roles, the nodes interact differently. By leading a community structure detection, we confirm this specific behavior and describe thecommunities composition to finally propose a new approach to fold a protein interaction network.

Keywords: interaction network, protein structure, community structure detection.

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2495 The Effects of Asymmetric Bracing on Steel Structures under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Soleiman Maramaee

Abstract:

Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

Keywords: Seismic analysis, torsion, asymmetric, irregular building, stiffness source.

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2494 Asymmetric and Kind of Bracing Effects on Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Soliman Maramaee

Abstract:

Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes and kind of bracing (x and chevron bracing) have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

Keywords: Asymmetric, irregular, seismic analysis, torsion.

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2493 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: Neural network, rule extraction, rule insertion, self-organizing map.

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2492 Fuel Reserve Tanks Dynamic Analysis Due to Earthquake Loading

Authors: F.Saadi, A.Aboudi Asl

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic analysis of fuel storage tanks has been studied and some equations are presented for the created fluid waves due to storage tank motions. Also, the equations for finite elements of fluid and structure interactions, and boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid, were researched. In this paper, a numerical simulation is performed for the dynamic analysis of a storage tank contained a fluid. This simulation has carried out by ANSYS software, using FSI solver (Fluid and Structure Interaction solver), and by considering the simulated fluid dynamic motions due to earthquake loading, based on velocities and movements of structure and fluid according to all boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid.

Keywords: fluid and structure interactions, finite elementmethod, ANSYS – FSI

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2491 Soil Resistivity Data Computations; Single and Two - Layer Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on Earthing Design

Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, G. Nasserddine

Abstract:

Performing High Voltage (HV) tasks with a multi craft work force create a special set of safety circumstances. This paper aims to present vital information relating to when it is acceptable to use a single or a two-layer soil structure. Also it discusses the implication of the high voltage infrastructure on the earth grid and the safety of this implication under a single or a two-layer soil structure. A multiple case study is investigated to show the importance of using the right soil resistivity structure during the earthing system design.

Keywords: Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity Structure, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage.

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