Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1288

Search results for: Load transfer technique

1288 Application of Load Transfer Technique for Distribution Power Flow Analysis

Authors: Udomsak Thongkrajay, Padej Pao-La-Or, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

Installation of power compensation equipment in some cases places additional buses into the system. Therefore, a total number of power flow equations and voltage unknowns increase due to additional locations of installed devices. In this circumstance, power flow calculation is more complicated. It may result in a computational convergence problem. This paper presents a power flow calculation by using Newton-Raphson iterative method together with the proposed load transfer technique. This concept is to eliminate additional buses by transferring installed loads at the new buses to existing two adjacent buses. Thus, the total number of power flow equations is not changed. The overall computational speed is expectedly shorter than that of solving the problem without applying the load transfer technique. A 15-bus test system is employed for test to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed load transfer technique. As a result, the total number of iteration required and execution time is significantly reduced.

Keywords: Load transfer technique, Newton-Raphson power flow, ill-condition

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1287 Applying Energy Consumption Schedule and Comparing It with Load Shifting Technique in Residential Load

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasy

Abstract:

Energy consumption schedule (ECS) technique shifts usage of loads from on peak hours and redistributes them throughout the day according to residents’ operating time preferences. This technique is used as form of indirect control from utility to improve the load curve and hence its load factor and reduce customer’s total electric bill as well. Similarly, load shifting technique achieves ECS purposes but as direct control form applied from utility. In this paper, ECS is simulated twice as optimal constrained mathematical formula, solved by using CVX program in MATLAB® R2013b. First, it is utilized for single residential building with ten apartments to determine max allowable energy consumption per hour for each residential apartment. Then, it is used for single apartment with number of shiftable domestic devices, where operating schedule is deduced using previous simulation output results as constraints. The paper ends by giving differences between ECS technique and load shifting technique via literature and simulation. Based on results assessment, it will be shown whether using ECS or load shifting is more beneficial to both customer and utility.

Keywords: Energy consumption schedule, load shifting technique, comparison.

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1286 Load Transfer Mechanism Based Unified Strut-and-Tie Modeling for Design of Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed, M., Yasser A., Mahmoud H., Ahmed, A., Abdulla M. S., Nazar, S.

Abstract:

Strut-and-Tie Models (STM) for the design of concrete beams, comprising of struts, ties, nodes as the basic tools, is conceptually simple, but its realization for complex concrete structure is not straightforward and depends on flow of internal forces in the structure. STM technique has won wide acceptance for deep member and shear design. STM technique is a unified approach that considers all load effects (bending, axial, shear, and torsion) simultaneously, not just applicable to shear loading only. The present study is to portray Strut-and-Tie Modeling based on Load-Transfer-Mechanisms as a unified method to analyze, design and detailing for deep and slender concrete beams. Three shear span- effective depth ratio (a/ d) are recommended for the modeling of STM elements corresponding to dominant load paths. The study also discusses the research work conduct on effective stress of concrete, tie end anchorage, and transverse reinforcement demand under different load transfer mechanism. It is also highlighted that to make the STM versatile tool for design of beams applicable to all shear spans, the effective stress of concrete and, transverse reinforcement demand, inclined angle of strut, and anchorage requirements of tie bars is required to be correlated with respect to load transfer mechanism. The country code provisions are to be modified and updated to apply for generalized design of concrete deep and slender member using load transfer mechanism based STM technique. Examples available in literature are reanalyzed with refined STM based on load transfer mechanisms and results are compared. It is concluded from the results that proposed approach will require true reinforcement demand depending on dominant force transfer action in concrete beam.

Keywords: Deep member, Load transfer mechanism, Strut-and-Tie Model, Strut, Truss.

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1285 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: Airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy.

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1284 Adjusted LOLE and EENS Indices for the Consideration of Load Excess Transfer in Power Systems Adequacy Studies

Authors: F. Vallée, J-F. Toubeau, Z. De Grève, J. Lobry

Abstract:

When evaluating the capacity of a generation park to cover the load in transmission systems, traditional Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Expected Energy not Served (EENS) indices can be used. If those indices allow computing the annual duration and severity of load non covering situations, they do not take into account the fact that the load excess is generally shifted from one penury state (hour or quarter of an hour) to the following one. In this paper, a sequential Monte Carlo framework is introduced in order to compute adjusted LOLE and EENS indices. Practically, those adapted indices permit to consider the effect of load excess transfer on the global adequacy of a generation park, providing thus a more accurate evaluation of this quantity.

Keywords: Expected Energy not Served, Loss of Load Expectation, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, wind generation.

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1283 Investigation of Inter Feeder Power Flow Regulator: Load Sharing Mode

Authors: Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Ahmed Elserougi, Ahmed Massoud, Shehab Ahmed

Abstract:

The Inter feeder Power Flow Regulator (IFPFR) proposed in this paper consists of several voltage source inverters with common dc bus; each inverter is connected in series with one of different independent distribution feeders in the power system. This paper is concerned with how to transfer power between the feeders for load sharing purpose. The power controller of each inverter injects the power (for sending feeder) or absorbs the power (for receiving feeder) via injecting suitable voltage; this voltage injection is simulated by voltage drop across series virtual impedance, the impedance value is selected to achieve the concept of power exchange between the feeders without perturbing the load voltage magnitude of each feeder. In this paper a new control scheme for load sharing using IFPFR is proposed.

Keywords: IFPFR, Load sharing, Power transfer

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1282 Evaluation of Transfer Capability Considering Uncertainties of System Operating Condition and System Cascading Collapse

Authors: N. A. Salim, M. M. Othman, I. Musirin, M. S. Serwan

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, power system industry in many developing and developed countries has gone through a restructuring process of the industry where they are moving towards deregulated power industry. This situation will lead to competition among the generation and distribution companies to provide quality and efficient production of electric energy, which will reduce the price of electricity. Therefore it is important to obtain an accurate value of the available transfer capability (ATC) and transmission reliability margin (TRM) in order to ensure the effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of uncertainties in the system. In this paper, the TRM and ATC is determined by taking into consideration the uncertainties of the system operating condition and system cascading collapse by applying the bootstrap technique. A case study of the IEEE RTS-79 is employed to verify the robustness of the technique proposed in the determination of TRM and ATC.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, bootstrap technique, cascading collapse, transmission reliability margin.

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1281 A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network

Authors: K. Vinoth Kumar, M.P. Selvan

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple approach for load flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this approach, computation of branch current depends only on the current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves towards the root node during branch current computation. The node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested using four radial distribution systems of different size and configuration and found to be computationally efficient.

Keywords: constant current load, constant impedance load, constant power load, forward–backward sweep, load flow analysis, radial distribution system.

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1280 Performance Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh, Meenakshi Sharma

Abstract:

Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms.

Keywords: Load balancing (LB), workload, distributed systems, Static Load balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing

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1279 Approach to Implementation of Power Management with Load Prioritizations in Modern Civil Aircraft

Authors: Brice Nya, Detlef Schulz

Abstract:

Any use of energy in industrial productive activities is combined with various environment impacts. Withintransportation, this fact was not only found among land transport, railways and maritime transport, but also in the air transport industry. An effective climate protection requires strategies and measures for reducing all greenhouses gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, and must take into account the economic, ecologic and social aspects. It seem simperative now to develop and manufacture environmentally friendly products and systems, to reduce consumption and use less resource, and to save energy and power. Today-sproducts could better serve these requirements taking into account the integration of a power management system into the electrical power system.This paper gives an overview of an approach ofpower management with load prioritization in modernaircraft. Load dimensioning and load management strategies on current civil aircraft will be presented and used as a basis for the proposed approach.

Keywords: Load management, power management, electrical load analysis, flight mission, power load profile.

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1278 Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for optimization of radial distribution systems by a network reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique

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1277 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: Clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality.

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1276 Day Type Identification for Algerian Electricity Load using Kohonen Maps

Authors: Mohamed Tarek Khadir, Damien Fay, Ahmed Boughrira

Abstract:

Short term electricity demand forecasts are required by power utilities for efficient operation of the power grid. In a competitive market environment, suppliers and large consumers also require short term forecasts in order to estimate their energy requirements in advance. Electricity demand is influenced (among other things) by the day of the week, the time of year and special periods and/or days such as Ramadhan, all of which must be identified prior to modelling. This identification, known as day-type identification, must be included in the modelling stage either by segmenting the data and modelling each day-type separately or by including the day-type as an input. Day-type identification is the main focus of this paper. A Kohonen map is employed to identify the separate day-types in Algerian data.

Keywords: Day type identification, electricity Load, Kohonenmaps, load forecasting.

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1275 Application of Neural Networks for 24-Hour-Ahead Load Forecasting

Authors: Fatemeh Mosalman Yazdi

Abstract:

One of the most important requirements for the operation and planning activities of an electrical utility is the prediction of load for the next hour to several days out, known as short term load forecasting. This paper presents the development of an artificial neural network based short-term load forecasting model. The model can forecast daily load profiles with a load time of one day for next 24 hours. In this method can divide days of year with using average temperature. Groups make according linearity rate of curve. Ultimate forecast for each group obtain with considering weekday and weekend. This paper investigates effects of temperature and humidity on consuming curve. For forecasting load curve of holidays at first forecast pick and valley and then the neural network forecast is re-shaped with the new data. The ANN-based load models are trained using hourly historical. Load data and daily historical max/min temperature and humidity data. The results of testing the system on data from Yazd utility are reported.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Holiday forecasting, pickand valley load forecasting, Short-term load-forecasting.

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1274 Fast Document Segmentation Using Contourand X-Y Cut Technique

Authors: Boontee Kruatrachue, Narongchai Moongfangklang, Kritawan Siriboon

Abstract:

This paper describes fast and efficient method for page segmentation of document containing nonrectangular block. The segmentation is based on edge following algorithm using small window of 16 by 32 pixels. This segmentation is very fast since only border pixels of paragraph are used without scanning the whole page. Still, the segmentation may contain error if the space between them is smaller than the window used in edge following. Consequently, this paper reduce this error by first identify the missed segmentation point using direction information in edge following then, using X-Y cut at the missed segmentation point to separate the connected columns. The advantage of the proposed method is the fast identification of missed segmentation point. This methodology is faster with fewer overheads than other algorithms that need to access much more pixel of a document.

Keywords: Contour Direction Technique, Missed SegmentationPoints, Page Segmentation, Recursive X-Y Cut Technique

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1273 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: Axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing.

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1272 ORPP with MAIEP Based Technique for Loadability Enhancement

Authors: Norziana Aminudin, Titik Khawa Abdul Rahman, Ismail Musirin

Abstract:

One of the factors to maintain system survivability is the adequate reactive power support to the system. Lack of reactive power support may cause undesirable voltage decay leading to total system instability. Thus, appropriate reactive power support scheme should be arranged in order to maintain system stability. The strength of a system capacity is normally denoted as system loadability. This paper presents the enhancement of system loadability through optimal reactive power planning technique using a newly developed optimization technique, termed as Multiagent Immune Evolutionary Programming (MAIEP). The concept of MAIEP is developed based on the combination of Multiagent System (MAS), Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Evolutionary Programming (EP). In realizing the effectiveness of the proposed technique, validation is conducted on the IEEE-26-Bus Reliability Test System. The results obtained from pre-optimization and post-optimization process were compared which eventually revealed the merit of MAIEP.

Keywords: Load margin, MAIEP, Maximum loading point, ORPP.

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1271 A P2P File Sharing Technique by Indexed-Priority Metric

Authors: Toshinori Takabatake, Yoshikazu Komano

Abstract:

Recently, the improvements in processing performance of a computer and in high speed communication of an optical fiber have been achieved, so that the amount of data which are processed by a computer and flowed on a network has been increasing greatly. However, in a client-server system, since the server receives and processes the amount of data from the clients through the network, a load on the server is increasing. Thus, there are needed to introduce a server with high processing ability and to have a line with high bandwidth. In this paper, concerning to P2P networks to resolve the load on a specific server, a criterion called an Indexed-Priority Metric is proposed and its performance is evaluated. The proposed metric is to allocate some files to each node. As a result, the load on a specific server can distribute them to each node equally well. A P2P file sharing system using the proposed metric is implemented. Simulation results show that the proposed metric can make it distribute files on the specific server.

Keywords: peer-to-peer, file-sharing system, load-balancing, dependability

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1270 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model.

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1269 Effect of Base Coarse Layer on Load-Settlement Characteristics of Sandy Subgrade Using Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Nazeri, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Ghiasinejad

Abstract:

The present research has been performed to investigate the effect of base course application on load-settlement characteristics of sandy subgrade using plate load test. The main parameter investigated in this study was the subgrade reaction coefficient. The model tests were conducted in a 1.35 m long, 1 m wide, and 1 m deep steel test box of Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU Calibration Chamber). The base courses used in this research were in three different thicknesses of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The test results indicated that in the case of using base course over loose sandy subgrade, the values of subgrade reaction coefficient can be increased from 7  to 132 , 224 , and 396  in presence of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm base course, respectively.

Keywords: Base course, calibration chamber, plate load test, loose sand, subgrade reaction coefficient.

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1268 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: University-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies.

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1267 Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Strengthened Using a Steel Jacketing Technique

Authors: Mohamed K. Elsamny, Adel A. Hussein, Amr M. Nafie, Mohamed K. Abd-Elhamed

Abstract:

An experimental study of Reinforced Concrete, RC, columns strengthened using a steel jacketing technique was conducted. The jacketing technique consisted of four steel vertical angles installed at the corners of the column joined by horizontal steel straps confining the column externally. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated by testing the RC column specimens under eccentric monotonic loading until failure occurred. Strain gauges were installed to monitor the strains in the internal reinforcement as well as the external jacketing system. The effectiveness of the jacketing technique was demonstrated, and the parameters affecting the technique were studied.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Columns, Steel Jacketing, Strengthening, Eccentric Load.

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1266 Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, E. Golden Julie, M. Rajaram, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, fuzzy logic, PSO, LEACH.

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1265 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface, Heat Transfer, Design Algorithm

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1264 A Multi-layer Artificial Neural Network Architecture Design for Load Forecasting in Power Systems

Authors: Axay J Mehta, Hema A Mehta, T.C.Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, the modelling and design of artificial neural network architecture for load forecasting purposes is investigated. The primary pre-requisite for power system planning is to arrive at realistic estimates of future demand of power, which is known as Load Forecasting. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) helps in determining the economic, reliable and secure operating strategies for power system. The dependence of load on several factors makes the load forecasting a very challenging job. An over estimation of the load may cause premature investment and unnecessary blocking of the capital where as under estimation of load may result in shortage of equipment and circuits. It is always better to plan the system for the load slightly higher than expected one so that no exigency may arise. In this paper, a load-forecasting model is proposed using a multilayer neural network with an appropriately modified back propagation learning algorithm. Once the neural network model is designed and trained, it can forecast the load of the power system 24 hours ahead on daily basis and can also forecast the cumulative load on daily basis. The real load data that is used for the Artificial Neural Network training was taken from LDC, Gujarat Electricity Board, Jambuva, Gujarat, India. The results show that the load forecasting of the ANN model follows the actual load pattern more accurately throughout the forecasted period.

Keywords: Power system, Load forecasting, Neural Network, Neuron, Stabilization, Network structure, Load.

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1263 Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Differential Evolution Technique

Authors: Banaja Mohanty, Prakash Kumar Hota

Abstract:

This paper presents a differential evolution algorithm to design a robust PI and PID controllers for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of nonlinear interconnected power systems considering the boiler dynamics, Governor Dead Band (GDB), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). Differential evolution algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The proposed method easily copes of with nonlinear constraints. Further the proposed controller is simple, effective and can ensure the desirable overall system performance. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic controller for the same power systems. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a 1% step load perturbation in hydro area. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than fuzzy logic controller. Furthermore, it is also seen that the proposed system is robust and is not affected by change in the system parameters.

Keywords: Automatic Generation control (AGC), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC), Governor Dead Band (GDB), Differential Evolution (DE)

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1262 Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

Authors: Wang Liguang, Zhang Xueqing

Abstract:

The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overall success of BOT projects. There will be many issues faced by both the public sector and private sector in the transfer stage of BOT projects, including project post-assessment, technology and documents transfer, personal training and staff transition, etc. and sometimes additional legislation is needed for future operation and management of facilities. However, most previous studies focused on the bidding, financing, and building and operation stages instead of transfer stage. This research identifies nine key issues in the transfer stage of BOT projects through a comprehensive study on three cases in China, and the expert interview and expert discussion meetings are held to validate the key issues and give detail analysis. A proposed framework of transfer management is prepared based on the experiences derived and lessons drawn from the case studies and expert interview and discussions, which is expected to improve the transfer management of BOT projects in practice.

Keywords: BOT project, key issues, transfer management transfer stage.

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1261 Developing a Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

Authors: Mansour A. Al Qubeissi

Abstract:

The current paper presents a numerical approach in solving the conjugate heat transfer problems. A heat conduction code is coupled internally with a computational fluid dynamics solver for developing a couple conjugate heat transfer solver. Methodology of treating non-matching meshes at interface has also been proposed. The validation results of 1D and 2D cases for the developed conjugate heat transfer code have shown close agreement with the solutions given by analysis.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Conjugate Heat transfer, Heat Conduction, Heat Transfer

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1260 Electric Load Forecasting Using Genetic Based Algorithm, Optimal Filter Estimator and Least Error Squares Technique: Comparative Study

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar, Khaled A. AL-Rumaih

Abstract:

This paper presents performance comparison of three estimation techniques used for peak load forecasting in power systems. The three optimum estimation techniques are, genetic algorithms (GA), least error squares (LS) and, least absolute value filtering (LAVF). The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Different forecasting models are considered. Actual recorded data is used to perform the study. The performance of the above three optimal estimation techniques is examined. Advantages of each algorithms are reported and discussed.

Keywords: Forecasting, Least error squares, Least absolute Value, Genetic algorithms

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1259 An Analysis of Blackouts for Electric Power Transmission Systems

Authors: Karamitsos Ioannis, Orfanidis Konstantinos

Abstract:

In this paper an analysis of blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented using a model and studied in simple networks with a regular topology. The proposed model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages.

Keywords: Blackout, Generator, Load, Power Load.

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