Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 374

Search results for: Linux Cluster

374 LINUX Cluster Possibilities in 3-D PHOTO Quality Imaging and Animation

Authors: Arjun Jain, Himanshu Agrawal, Nalini Vasudevan

Abstract:

In this paper we present the PC cluster built at R.V. College of Engineering (with great help from the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering). The structure of the cluster is described and the performance is evaluated by rendering of complex 3D Persistence of Vision (POV) images by the Ray-Tracing algorithm. Here, we propose an unexampled method to render such images, distributedly on a low cost scalable.

Keywords: PC cluster, parallel computations, ray tracing, persistence of vision, rendering.

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373 Development of Configuration Software of Space Environment Simulator Control System Based on Linux

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Zhang Lei, Ning Juan

Abstract:

This paper presents a configuration software solution in Linux, which is used for the control of space environment simulator. After introducing the structure and basic principle, it is said that the developing of QT software frame and the dynamic data exchanging between PLC and computer. The OPC driver in Linux is also developed. This driver realizes many-to-many communication between hardware devices and SCADA software. Moreover, an algorithm named “Scan PRI” is put forward. This algorithm is much more optimizable and efficient compared with "Scan in sequence" in Windows. This software has been used in practical project. It has a good control effect and can achieve the expected goal.

Keywords: Linux OS, configuration software, OPC server driver, MYSQL database.

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372 Delay Analysis of Sampled-Data Systems in Hard RTOS

Authors: A. M. Azad, M. Alam, C. M. Hussain

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented the effect of varying time-delays on performance and stability in the single-channel multirate sampled-data system in hard real-time (RT-Linux) environment. The sampling task require response time that might exceed the capacity of RT-Linux. So a straight implementation with RT-Linux is not feasible, because of the latency of the systems and hence, sampling period should be less to handle this task. The best sampling rate is chosen for the sampled-data system, which is the slowest rate meets all performance requirements. RT-Linux is consistent with its specifications and the resolution of the real-time is considered 0.01 seconds to achieve an efficient result. The test results of our laboratory experiment shows that the multi-rate control technique in hard real-time operating system (RTOS) can improve the stability problem caused by the random access delays and asynchronization.

Keywords: Multi-rate, PID, RT-Linux, Sampled-data, Servo.

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371 Linux based Embedded Node for Capturing, Compression and Streaming of Digital Audio and Video

Authors: F.J. Suárez, J.C. Granda, J. Molleda, D.F. García

Abstract:

A prototype for audio and video capture and compression in real time on a Linux platform has been developed. It is able to visualize both the captured and the compressed video at the same time, as well as the captured and compressed audio with the goal of comparing their quality. As it is based on free code, the final goal is to run it in an embedded system running Linux. Therefore, we would implement a node to capture and compress such multimedia information. Thus, it would be possible to consider the project within a larger one aimed at live broadcast of audio and video using a streaming server which would communicate with our node. Then, we would have a very powerful and flexible system with several practical applications.

Keywords: Audio and video compression, Linux platform, live streaming, real time, visualization of captured and compressed video.

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370 Hardware Error Analysis and Severity Characterization in Linux-Based Server Systems

Authors: N. Georgoulopoulos, A. Hatzopoulos, K. Karamitsios, K. Kotrotsios, A. I. Metsai

Abstract:

Current server systems are responsible for critical applications that run in different infrastructures, such as the cloud, physical machines, and virtual machines. A common challenge that these systems face are the various hardware faults that may occur due to the high load, among other reasons, which translates to errors resulting in malfunctions or even server downtime. The most important hardware parts, that are causing most of the errors, are the CPU, RAM, and the hard drive - HDD. In this work, we investigate selected CPU, RAM, and HDD errors, observed or simulated in kernel ring buffer log files from GNU/Linux servers. Moreover, a severity characterization is given for each error type. Understanding these errors is crucial for the efficient analysis of kernel logs that are usually utilized for monitoring servers and diagnosing faults. In addition, to support the previous analysis, we present possible ways of simulating hardware errors in RAM and HDD, aiming to facilitate the testing of methods for detecting and tackling the above issues in a server running on GNU/Linux.

Keywords: hardware errors, Kernel logs, GNU/Linux servers, RAM, HDD, CPU

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369 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

Abstract:

Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: Remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded linux system, image processing.

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368 Achieving High Availability by Implementing Beowulf Cluster

Authors: A.F.A. Abidin, N.S.M. Usop

Abstract:

A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. The components of a cluster are commonly, but not always, connected to each other through fast local area networks. Clusters are usually deployed to improve performance and/or availability over that provided by a single computer, while typically being much more cost-effective than single computers of comparable speed or availability. This paper proposed the way to implement the Beowulf Cluster in order to achieve high performance as well as high availability.

Keywords: Beowulf Cluster, grid computing, GridMPI, MPICH.

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367 Fast and Accuracy Control Chart Pattern Recognition using a New cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor

Authors: Samir Brahim Belhaouari

Abstract:

By taking advantage of both k-NN which is highly accurate and K-means cluster which is able to reduce the time of classification, we can introduce Cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor as "variable k"-NN dealing with the centroid or mean point of all subclasses generated by clustering algorithm. In general the algorithm of K-means cluster is not stable, in term of accuracy, for that reason we develop another algorithm for clustering our space which gives a higher accuracy than K-means cluster, less subclass number, stability and bounded time of classification with respect to the variable data size. We find between 96% and 99.7 % of accuracy in the lassification of 6 different types of Time series by using K-means cluster algorithm and we find 99.7% by using the new clustering algorithm.

Keywords: Pattern recognition, Time series, k-Nearest Neighbor, k-means cluster, Gaussian Mixture Model, Classification

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366 Analysis of Diverse Cluster Ensemble Techniques

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, P. Ranjetha

Abstract:

Data mining is the procedure of determining interesting patterns from the huge amount of data. With the intention of accessing the data faster the most supporting processes needed is clustering. Clustering is the process of identifying similarity between data according to the individuality present in the data and grouping associated data objects into clusters. Cluster ensemble is the technique to combine various runs of different clustering algorithms to obtain a general partition of the original dataset, aiming for consolidation of outcomes from a collection of individual clustering outcomes. The performances of clustering ensembles are mainly affecting by two principal factors such as diversity and quality. This paper presents the overview about the different cluster ensemble algorithm along with their methods used in cluster ensemble to improve the diversity and quality in the several cluster ensemble related papers and shows the comparative analysis of different cluster ensemble also summarize various cluster ensemble methods. Henceforth this clear analysis will be very useful for the world of clustering experts and also helps in deciding the most appropriate one to determine the problem in hand.

Keywords: Cluster Ensemble, Consensus Function, CSPA, Diversity, HGPA, MCLA.

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365 Solving Facility Location Problem on Cluster Computing

Authors: Ei Phyo Wai, Nay Min Tun

Abstract:

Computation of facility location problem for every location in the country is not easy simultaneously. Solving the problem is described by using cluster computing. A technique is to design parallel algorithm by using local search with single swap method in order to solve that problem on clusters. Parallel implementation is done by the use of portable parallel programming, Message Passing Interface (MPI), on Microsoft Windows Compute Cluster. In this paper, it presents the algorithm that used local search with single swap method and implementation of the system of a facility to be opened by using MPI on cluster. If large datasets are considered, the process of calculating a reasonable cost for a facility becomes time consuming. The result shows parallel computation of facility location problem on cluster speedups and scales well as problem size increases.

Keywords: cluster, cost, demand, facility location

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364 Enabling Automated Deployment for Cluster Computing in Distributed PC Classrooms

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Ying-Chuan Chen, Hsi-Ya Chang

Abstract:

The rapid improvement of the microprocessor and network has made it possible for the PC cluster to compete with conventional supercomputers. Lots of high throughput type of applications can be satisfied by using the current desktop PCs, especially for those in PC classrooms, and leave the supercomputers for the demands from large scale high performance parallel computations. This paper presents our development on enabling an automated deployment mechanism for cluster computing to utilize the computing power of PCs such as reside in PC classroom. After well deployment, these PCs can be transformed into a pre-configured cluster computing resource immediately without touching the existing education/training environment installed on these PCs. Thus, the training activities will not be affected by this additional activity to harvest idle computing cycles. The time and manpower required to build and manage a computing platform in geographically distributed PC classrooms also can be reduced by this development.

Keywords: PC cluster, automated deployment, cluster computing, PC classroom.

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363 Implementation of Watch Dog Timer for Fault Tolerant Computing on Cluster Server

Authors: Meenakshi Bheevgade, Rajendra M. Patrikar

Abstract:

In today-s new technology era, cluster has become a necessity for the modern computing and data applications since many applications take more time (even days or months) for computation. Although after parallelization, computation speeds up, still time required for much application can be more. Thus, reliability of the cluster becomes very important issue and implementation of fault tolerant mechanism becomes essential. The difficulty in designing a fault tolerant cluster system increases with the difficulties of various failures. The most imperative obsession is that the algorithm, which avoids a simple failure in a system, must tolerate the more severe failures. In this paper, we implemented the theory of watchdog timer in a parallel environment, to take care of failures. Implementation of simple algorithm in our project helps us to take care of different types of failures; consequently, we found that the reliability of this cluster improves.

Keywords: Cluster, Fault tolerant, Grid, Grid ComputingSystem, Meta-computing.

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362 Optimization of Fuzzy Cluster Nodes in Cellular Multimedia Networks

Authors: J. D. Mallapur, Supriya H., Santosh B. K., Tej H.

Abstract:

The cellular network is one of the emerging areas of communication, in which the mobile nodes act as member for one base station. The cluster based communication is now an emerging area of wireless cellular multimedia networks. The cluster renders fast communication and also a convenient way to work with connectivity. In our scheme we have proposed an optimization technique for the fuzzy cluster nodes, by categorizing the group members into three categories like long refreshable member, medium refreshable member and short refreshable member. By considering long refreshable nodes as static nodes, we compute the new membership values for the other nodes in the cluster. We compare their previous and present membership value with the threshold value to categorize them into three different members. By which, we optimize the nodes in the fuzzy clusters. The simulation results show that there is reduction in the cluster computational time and iterational time after optimization.

Keywords: Clusters, fuzzy and optimization.

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361 Scalable Deployment and Configuration of High-Performance Virtual Clusters

Authors: Kyrre M Begnum, Matthew Disney

Abstract:

Virtualization and high performance computing have been discussed from a performance perspective in recent publications. We present and discuss a flexible and efficient approach to the management of virtual clusters. A virtual machine management tool is extended to function as a fabric for cluster deployment and management. We show how features such as saving the state of a running cluster can be used to avoid disruption. We also compare our approach to the traditional methods of cluster deployment and present benchmarks which illustrate the efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: Cluster management, clusters, high-performance, virtual machines, Xen

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360 A Review and Comparative Analysis on Cluster Ensemble Methods

Authors: S. Sarumathi, P. Ranjetha, C. Saraswathy, M. Vaishnavi, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique for aggregating data objects into meaningful classes so that intra cluster similarity is maximized and inter cluster similarity is minimized in data mining. However, no single clustering algorithm proves to be the most effective in producing the best result. As a result, a new challenging technique known as the cluster ensemble approach has blossomed in order to determine the solution to this problem. For the cluster analysis issue, this new technique is a successful approach. The cluster ensemble's main goal is to combine similar clustering solutions in a way that achieves the precision while also improving the quality of individual data clustering. Because of the massive and rapid creation of new approaches in the field of data mining, the ongoing interest in inventing novel algorithms necessitates a thorough examination of current techniques and future innovation. This paper presents a comparative analysis of various cluster ensemble approaches, including their methodologies, formal working process, and standard accuracy and error rates. As a result, the society of clustering practitioners will benefit from this exploratory and clear research, which will aid in determining the most appropriate solution to the problem at hand.

Keywords: Clustering, cluster ensemble methods, consensus function, data mining, unsupervised learning.

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359 Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, clustering, energy efficient, localization.

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358 Dominating Set Algorithm and Trust Evaluation Scheme for Secured Cluster Formation and Data Transferring

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

This paper describes the proficient way of choosing the cluster head based on dominating set algorithm in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The algorithm overcomes the energy deterioration problems by this selection process of cluster heads. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH, EEHC and HEED enhance scalability in WSNs. Dominating set algorithm keeps the first node alive longer than the other protocols previously used. As the dominating set of cluster heads are directly connected to each node, the energy of the network is saved by eliminating the intermediate nodes in WSN. Security and trust is pivotal in network messaging. Cluster head is secured with a unique key. The member can only connect with the cluster head if and only if they are secured too. The secured trust model provides security for data transmission in the dominated set network with the group key. The concept can be extended to add a mobile sink for each or for no of clusters to transmit data or messages between cluster heads and to base station. Data security id preferably high and data loss can be prevented. The simulation demonstrates the concept of choosing cluster heads by dominating set algorithm and trust evaluation using DSTE. The research done is rationalized.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, LEECH, EEHC, HEED, DSTE.

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357 The Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akın, H. Çoban

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR + Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR + BA, 1/9 CTR + BA applications on yield and yield components of four years old Alphonse Lavallee grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on grafted 110 Paulsen rootstock in Konya province in Turkey in the vegetation period in 2015. According to the results, the highest maturity index 21.46 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest grape juice yields 736.67 ml with 1/3 CTR + BA application; the highest L* color value 32.07 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest a* color value 1.74 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest b* color value 3.72 with 1/9 CTR application were obtained. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, cluster weight and berry weight were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar, different cluster tip reduction (1/3, 1/6, 1/9), foliar boric acid application, yield, quality.

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356 Assessment of Energy Consumption in Cluster Redevelopment: A Case Study of Bhendi Bazar in Mumbai

Authors: Insiya Kapasi, Roshni Udyavar Yehuda

Abstract:

Cluster Redevelopment is a new concept in the city of Mumbai. Its regulations were laid down by the government in 2009. The concept of cluster redevelopment encompasses a group of buildings defined by a boundary as specified by the municipal authority (in this case, Mumbai), which may be dilapidated or approved for redevelopment. The study analyses the effect of cluster redevelopment in the form of renewal of old group of buildings as compared to refurbishment or restoration - on energy consumption. The methodology includes methods of assessment to determine increase or decrease in energy consumption in cluster redevelopment based on different criteria such as carpet area of the units, building envelope and its architectural elements. Results show that as the area and number of units increase the Energy consumption increases and the EPI (energy performance index) decreases as compared to the base case. The energy consumption per unit area declines by 29% in the proposed cluster redevelopment as compared to the original settlement. It is recommended that although the development is spacious and provides more light and ventilation, aspects such as glass type, traditional architectural features and consumer behavior are critical in the reduction of energy consumption.

Keywords: Cluster redevelopment, energy consumption, energy efficiency, typologies.

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355 A New Method in Detection of Ceramic Tiles Color Defects Using Genetic C-Means Algorithm

Authors: Mahkameh S. Mostafavi

Abstract:

In this paper an algorithm is used to detect the color defects of ceramic tiles. First the image of a normal tile is clustered using GCMA; Genetic C-means Clustering Algorithm; those results in best cluster centers. C-means is a common clustering algorithm which optimizes an objective function, based on a measure between data points and the cluster centers in the data space. Here the objective function describes the mean square error. After finding the best centers, each pixel of the image is assigned to the cluster with closest cluster center. Then, the maximum errors of clusters are computed. For each cluster, max error is the maximum distance between its center and all the pixels which belong to it. After computing errors all the pixels of defected tile image are clustered based on the centers obtained from normal tile image in previous stage. Pixels which their distance from their cluster center is more than the maximum error of that cluster are considered as defected pixels.

Keywords: C-Means algorithm, color spaces, Genetic Algorithm, image clustering.

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354 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park

Abstract:

Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: Extension of HPC clusters, Security, NFS, SSH tunneling.

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353 Analysis of Permanence and Extinction of Enterprise Cluster Based On Ecology Theory

Authors: Ping Liu, Yongkun Li

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the permanence and extinction problem of enterprises cluster constituted by m satellite enterprises and a dominant enterprise. We present the model involving impulsive effect based on ecology theory, which effectively describe the competition and cooperation of enterprises cluster in real economic environment. Applying comparison theorem of impulsive differential equation, we establish sufficient conditions which ultimately affect the fate of enterprises: permanence, extinction, and co-existence. Finally, we present numerical examples to explain the economical significance of mathematical results.

Keywords: Enterprise cluster, permanence, extinction, impulsive, comparison theorem.

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352 File System-Based Data Protection Approach

Authors: Jaechun No

Abstract:

As data to be stored in storage subsystems tremendously increases, data protection techniques have become more important than ever, to provide data availability and reliability. In this paper, we present the file system-based data protection (WOWSnap) that has been implemented using WORM (Write-Once-Read-Many) scheme. In the WOWSnap, once WORM files have been created, only the privileged read requests to them are allowed to protect data against any intentional/accidental intrusions. Furthermore, all WORM files are related to their protection cycle that is a time period during which WORM files should securely be protected. Once their protection cycle is expired, the WORM files are automatically moved to the general-purpose data section without any user interference. This prevents the WORM data section from being consumed by unnecessary files. We evaluated the performance of WOWSnap on Linux cluster.

Keywords: Data protection, Protection cycle, WORM

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351 Collocation Assessment between GEO and GSO Satellites

Authors: A. E. Emam, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

The change in orbit evolution between collocated satellites (X, Y) inside +/-0.09° E/W and +/- 0.07° N/S cluster, after one of these satellites is placed in an inclined orbit (satellite X) and the effect of this change in the collocation safety inside the cluster window has been studied and evaluated. Several collocation scenarios had been studied in order to adjust the location of both satellites inside their cluster to maximize the separation between them and safe the mission.

Keywords: Satellite, GEO, collocation, risk assessment.

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350 An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation Protocol with Low Latency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Abstract:

Data gathering is an essential operation in wireless sensor network applications. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network. Similarly, clustering is also an effective technique to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy efficient cluster formation protocol is proposed with the objective of achieving low energy dissipation and latency without sacrificing application specific quality. The objective is achieved by applying randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation and localized control for data transfers. It involves application - specific data processing, such as data aggregation or compression. The cluster formation algorithm allows each node to make independent decisions, so as to generate good clusters as the end. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol utilizes minimum energy and latency for cluster formation, there by reducing the overhead of the protocol.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Low latency, Energy sorting protocol, data processing, Cluster formation.

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349 The Effects of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Italia Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akin

Abstract:

This study was carried out on Italia grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in Konya province, Turkey in 2016. The cultivar is five years old and grown on 1103 Paulsen rootstock. It was determined the effects of applications of the Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR+Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR+BA, 1/9 CTR+BA, on yield and yield components of the Italia grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (4.74 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; the highest cluster weight (220.08 g) with 1/3 CTR application; the highest 100 berry weight (565.85 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest maturity index (49.28) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest must yield (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/3 CTR+BA and (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/9 CTR+BA applications. To increase the fresh grape yield, 100 berry weight and maturity index in the Italia grape variety, the 1/9 CTR+BA application can be recommended.

Keywords: Italia grape variety, boric acid, cluster tip reduction, yield, yield components.

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348 Analysis of Diverse Clustering Tools in Data Mining

Authors: S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi, M. Sharmila

Abstract:

Clustering in data mining is an unsupervised learning technique of aggregating the data objects into meaningful groups such that the intra cluster similarity of objects are maximized and inter cluster similarity of objects are minimized. Over the past decades several clustering tools were emerged in which clustering algorithms are inbuilt and are easier to use and extract the expected results. Data mining mainly deals with the huge databases that inflicts on cluster analysis and additional rigorous computational constraints. These challenges pave the way for the emergence of powerful expansive data mining clustering softwares. In this survey, a variety of clustering tools used in data mining are elucidated along with the pros and cons of each software.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Clustering Algorithms, Clustering Techniques, Association, Visualization.

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347 A Message Passing Implementation of a New Parallel Arrangement Algorithm

Authors: Ezequiel Herruzo, Juan José Cruz, José Ignacio Benavides, Oscar Plata

Abstract:

This paper describes a new algorithm of arrangement in parallel, based on Odd-Even Mergesort, called division and concurrent mixes. The main idea of the algorithm is to achieve that each processor uses a sequential algorithm for ordering a part of the vector, and after that, for making the processors work in pairs in order to mix two of these sections ordered in a greater one, also ordered; after several iterations, the vector will be completely ordered. The paper describes the implementation of the new algorithm on a Message Passing environment (such as MPI). Besides, it compares the obtained experimental results with the quicksort sequential algorithm and with the parallel implementations (also on MPI) of the algorithms quicksort and bitonic sort. The comparison has been realized in an 8 processors cluster under GNU/Linux which is running on a unique PC processor.

Keywords: Parallel algorithm, arrangement, MPI, sorting, parallel program.

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346 Analysis of Entrepreneurship in Industrial Cluster

Authors: Wen-Hsiang Lai

Abstract:

Except for the internal aspects of entrepreneurship (i.e.motivation, opportunity perspective and alertness), there are external aspects that affecting entrepreneurship (i.e. the industrial cluster). By comparing the machinery companies located inside and outside the industrial district, this study aims to explore the cluster effects on the entrepreneurship of companies in Taiwan machinery clusters (TMC). In this study, three factors affecting the entrepreneurship in TMC are conducted as “competition”, “embedded-ness” and “specialized knowledge”. The “competition” in the industrial cluster is defined as the competitive advantages that companies gain in form of demand effects and diversified strategies; the “embedded-ness” refers to the quality of company relations (relational embedded-ness) and ranges (structural embedded-ness) with the industry components (universities, customers and complementary) that affecting knowledge transfer and knowledge generations; the “specialized knowledge” shares theinternal knowledge within industrial clusters. This study finds that when comparing to the companieswhich are outside the cluster, the industrial cluster has positive influence on the entrepreneurship. Additionally, the factor of “relational embedded-ness” has significant impact on the entrepreneurship and affects the adaptation ability of companies in TMC. Finally, the factor of “competition” reveals partial influence on the entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Industrial Cluster, Industrial District, Economies of Agglomerations, Taiwan Machinery Cluster (TMC).

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345 Enhancing K-Means Algorithm with Initial Cluster Centers Derived from Data Partitioning along the Data Axis with the Highest Variance

Authors: S. Deelers, S. Auwatanamongkol

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an algorithm to compute initial cluster centers for K-means clustering. Data in a cell is partitioned using a cutting plane that divides cell in two smaller cells. The plane is perpendicular to the data axis with the highest variance and is designed to reduce the sum squared errors of the two cells as much as possible, while at the same time keep the two cells far apart as possible. Cells are partitioned one at a time until the number of cells equals to the predefined number of clusters, K. The centers of the K cells become the initial cluster centers for K-means. The experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, converge to better clustering results than those of the random initialization method. The research also indicated the proposed algorithm would greatly improve the likelihood of every cluster containing some data in it.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, K-means algorithm, Datapartitioning, Initial cluster centers.

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