Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: Legendre transforms

123 Algorithms for the Fast Computation of PWL and PHL Transforms

Authors: Fituri H Belgassem, Abdulbasit Nigrat, Seddeeq Ghrari

Abstract:

In this paper, the construction of fast algorithms for the computation of Periodic Walsh Piecewise-Linear PWL transform and the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear PHL transform will be presented. Algorithms for the computation of the inverse transforms are also proposed. The matrix equation of the PWL and PHL transforms are introduced. Comparison of the computational requirements for the periodic piecewise-linear transforms and other orthogonal transforms shows that the periodic piecewise-linear transforms require less number of operations than some orthogonal transforms such as the Fourier, Walsh and the Discrete Cosine transforms.

Keywords: Piece wise linear transforms, Fast transforms, Fast algorithms.

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122 An Optimization of Orbital Transfer for Spacecrafts with Finite-thrust Based on Legendre Pseudospectral Method

Authors: Yanan Yang, Zhigang Wang, Xiang Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of Legendre pseudospectral method for the optimization of finite-thrust orbital transfer for spacecrafts. In order to get an accurate solution, the System-s dynamics equations were normalized through a dimensionless method. The Legendre pseudospectral method is based on interpolating functions on Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) quadrature nodes. This is used to transform the optimal control problem into a constrained parameter optimization problem. The developed novel optimization algorithm can be used to solve similar optimization problems of spacecraft finite-thrust orbital transfer. The results of a numerical simulation verified the validity of the proposed optimization method. The simulation results reveal that pseudospectral optimization method is a promising method for real-time trajectory optimization and provides good accuracy and fast convergence.

Keywords: Finite-thrust, Orbital transfer, Legendre pseudospectral method

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121 Approximation of Sturm-Liouville Problems by Exponentially Weighted Legendre-Gauss Tau Method

Authors: Mohamed K. El Daou

Abstract:

We construct an exponentially weighted Legendre- Gauss Tau method for solving differential equations with oscillatory solutions. The proposed method is applied to Sturm-Liouville problems. Numerical examples illustrating the efficiency and the high accuracy of our results are presented.

Keywords: Oscillatory functions, Sturm-Liouville problems, legendre polynomial, gauss points.

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120 Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based On Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Asyieh Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet together with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.

Keywords: Collocation method, Legendre wavelet, optimal control, Volterra integro-differential equation.

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119 Three-Dimensional Generalized Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Mowffaq Oreijah, Hunaydi S. Alsharif

Abstract:

In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time and variable thermal conductivity has been constructed. The resulting non-dimensional governing equations together with the Laplace and double Fourier transforms techniques have been applied to a three-dimensional half-space subjected to thermal loading with rectangular pulse and traction free in the directions of the principle co-ordinates. The inverses of double Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms have been obtained numerically. Numerical results for the temperature increment, the invariant stress, the invariant strain, and the displacement are represented graphically. The variability of the thermal conductivity has significant effects on the thermal and the mechanical waves.

Keywords: Thermoelasticity, three-dimensional, Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, thermal conductivity.

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118 Local Error Control in the RK5GL3 Method

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK5GL3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on a combination of a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method and 3-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature. In this paper we describe an effective local error control algorithm for RK5GL3, which uses local extrapolation with an eighth-order Runge-Kutta method in tandem with RK5GL3, and a Hermite interpolating polynomial for solution estimation at the Gauss-Legendre quadrature nodes.

Keywords: RK5GL3, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, Hermite interpolating polynomial, initial value problem, local error.

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117 A High Order Theory for Functionally Graded Shell

Authors: V. V. Zozulya

Abstract:

New theory for functionally graded (FG) shell based on expansion of the equations of elasticity for functionally graded materials (GFMs) into Legendre polynomials series has been developed. Stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements, traction and body forces have been expanded into Legendre polynomials series in a thickness coordinate. In the same way functions that describe functionally graded relations has been also expanded. Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hook-s law have been transformed to corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. Cases of the first and second approximations have been considered in more details. For obtained boundary-value problems solution finite element (FE) has been used of Numerical calculations have been done with Comsol Multiphysics and Matlab.

Keywords: Shell, FEM, FGM, legendre polynomial.

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116 Pension Plan Member’s Investment Strategies with Transaction Cost and Couple Risky Assets Modelled by the O-U Process

Authors: Udeme O. Ini, Edikan E. Akpanibah

Abstract:

This paper studies the optimal investment strategies for a plan member (PM) in a defined contribution (DC) pension scheme with transaction cost, taxes on invested funds and couple risky assets (stocks) under the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) process. The PM’s portfolio is assumed to consist of a risk-free asset and two risky assets where the two risky assets are driven by the O-U process. The Legendre transformation and dual theory is use to transform the resultant optimal control problem which is a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) into linear PDE and the resultant linear PDE is then solved for the explicit solutions of the optimal investment strategies for PM exhibiting constant absolute risk aversion (CARA) using change of variable technique. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is used to study the influences of some sensitive parameters on the optimal investment strategies with observations that the optimal investment strategies for the two risky assets increase with increase in the dividend and decreases with increase in tax on the invested funds, risk averse coefficient, initial fund size and the transaction cost.

Keywords: Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, portfolio management, Legendre transforms, CARA utility.

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115 Optimal Control of a Linear Distributed Parameter System via Shifted Legendre Polynomials

Authors: Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

Abstract:

The optimal control problem of a linear distributed parameter system is studied via shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs) in this paper. The partial differential equation, representing the linear distributed parameter system, is decomposed into an n - set of ordinary differential equations, the optimal control problem is transformed into a two-point boundary value problem, and the twopoint boundary value problem is reduced to an initial value problem by using SLPs. A recursive algorithm for evaluating optimal control input and output trajectory is developed. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple. An illustrative example is given to show the simplicity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Optimal control, linear systems, distributed parametersystems, Legendre polynomials.

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114 An Efficient Collocation Method for Solving the Variable-Order Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations Arising from the Physical Phenomenon

Authors: Haniye Dehestani, Yadollah Ordokhani

Abstract:

In this work, we present an efficient approach for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations, which are based on Legendre and Laguerre polynomials. First, we introduced the pseudo-operational matrices of integer and variable fractional order of integration by use of some properties of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. Then, applied together with collocation method and Legendre-Laguerre functions for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations. Also, an estimation of the error is presented. At last, we investigate numerical examples which arise in physics to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method. In comparison results obtained by the present method with the exact solution and the other methods reveals that the method is very effective.

Keywords: Collocation method, fractional partial differential equations, Legendre-Laguerre functions, pseudo-operational matrix of integration.

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113 Adaptive Multiple Transforms Hardware Architecture for Versatile Video Coding

Authors: T. Damak, S. Houidi, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

The Versatile Video Coding standard (VVC) is actually under development by the Joint Video Exploration Team (or JVET). An Adaptive Multiple Transforms (AMT) approach was announced. It is based on different transform modules that provided an efficient coding. However, the AMT solution raises several issues especially regarding the complexity of the selected set of transforms. This can be an important issue, particularly for a future industrial adoption. This paper proposed an efficient hardware implementation of the most used transform in AMT approach: the DCT II. The developed circuit is adapted to different block sizes and can reach a minimum frequency of 192 MHz allowing an optimized execution time.

Keywords: AMT, DCT II, hardware, transform, VVC.

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112 On the Efficiency of Five Step Approximation Method for the Solution of General Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

In this work, a five step continuous method for the solution of third order ordinary differential equations was developed in block form using collocation and interpolation techniques of the shifted Legendre polynomial basis function. The method was found to be zero-stable, consistent and convergent. The application of the method in solving third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations revealed that the method compared favorably with existing methods.

Keywords: Shifted Legendre polynomials, third order block method, discrete method, convergent.

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111 Quadrature Formula for Sampled Functions

Authors: Khalid Minaoui, Thierry Chonavel, Benayad Nsiri, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper deals with efficient quadrature formulas involving functions that are observed only at fixed sampling points. The approach that we develop is derived from efficient continuous quadrature formulas, such as Gauss-Legendre or Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature. We select nodes at sampling positions that are as close as possible to those of the associated classical quadrature and we update quadrature weights accordingly. We supply the theoretical quadrature error formula for this new approach. We show on examples the potential gain of this approach.

Keywords: Gauss-Legendre, Clenshaw-Curtis, quadrature, Peano kernel, irregular sampling.

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110 Error Propagation in the RK5GL3 Method

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK5GL3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on a combination of a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method and 3-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature. In this paper we describe the propagation of local errors in this method, and show that the global order of RK5GL3 is expected to be six, one better than the underlying Runge- Kutta method.

Keywords: RK5GL3, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, initial value problem, order, local error, global error.

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109 The RK1GL2X3 Method for Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK1GL2X3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on the RK1GL2 method which, in turn, is a particular case of the general RKrGLm method. The RK1GL2X3 method is a fourth-order method, even though its underlying Runge-Kutta method RK1 is the first-order Euler method, and hence, RK1GL2X3 is considerably more efficient than RK1. This enhancement is achieved through an implementation involving triple-nested two-point Gauss- Legendre quadrature.

Keywords: RK1GL2X3, RK1GL2, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, initial value problem, local error, global error.

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108 A Study of Thermal Convection in Two Porous Layers Governed by Brinkman's Model in Upper Layer and Darcy's Model in Lower Layer

Authors: M. S. Al-Qurashi

Abstract:

This work examines thermal convection in two porous layers. Flow in the upper layer is governed by Brinkman-s equations model and in the lower layer is governed by Darcy-s model. Legendre polynomials are used to obtain numerical solution when the lower layer is heated from below.

Keywords: Brinkman's law, Darcy's law, porous layers, Legendre polynomials, the Oberbeck-Boussineq approximation.

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107 Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.

Keywords: DWT, CT, Digital Image Watermarking, Copyright Protection.

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106 Comparing the Efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 Rules for the Numerical Solution of First Order Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, D. G. Gyemang, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

This paper compared the efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules for the numerical solution of first order Volterra integro-differential equations. In developing the solution, collocation approximation method was adopted using the shifted Legendre polynomial as basis function. A block method approach is preferred to the predictor corrector method for being self-starting. Experimental results confirmed that the Simpson’s 3/8 rule is more efficient than the Simpson’s 1/3 rule.

Keywords: Collocation shifted Legendre polynomials, Simpson’s rule and Volterra integro-differential equations.

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105 Orthogonal Functions Approach to LQG Control

Authors: B. M. Mohan, Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

Abstract:

In this paper a unified approach via block-pulse functions (BPFs) or shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs) is presented to solve the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control problem. Also a recursive algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem via BPFs. By using the elegant operational properties of orthogonal functions (BPFs or SLPs) these computationally attractive algorithms are developed. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approaches a numerical example is included.

Keywords: Linear quadratic Gaussian control, linear quadratic estimator, linear quadratic regulator, time-invariant systems, orthogonal functions, block-pulse functions, shifted legendre polynomials.

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104 Evolving Neural Networks using Moment Method for Handwritten Digit Recognition

Authors: H. El Fadili, K. Zenkouar, H. Qjidaa

Abstract:

This paper proposes a neural network weights and topology optimization using genetic evolution and the backpropagation training algorithm. The proposed crossover and mutation operators aims to adapt the networks architectures and weights during the evolution process. Through a specific inheritance procedure, the weights are transmitted from the parents to their offsprings, which allows re-exploitation of the already trained networks and hence the acceleration of the global convergence of the algorithm. In the preprocessing phase, a new feature extraction method is proposed based on Legendre moments with the Maximum entropy principle MEP as a selection criterion. This allows a global search space reduction in the design of the networks. The proposed method has been applied and tested on the well known MNIST database of handwritten digits.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Legendre Moments, MEP, Neural Network.

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103 Statistical Texture Analysis

Authors: G. N. Srinivasan, G. Shobha

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for statistical texture analysis of 2D images. Methods for digital-image texture analysis are reviewed based on available literature and research work either carried out or supervised by the authors.

Keywords: Image Texture, Texture Analysis, Statistical Approaches, Structural approaches, spectral approaches, Morphological approaches, Fractals, Fourier Transforms, Gabor Filters, Wavelet transforms.

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102 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer.

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101 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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100 Public Key Cryptosystem based on Number Theoretic Transforms

Authors: C. Porkodi, R. Arumuganathan

Abstract:

In this paper a Public Key Cryptosystem is proposed using the number theoretic transforms (NTT) over a ring of integer modulo a composite number. The key agreement is similar to ElGamal public key algorithm. The security of the system is based on solution of multivariate linear congruence equations and discrete logarithm problem. In the proposed cryptosystem only fixed numbers of multiplications are carried out (constant complexity) and hence the encryption and decryption can be done easily. At the same time, it is very difficult to attack the cryptosystem, since the cipher text is a sequence of integers which are interrelated. The system provides authentication also. Using Mathematica version 5.0 the proposed algorithm is justified with a numerical example.

Keywords: Cryptography, decryption, discrete logarithm problem encryption, Integer Factorization problem, Key agreement, Number Theoretic Transform.

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99 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: Wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data.

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98 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.

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97 Analyzing Transformation of 1D-Functions for Frequency Domain based Video Classification

Authors: Kahraman Ayyildiz, Stefan Conrad

Abstract:

In this paper we illuminate a frequency domain based classification method for video scenes. Videos from certain topical areas often contain activities with repeating movements. Sports videos, home improvement videos, or videos showing mechanical motion are some example areas. Assessing main and side frequencies of each repeating movement gives rise to the motion type. We obtain the frequency domain by transforming spatio-temporal motion trajectories. Further on we explain how to compute frequency features for video clips and how to use them for classifying. The focus of the experimental phase is on transforms utilized for our system. By comparing various transforms, experiments show the optimal transform for a motion frequency based approach.

Keywords: action recognition, frequency, transform, motion recognition, repeating movement, video classification

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96 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression

Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori

Abstract:

In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding.

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95 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam

Authors: Geeta Partap, Nitika Chugh

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.

Keywords: Microstretch, deflection, exponential load, Laplace transforms, Residue theorem, simply supported.

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94 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: Fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization.

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