Search results for: Kelvin force probe microscopy
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1256

Search results for: Kelvin force probe microscopy

1256 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

Abstract:

We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy.

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1255 Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flow with Volume-Of-Fluid Method

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan

Abstract:

In this article, various models of surface tension force (CSF, CSS and PCIL) for interfacial flows have been applied to dynamic case and the results were compared. We studied the Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities, which are produced by shear at the interface between two fluids with different physical properties. The velocity inlet is defined as a sinusoidal perturbation. When gravity and surface tension are taking into account, we observe the development of the Instability for a critic value of the difference of velocity of the both fluids. The VOF Model enables to simulate Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as dynamic case.

Keywords: Interfacial flow, Incompressible flow, surface tension, Volume-Of-Fluid, Kelvin-Helmholtz.

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1254 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik

Abstract:

The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT.

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1253 Phase Behavior and Structure Properties of Supported Lipid Monolayers and Bilayers in Interaction with Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Ibtissem Gammoudi, Fabien Moroté, Christine Grauby-Heywang, TouriaCohen-Bouhacina

Abstract:

In this study we investigate silica nanoparticle (SiO2- NP) effects on the structure and phase properties of supported lipid monolayers and bilayers, coupling surface pressure measurements, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SiO2-NPs typically in size range of 10nm to 100 nm in diameter are tested. Our results suggest first that lipid molecules organization depends to their nature. Secondly, lipid molecules in the vinicity of big aggregates nanoparticles organize in liquid condensed phase whereas small aggregates are localized in both fluid liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condenced (LC). We demonstrated also by atomic force microscopy that by measuring friction forces it is possible to get information as if nanoparticle aggregates are recovered or not by lipid monolayers and bilayers.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Langmuir films, silica nanoparticles, supported membrane models.

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1252 Method and Experiment of Fabricating and Cutting the Burr for Y Shape Nanochannel

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Shih-Hung Ma

Abstract:

The present paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish a method for fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel on silicon (Si) substrate. For fabricating Y shape nanochannel, it first makes the experimental cutting path planning for fabricating Y shape nanochannel until the fifth cutting layer. Using the constant down force by AFM and SDFE theory and following the experimental cutting path planning, the cutting depth and width of each pass of Y shape nanochannel can be predicted by simulation. The paper plans the path for cutting the burr at the edge of Y shape nanochannel. Then, it carries out cutting the burr along the Y nanochannel edge by using a smaller down force. The height of standing burr at the edge is required to be below the set value of 0.54 nm. The results of simulation and experiment of fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel is further compared.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, nanochannel, specific down force energy, Y shape, burr, silicon.

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1251 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Proteins

Authors: Santanu Ray, Alexander G. Shard

Abstract:

The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fibrinogen (Fgn) on fluorinated selfassembled monolayers have been studied using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). The objective of the work has to establish the utility of ToF-SIMS for the determination of the amount of protein adsorbed on the surface. Quantification of surface adsorbed proteins was carried out using SE and a good correlation between ToF-SIMS results and SE was achieved. The surface distribution of proteins were also analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We show that the surface distribution of proteins strongly affect the ToFSIMS results.

Keywords: ToF-SIMS, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Protein, Atomic Force Microscopy.

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1250 Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles in Interaction with Escherichia coli Bacteria

Authors: Ibtissem Gammoudi, Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Fabien Moroté, Daniel Moynet, Christine Grauby-Heywang, Touria Cohen-Bouhacina

Abstract:

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphology of Escherchia coli bacteria in interaction with SiO2 nanoparticles. This study was made by atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance using SiO2 nanoparticles with 10nm, 50nm and 100nm diameter and bacteria immobilized on polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by spin coating or by “layer by layer” (LbL) method.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Escherichia coli, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, polyelectrolyte, silica nanoparticle.

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1249 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Topographical Surface Characterization of Multilayer-Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Samy E. Oraby, Ayman M. Alaskari

Abstract:

In recent years, scanning probe atomic force microscopy SPM AFM has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. Most fields focuses on physical, chemical, biological while less attention is devoted to manufacturing and machining aspects. The purpose of the current study is to assess the possible implementation of the SPM AFM features and its NanoScope software in general machining applications with special attention to the tribological aspects of cutting tool. The surface morphology of coated and uncoated as-received carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode SPM AFM in contact mode. The NanoScope operating software is used to capture realtime three data types images: “Height", “Deflection" and “Friction". Three scan sizes are independently performed: 2, 6, and 12 μm with a 2.5 μm vertical range (Z). Offline mode analysis includes the determination of three functional topographical parameters: surface “Roughness", power spectral density “PSD" and “Section". The 12 μm scan size in association with “Height" imaging is found efficient to capture every tiny features and tribological aspects of the examined surface. Also, “Friction" analysis is found to produce a comprehensive explanation about the lateral characteristics of the scanned surface. Configuration of many surface defects and drawbacks has been precisely detected and analyzed.

Keywords: SPM AFM contact mode, carbide inserts, scan size, surface defects, surface roughness, PSD.

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1248 Effect of Retained Austenite Stability in Corrosion Mechanism of Dual Phase High Carbon Steel

Authors: W. Handoko, F. Pahlevani, V. Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Dual-phase high carbon steels (DHCS) are commonly known for their improved strength, hardness, and abrasive resistance properties due to co-presence of retained austenite and martensite at the same time. Retained austenite is a meta-stable phase at room temperature, and stability of this phase governs the response of DHCS at different conditions. This research paper studies the effect of RA stability on corrosion behaviour of high carbon steels after they have been immersed into 1.0 M NaCl solution for various times. For this purpose, two different steels with different RA stabilities have been investigated. The surface morphology of the samples before and after corrosion attack was observed by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), along with the weight loss and Vickers hardness analysis. Microstructural investigations proved the preferential attack to retained austenite phase during corrosion. Hence, increase in the stability of retained austenite in dual-phase steels led to decreasing the weight loss rate.

Keywords: High carbon steel, austenite stability, atomic force microscopy, corrosion.

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1247 Students’ Perception of Vector Representation in the Context of Electric Force and the Role of Simulation in Developing an Understanding

Authors: S. Shubha, B. N. Meera

Abstract:

Physics Education Research (PER) results have shown that students do not achieve the expected level of competency in understanding the concepts of different domains of Physics learning when taught by the traditional teaching methods, the concepts of Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) being one among them. Simulation being one of the valuable instructional tools renders an opportunity to visualize varied experiences with such concepts. Considering the electric force concept which requires extensive use of vector representations, we report here the outcome of the research results pertaining to the student understanding of this concept and the role of simulation in using vector representation. The simulation platform provides a positive impact on the use of vector representation. The first stage of this study involves eliciting and analyzing student responses to questions that probe their understanding of the concept of electrostatic force and this is followed by four stages of student interviews as they use the interactive simulations of electric force in one dimension. Student responses to the questions are recorded in real time using electronic pad. A validation test interview is conducted to evaluate students' understanding of the electric force concept after using interactive simulation. Results indicate lack of procedural knowledge of the vector representation. The study emphasizes the need for the choice of appropriate simulation and mode of induction for learning.

Keywords: Electric Force, Interactive, Representation, Simulation.

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1246 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu

Abstract:

Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: Shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface.

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1245 Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications

Authors: Elham Farahmand, Fatimah Ibrahim, Samira Hosseini, Ivan Djordjevic, Leo. H. Koole

Abstract:

Compositions of different molar ratios of polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. Polymer coated surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments. Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.

Keywords: Polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA), Polymeric material, Atomic Force Microscopy, roughness, carboxylic functional groups.

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1244 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis

Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Force platform, force sensing resistor, human gait analysis.

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1243 Bactericidal Properties of Carbohydrate-Stabilized Platinum Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Saeed Rezaei-Zarchi

Abstract:

Platinum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route and chemical reduction using carbohydrates (Fructose and sucrose) as the reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystallite size of these nanoparticles was evaluated from X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and was found to be 10 nm as shown in figure 1, which is the demonstration of EM bright field and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of carbohydrates on the morphology of the nanoparticles was studied using TEM (Figure 1). The nanoparticles (100 μg/ml) were administered to the Pseudomonas Stutzeri and Lactobacillus cultures and the incubation was done at 35 oC for 24 hours. The nanocomposites exhibited interesting inhibitory as well as bactericidal activity against P. Stutzeri and and Lactobacillus species. Incorporation of nanoparticles also increased the thermal stability of the carbohydrates.

Keywords: Platinum oxide, P. Stutzeri, Lactobacillus, bactericidal effect.

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1242 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

Abstract:

The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty  normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262.  Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be  measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use  the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper  thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made,  then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine.  Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both  the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the  expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were  formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe  taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165mm and the  expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results  were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology  Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that  both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the  three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread  was acceptable.

Keywords: Pipe taper thread, Three-wire probe, Measure and Calibration, The Universal length measuring machine.

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1241 Real Time Force Sensing Mat for Human Gait Analysis

Authors: Darwin Gouwanda, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake, M. M. Danushka Ranjana Marasinghe, Mervin Chandrapal, Jeya Mithra Kumar, Tung Mun Hon, Yulius

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. This instrument mainly consists of three main elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and data acquisition device. In order to control and to process the incoming signals from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader program are developed using Labview 8.0. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat.

Keywords: Force platform, Force sensing resistor, human gait analysis

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1240 Automatic Deactivation in Phased Array Probe for Human Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5T

Authors: Fotios N. Vlachos, Anastasios D. Garetsos, Nikolaos K. Uzunoglu, Efstathios D. Gotsis

Abstract:

A four element prototype phased array surface probe has been designed and constructed to improve clinical human prostate spectroscopic data. The probe consists of two pairs of adjacent rectangular coils with an optimum overlap to reduce the mutual inductance. The two pairs are positioned on the anterior and the posterior pelvic region and two couples of varactors at the input of each coil undertake the procedures of tuning and matching. The probe switches off and on automatically during the consecutive phases of the MR experiment with the use of an analog switch that is triggered by a microcontroller. Experimental tests that were carried out resulted in high levels of tuning accuracy. Also, the switching mechanism functions properly for various applied loads and pulse sequence characteristics, producing only 10 μs of latency.

Keywords: Automatic tuning, prostate imaging, phased array, spectroscopy.

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1239 Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film

Authors: S.Solaymani, T.Ghodselahi, N.B.Nezafat, H.Zahrabi, A.Gelali

Abstract:

The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Fast Fourier transform, Power spectral density, RBS.

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1238 Daemon- Based Distributed Deadlock Detection and Resolution

Authors: Z. RahimAlipour, A. T. Haghighat

Abstract:

detecting the deadlock is one of the important problems in distributed systems and different solutions have been proposed for it. Among the many deadlock detection algorithms, Edge-chasing has been the most widely used. In Edge-chasing algorithm, a special message called probe is made and sent along dependency edges. When the initiator of a probe receives the probe back the existence of a deadlock is revealed. But these algorithms are not problem-free. One of the problems associated with them is that they cannot detect some deadlocks and they even identify false deadlocks. A key point not mentioned in the literature is that when the process is waiting to obtain the required resources and its execution has been blocked, how it can actually respond to probe messages in the system. Also the question of 'which process should be victimized in order to achieve a better performance when multiple cycles exist within one single process in the system' has received little attention. In this paper, one of the basic concepts of the operating system - daemon - will be used to solve the problems mentioned. The proposed Algorithm becomes engaged in sending probe messages to the mandatory daemons and collects enough information to effectively identify and resolve multi-cycle deadlocks in distributed systems.

Keywords: Distributed system, distributed deadlock detectionand resolution, daemon, false deadlock.

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1237 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: Crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputtering.

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1236 Synthesis and Characterization of Cu-NanoWire Arrays by EMD Using ITO-Template

Authors: Jyoti Narayan, S. Choudhary

Abstract:

Nanowire arrays of copper with uniform diameters have been synthesized by potentiostatic electrochemical metal deposition (EMD) of copper sulphate and potassium chloride solution within the nano-channels of porous Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO), also known as Tin doped Indium Oxide templates. The nanowires developed were fairly continuous with diameters ranging from 110-140 nm along the entire length. Single as well as poly-crystalline copper wires have been prepared by application of appropriate potential during the EMD process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), small angle electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the synthesized nano wires at room temperature. The electrochemical response of synthesized products was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry while surface energy analysis was carried out using a Goniometer.

Keywords: Electro-deposition, Metallic nano-wires, Nanomaterials, Template synthesis

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1235 A DNA-Based Nanobiosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe– DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/μl.

Keywords: Dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor.

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1234 Direct Measurement of Electromagnetic Thrust of Electrodeless Helicon Plasma Thruster Using Magnetic Nozzle

Authors: Takahiro Nakamura, Kenji Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nishida, Shunjiro Shinohara, Takeshi Matsuoka, Ikkoh Funaki, Takao Tanikawa, Tohru Hada

Abstract:

In order to realize long-lived electric propulsion systems, we have been investigating an electrodeless plasma thruster. In our concept, a helicon plasma is accelerated by the magnetic nozzle for the thrusts production. In addition, the electromagnetic thrust can be enhanced by the additional radio-frequency rotating electric field (REF) power in the magnetic nozzle. In this study, a direct measurement of the electromagnetic thrust and a probe measurement have been conducted using a laboratory model of the thruster under the condition without the REF power input. Fromthrust measurement, it is shown that the thruster produces a sub-milli-newton order electromagnetic thrust force without the additional REF power. The thrust force and the density jump are observed due to the discharge mode transition from the inductive coupled plasma to the helicon wave excited plasma. The thermal thrust is theoretically estimated, and the total thrust force, which is a sum of the electromagnetic and the thermal thrust force and specific impulse are calculated to be up to 650 μN (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 1.0 mg/s) and 210 s (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 0.2 mg/s), respectively.

Keywords: Electric propulsion, Helicon plasma, Lissajous acceleration, Thrust stand.

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1233 The Impact of Cutting Tool Materials on Cutting Force

Authors: M.A. Kamely, M.Y. Noordin

Abstract:

A judicious choice of insert material, tool geometry and cutting conditions can make hard turning produce better surfaces than grinding. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting tool materials on cutting forces (feed force, thrust force and cutting force) in finish hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel. In conclusion of the results obtained with a constant depth of cut and feed rate, it is important to note that cutting force is directly affected by cutting tool material.

Keywords: hard turning, cutting force, cutting tool materials, mixed ceramic, cbn

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1232 Experimental Investigation of the Maximum Axial Force in the Folding Process of Aluminum Square Columns

Authors: A. Niknejad, G. H. Liaghat, A. H. Behravesh, H. Moslemi Naeini

Abstract:

In this paper, a semi empirical formula is presented based on the experimental results to predict the first pick (maximum force) value in the instantaneous folding force- axial distance diagram of a square column. To achieve this purpose, the maximum value of the folding force was assumed to be a function of the average folding force. Using the experimental results, the maximum value of the force necessary to initiate the first fold in a square column was obtained with respect to the geometrical quantities and material properties. Finally, the results obtained from the semi empirical relation in this paper, were compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.

Keywords: Honeycomb, folding force, square column, aluminum, axial loading.

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1231 Deformation and Crystallization in a 7075-T651 Friction Stir Weld

Authors: C. S. Paglia

Abstract:

The deformation and the crystallization in a 7075-T651 friction stir weld, in particular for regions directly in contact with the mechanical action of the rotating probe, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy. The investigation enabled to identify regions of the weld differently affected by the deformation caused by the welding process. The highly deformed grains in the horizontal direction close to the plate margin were indicative of shear movements along the horizontal plane, while highly deformed grains along the plate margin in the vertical direction were indicative of vertical shear movements of opposite directions, which superimposed the shear movement along the horizontal plane. The vertical shear movements were not homogeneous through the plate thickness. The microstructure indicated that after the probe passes, the grain growth may take place under static conditions. The small grains microstructure of the nugget region, formed after the main dynamic recrystallization process, develops to an equiaxed microstructure. A material transport influenced by the rotating shoulder was also observed from the trailing to the advancing side of the weld.

Keywords: AA7075-T651, friction stir welding, deformation, crystallization.

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1230 Development of a Porous Silica Film by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Binay K. Dutta, Tayseir M. Abd Ellateif, Saikat Maitra

Abstract:

In the present work homogeneous silica film on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol. The silica sol precursor with uniformly granular particle was derived by the alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of glycerol template. The film was prepared by dip coating process. The templated hetero-structured silica film was annealed at elevated temperatures to generate nano- and meso porosity in the film. The film was subsequently annealed at different temperatures to make it defect free and abrasion resistant. The sol and the film were characterized by the measurement of particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, measurement of the refractive index, thermal conductivity and abrasion resistance. The porosity of the films decreased whereas refractive index and dielectric constant of it `increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity of the films increased with the increase in the film thickness. The developed porous silica film holds strong potential for use in different areas.

Keywords: Silica film, Nanoporous, Sol-gel, Templating, Dip coating.

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1229 The Characteristics of the Factors that Govern the Preferred Force in the Social Force Model of Pedestrian Movement

Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Mohammed Mahmod Shuaib, Ibtesam M. Abu-Sulyman

Abstract:

The social force model which belongs to the microscopic pedestrian studies has been considered as the supremacy by many researchers and due to the main feature of reproducing the self-organized phenomena resulted from pedestrian dynamic. The Preferred Force which is a measurement of pedestrian-s motivation to adapt his actual velocity to his desired velocity is an essential term on which the model was set up. This Force has gone through stages of development: first of all, Helbing and Molnar (1995) have modeled the original force for the normal situation. Second, Helbing and his co-workers (2000) have incorporated the panic situation into this force by incorporating the panic parameter to account for the panic situations. Third, Lakoba and Kaup (2005) have provided the pedestrians some kind of intelligence by incorporating aspects of the decision-making capability. In this paper, the authors analyze the most important incorporations into the model regarding the preferred force. They make comparisons between the different factors of these incorporations. Furthermore, to enhance the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, they introduce additional features such as the familiarity factor to the preferred force to let it appear more representative of what actually happens in reality.

Keywords: Pedestrian movement, social force model, preferredforce, familiarity.

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1228 Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Farseem Mannan Mohammedy, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru

Abstract:

This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.

Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Scanning Capacitance Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope.

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1227 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024, friction stir joining.

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