Search results for: Jamshaid ur Rehman
24 Cost and Productivity Experiences of Pakistan with Aggregate Learning Curve
Authors: Jamshaid ur Rehman, Shahida Wizarat
Abstract:The principal focus of this study is on the measurement and analysis of labor learnings in Pakistan. The study at the aggregate economy level focus on the labor productivity movements and at large-scale manufacturing level focus on the cost structure, with isolating the contribution of the learning curve. The analysis of S-shaped curve suggests that learnings are only below one half of aggregate learning curve and other half shows the retardation in learning, hence retardation in productivity movements. The study implies the existence of learning economies in term of cost reduction that is input cost per unit produced decreases by 0.51 percent every time the cumulative production output doubles.
Keywords: Cost, Inflection Point, Learning Curve, Minima, Maxima, and ProductivityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1645
23 Design Aesthetics of Mobile Interface
Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Jane-Lisa Coughlan
Abstract:Mobiles are considered to be the most frequently used electronic items in world after electricity. It is probably the only device that can be used by any gender with no age limits depending on its functionality. This paper present the interactive interface of Mobile and particularly aiming the use of advanced phones which are also called smart phones. With the changes in the trend where users are now moving from ordinary mobiles to the one with touch screens and facilities such as WiFi and internet browsing.
Keywords: interface design, functionality, intelligent systemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8764
22 Universal Metadata Definition
Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar
Abstract:The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.
Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1611
21 An Efficient Mobile Payment System Based On NFC Technology
Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Jane Coughlan
Abstract:The work we have accomplished in implementing a Mobile Payment mechanism that enables customers to pay bills for groceries and other purchased items in a store through the means of a mobile phone, specifically a Smartphone. The mode of transaction, as far as communication between the customer-s handset and the merchant-s POS is concerned, we have decided upon NFC (Near Field Communication). This is due to the fact that for the most part, Pakistani Smartphone users have handsets that have Android mobile OS, which supports the aforementioned platform, IOS, on the other hand does not.
Keywords: Usability, mobile payment system, NFC technology, payment process, customer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4579
20 Synthesis and Thermoelectric Behavior in Nanoparticles of Doped Co Ferrites
Authors: M. Anis-ur- Rehman, A. Abdullah, Mariam Ansari , Zeb-un-Nisa, M. S. Awan
Samples of CoFe2-xCrxO4 where x varies from 0.0 to 0.5 were prepared by co-precipitation route. These samples were sintered at 750°C for 2 hours. These particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The FCC spinel structure was confirmed by XRD patterns of the samples. The crystallite sizes of these particles were calculated from the most intense peak by Scherrer formula. The crystallite sizes lie in the range of 37-60 nm. The lattice parameter was found decreasing upon substitution of Cr. DC electrical resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The room temperature thermoelectric power was measured for the prepared samples. The magnitude of Seebeck coefficient depends on the composition and resistivity of the samples.
Keywords: Ferrites, crystallite size, drift mobility, seebeck coefficient, thermopower.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1980
19 Generic Multimedia Database Architecture
Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Imran Ihsan, Mobin Uddin Ahmed, Nadeem Iftikhar, Muhammad Abdul Qadir
Abstract:Multimedia, as it stands now is perhaps the most diverse and rich culture around the globe. One of the major needs of Multimedia is to have a single system that enables people to efficiently search through their multimedia catalogues. Many Domain Specific Systems and architectures have been proposed but up till now no generic and complete architecture is proposed. In this paper, we have suggested a generic architecture for Multimedia Database. The main strengths of our architecture besides being generic are Semantic Libraries to reduce semantic gap, levels of feature extraction for more specific and detailed feature extraction according to classes defined by prior level, and merging of two types of queries i.e. text and QBE (Query by Example) for more accurate yet detailed results.
Keywords: Multimedia Database Architecture, Semantics, Feature Extraction, Ontology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1607
18 Effect of Different BER Performance Comparison of MAP and ML Detection
Authors: Naveed Ur Rehman, Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil
In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR), for any frequency selective channel.
Keywords: MAP, ML, SNR, Decoder, BER, Coded transmission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2121
17 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion
Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar
Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.
Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2013
16 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems
Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman
The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.
Keywords: Fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 578
15 Pakistan Sign Language Recognition Using Statistical Template Matching
Authors: Aleem Khalid Alvi, M. Yousuf Bin Azhar, Mehmood Usman, Suleman Mumtaz, Sameer Rafiq, RaziUr Rehman, Israr Ahmed
Abstract:Sign language recognition has been a topic of research since the first data glove was developed. Many researchers have attempted to recognize sign language through various techniques. However none of them have ventured into the area of Pakistan Sign Language (PSL). The Boltay Haath project aims at recognizing PSL gestures using Statistical Template Matching. The primary input device is the DataGlove5 developed by 5DT. Alternative approaches use camera-based recognition which, being sensitive to environmental changes are not always a good choice.This paper explains the use of Statistical Template Matching for gesture recognition in Boltay Haath. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from PSL.
Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Pakistan Sign Language, DataGlove, Human Computer Interaction, Template Matching, BoltayHaathProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2843
14 Towards Design of Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework for Agriculture
Authors: Aqeel-ur-Rehman, Zubair A. Shaikh
Abstract:This paper is to present context-aware sensor grid framework for agriculture and its design challenges. Use of sensor networks in the domain of agriculture is not new. However, due to the unavailability of any common framework, solutions that are developed in this domain are location, environment and problem dependent. Keeping the need of common framework for agriculture, Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework is proposed. It will be helpful in developing solutions for majority of the problems related to irrigation, pesticides spray, use of fertilizers, regular monitoring of plot and yield etc. due to the capability of adjusting according to location and environment. The proposed framework is composed of three layer architecture including context-aware application layer, grid middleware layer and sensor network layer.
Keywords: Agriculture, Context-Awareness, Grid Computing, and Sensor Grid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2433
13 Building Trust of Mobile Users and their Adoption of M-Commerce
Authors: Shafiq Ur Rehman, Jane-Lisa Coughlan
Abstract:One challenging direction of mobile commerce (mcommerce) that is getting a great deal of attention globally is mobile financing. The smart-phone and PDA users all around the world are facing difficulties to become accustomed and trust in m-commerce. The main rationale can be the slow variation and lack of trust in mobile payment systems. Mobile payment systems that are in use need to be more effective and efficient. This paper proposes: the interface design is not the only factor affecting the m-commerce adoption and lack of trust; in fact it is the combined effect of interface usability and trustworthy mobile payment systems, because it-s the money that the user has to spend at the end of the day, which the user requires to get transferred securely. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems regarding the trust and adaption of m-commerce applications by mobile users and to provide the best possible solution with respect to human computer interaction (HCI) principles.
Keywords: m-commerce, usability, mobile payment method, interface design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2084
12 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter
Authors: A. Irum, S. Mumtaz, A. Rehman, I. Naz, S. Ahmed
The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.
Keywords: Biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3137
11 Parallel Branch and Bound Model Using Logarithmic Sampling (PBLS) for Symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
Authors: Sheikh Muhammad Azam, Masood-ur-Rehman, Adnan Khalid Bhatti, Nadeem Daudpota
Very Large and/or computationally complex optimization problems sometimes require parallel or highperformance computing for achieving a reasonable time for computation. One of the most popular and most complicate problems of this family is “Traveling Salesman Problem". In this paper we have introduced a Branch & Bound based algorithm for the solution of such complicated problems. The main focus of the algorithm is to solve the “symmetric traveling salesman problem". We reviewed some of already available algorithms and felt that there is need of new algorithm which should give optimal solution or near to the optimal solution. On the basis of the use of logarithmic sampling, it was found that the proposed algorithm produced a relatively optimal solution for the problem and results excellent performance as compared with the traditional algorithms of this series.
Keywords: Parallel execution, symmetric traveling salesman problem, branch and bound algorithm, logarithmic sampling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2217
10 Effect of Wheat Flour Extraction Rates on Flour Composition, Farinographic Characteristics and Sensory Perception of Sourdough Naans
Authors: Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir M. Anjum, Haq Nawaz, Mian A. Murtaza
Abstract:The effect of wheat flour extraction rates on flour composition, farinographic characteristics and the quality of sourdough naans was investigated. The results indicated that by increasing the extraction rate, the amount of protein, fiber, fat and ash increased, whereas moisture content decreased. Farinographic characteristic like water absorption and dough development time increased with an increase in flour extraction rate but the dough stabilities and tolerance indices were reduced with an increase in flour extraction rates. Titratable acidity for both sourdough and sourdough naans also increased along with flour extraction rate. The study showed that overall quality of sourdough naans were affected by both flour extraction rate and starter culture used. Sensory analysis of sourdough naans revealed that desirable extraction rate for sourdough naan was 76%.
Keywords: Extraction rates, Farinographic characteristics, Flour composition, Sourdough naans, Wheat flour.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4405
9 The Most Secure Smartphone Operating System: A Survey
Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman
Abstract:In the recent years, a fundamental revolution in the Mobile Phone technology from just being able to provide voice and short message services to becoming the most essential part of our lives by connecting to network and various app stores for downloading software apps of almost every activity related to our life from finding location to banking from getting news updates to downloading HD videos and so on. This progress in Smart Phone industry has modernized and transformed our way of living into a trouble-free world. The smart phone has become our personal computers with the addition of significant features such as multi core processors, multi-tasking, large storage space, bluetooth, WiFi, including large screen and cameras. With this evolution, the rise in the security threats have also been amplified. In Literature, different threats related to smart phones have been highlighted and various precautions and solutions have been proposed to keep the smart phone safe which carries all the private data of a user. In this paper, a survey has been carried out to find out the most secure and the most unsecure smart phone operating system among the most popular smart phones in use today.
Keywords: Smart phone, operating system, security threats, Android, iOS, Balckberry, Windows.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4061
8 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation
Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana
Abstract:This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), gait trainer, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1024
7 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study
Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali
In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 838
6 Vickers Indentation Simulation of Buffer Layer Thickness Effect for DLC Coated Materials
Authors: Abdul Wasy, Balakrishnan G., Yi Qi Wang, Atta Ur Rehman, Jung Il Song
Abstract:Vickers indentation is used to measure the hardness of materials. In this study, numerical simulation of Vickers indentation experiment was performed for Diamond like Carbon (DLC) coated materials. DLC coatings were deposited on stainless steel 304 substrates with Chromium buffer layer using RF Magnetron and T-shape Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Dual system The objective of this research is to understand the elastic plastic properties, stress strain distribution, ring and lateral crack growth and propagation, penetration depth of indenter and delamination of coating from substrate with effect of buffer layer thickness. The effect of Poisson-s ratio of DLC coating was also analyzed. Indenter penetration is more in coated materials with thin buffer layer as compared to thicker one, under same conditions. Similarly, the specimens with thinner buffer layer failed quickly due to high residual stress as compared to the coated materials with reasonable thickness of 200nm buffer layer. The simulation results suggested the optimized thickness of 200 nm among the prepared specimens for durable and long service.
Keywords: Thin film, buffer layer. Diamond like Carbon, Vickers indentation, Poisson's ratio, Finite element.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2818
5 Blood Glucose Level Measurement from Breath Analysis
Authors: Tayyab Hassan, Talha Rehman, Qasim Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Salman
The constant monitoring of blood glucose level is necessary for maintaining health of patients and to alert medical specialists to take preemptive measures before the onset of any complication as a result of diabetes. The current clinical monitoring of blood glucose uses invasive methods repeatedly which are uncomfortable and may result in infections in diabetic patients. Several attempts have been made to develop non-invasive techniques for blood glucose measurement. In this regard, the existing methods are not reliable and are less accurate. Other approaches claiming high accuracy have not been tested on extended dataset, and thus, results are not statistically significant. It is a well-known fact that acetone concentration in breath has a direct relation with blood glucose level. In this paper, we have developed the first of its kind, reliable and high accuracy breath analyzer for non-invasive blood glucose measurement. The acetone concentration in breath was measured using MQ 138 sensor in the samples collected from local hospitals in Pakistan involving one hundred patients. The blood glucose levels of these patients are determined using conventional invasive clinical method. We propose a linear regression classifier that is trained to map breath acetone level to the collected blood glucose level achieving high accuracy.
Keywords: Blood glucose level, breath acetone concentration, diabetes, linear regression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
4 Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Eimeria in Sheep of Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: M.N. Khan, T. Rehman, Z Iqbal, M.S Sajid, M Ahmad, M Riaz
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization and associated risk factors with Eimeria (E.) in sheep of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010. Of the total 486 faecal samples examined for Eimeria, 209 (43%) were found infected with five species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species of Eimeria, E. ovinoidalis was the commonest one (48.32%), followed in order by E. ahsata, E. intricata, E. parva and E. faurei with prevalence of 45.45, 28.71, 24.40 and 19.14 percent respectively. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Wet season (rainy and post-rainy) was found to be favourable for Eimeria infection. Lambs had significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05) of Eimeria than adults. Similarly higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female as compared to male. Among management and husbandry practices; watering system, housing system, floor type and herd size strongly influenced the prevalence of Eimeria. Coccidiosis was more prevalent in closed housing system, non-cemented floor type, pond watered animals and larger herds (P < 0.05) as compared to open housing system, partially cemented floor type, tap watered animals and smaller herds respectively. Feeding system, breed and body condition of animals were not found as risk factors (P>0.05) influencing prevalence of Eimeria.
Keywords: Eimeria, Pakistan prevalence, sheep.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2441
3 Event Information Extraction System (EIEE): FSM vs HMM
Authors: Shaukat Wasi, Zubair A. Shaikh, Sajid Qasmi, Hussain Sachwani, Rehman Lalani, Aamir Chagani
Abstract:Automatic Extraction of Event information from social text stream (emails, social network sites, blogs etc) is a vital requirement for many applications like Event Planning and Management systems and security applications. The key information components needed from Event related text are Event title, location, participants, date and time. Emails have very unique distinctions over other social text streams from the perspective of layout and format and conversation style and are the most commonly used communication channel for broadcasting and planning events. Therefore we have chosen emails as our dataset. In our work, we have employed two statistical NLP methods, named as Finite State Machines (FSM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the extraction of event related contextual information. An application has been developed providing a comparison among the two methods over the event extraction task. It comprises of two modules, one for each method, and works for both bulk as well as direct user input. The results are evaluated using Precision, Recall and F-Score. Experiments show that both methods produce high performance and accuracy, however HMM was good enough over Title extraction and FSM proved to be better for Venue, Date, and time.
Keywords: Emails, Event Extraction, Event Detection, Finite state machines, Hidden Markov Model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2198
2 Object Detection in Digital Images under Non-Standardized Conditions Using Illumination and Shadow Filtering
Authors: Waqqas-ur-Rehman Butt, Martin Servin, Marion Pause
Abstract:In recent years, object detection has gained much attention and very encouraging research area in the field of computer vision. The robust object boundaries detection in an image is demanded in numerous applications of human computer interaction and automated surveillance systems. Many methods and approaches have been developed for automatic object detection in various fields, such as automotive, quality control management and environmental services. Inappropriately, to the best of our knowledge, object detection under illumination with shadow consideration has not been well solved yet. Furthermore, this problem is also one of the major hurdles to keeping an object detection method from the practical applications. This paper presents an approach to automatic object detection in images under non-standardized environmental conditions. A key challenge is how to detect the object, particularly under uneven illumination conditions. Image capturing conditions the algorithms need to consider a variety of possible environmental factors as the colour information, lightening and shadows varies from image to image. Existing methods mostly failed to produce the appropriate result due to variation in colour information, lightening effects, threshold specifications, histogram dependencies and colour ranges. To overcome these limitations we propose an object detection algorithm, with pre-processing methods, to reduce the interference caused by shadow and illumination effects without fixed parameters. We use the Y CrCb colour model without any specific colour ranges and predefined threshold values. The segmented object regions are further classified using morphological operations (Erosion and Dilation) and contours. Proposed approach applied on a large image data set acquired under various environmental conditions for wood stack detection. Experiments show the promising result of the proposed approach in comparison with existing methods.
Keywords: Image processing, Illumination equalization, Shadow filtering, Object detection, Colour models, Image segmentation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 869
1 Population Trend of Canola Aphid, Lipaphis Erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its Associated Natural Enemies in Different Brassica Lines along with the Effect of Gamma Radiation on Their Population
Authors: Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi, Rahib Zada, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Iqbal Munir, Sadur-Rehman, Hazrat Jabir Alam Khan
Abstract:Studies regarding the determination of population trend of Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) and its associated natural enemies in different Brassica lines along with the effect of gamma radiation on their population were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Malakandher, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during spring 2006. Three different Brassica lines F6B3, F6B6 and F6B7 were used, which were replicated four times in Randomized Complete Block Design. The data revealed that aphid infestation invariably stated in all three varieties during last week of February 2006 (1st observation). The peak population of 4.39 aphids leaf-1 was s recorded during 2nd week of March and lowest population of 1.02 aphids leaf-1 was recorded during 5th week of March. The species of lady bird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) and Syrphid fly (Syrphus balteatus) first appeared on 24th February with a mean number of 0.40 lady bird beetle leaf-1 and 0.87 Syrphid fly leaf-1, respectively. At the time when aphid population started to increase the peak population of C. septempunctata (0.70 lady bird beetle leaf- 1) and S. balteatus (1.04 syrphid fly leaf-1) was recorded on the 2nd week of March. Chrysoperla carnea appeared in the 1st week of March and their peak population was recorded during the 3rd week of March with mean population of 1.46 C. carnea leaf-1. Among all the Brassica lines, F6B7 showed comparatively more resistance as compared to F6B3 F6B6. F6B3 showed least resistance against L. erysimi, which was found to be the most susceptible cultivar. F6B7 was also found superior in terms of natural enemies. Maximum number of all natural enemies was recorded on this variety followed by F6B6. Lowest number of natural enemies was recorded in F6B3. No significant effect was recorded for the effect of gamma radiation on the population of aphids, natural enemies and on the varieties.
Keywords: Canola aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, natural enemies, brassica lines, gamma radiation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1432