Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2420

Search results for: Instructional Models

2420 Instructional Design Practitioners in Malaysia: Skills and Issues

Authors: Irfan N. Umar, Yong Su-Lyn

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge and skills possessed by instructional design (ID) practitioners in Malaysia. As ID is a relatively new field in the country and there seems to be an absence of any studies on its community of practice, the main objective of this research is to discover the tasks and activities performed by ID practitioners in educational and corporate organizations as suggested by the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction. This includes finding out the ID models applied in the course of their work. This research also attempts to identify the barriers and issues as to why some ID tasks and activities are rarely or never conducted. The methodology employed in this descriptive study was a survey questionnaire sent to 30 instructional designers nationwide. The results showed that majority of the tasks and activities are carried out frequently enough but omissions do occur due to reasons such as it being out of job scope, the decision was already made at a higher level, and the lack of knowledge and skills. Further investigations of a qualitative manner should be conducted to achieve a more in-depth understanding of ID practices in Malaysia

Keywords: instructional design, ID competencies, ID models, IBSTPI

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2419 IDEL - A simple Instructional Design Tool for E-Learning

Authors: A. Zimnas, D. Kleftouris, N. Valkanos

Abstract:

Today-s Information and Knowledge Society has placed new demands on education and a new paradigm of education is required. Learning, facilitated by educational systems and the pedagogic process, is globally undergoing dramatic changes. The aim of this paper is the development of a simple Instructional Design tool for E-Learning, named IDEL (Instructional Design for Electronic Learning), that provides the educators with facilities to create their own courses with the essential educational material and manage communication with students. It offers flexibility in the way of learning and provides ease in employment and reusability of resources. IDEL is a web-based Instructional System and is designed to facilitate course design process in accordance with the ADDIE model and the instructional design principles with emphasis placed on the use of technology enhanced learning. An example case of using the ADDIE model to systematically develop a course and its implementation with the aid of IDEL is given and some results from student evaluation of the tool and the course are reported.

Keywords: Education, E-learning, Instructional Design.

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2418 Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Hybrid e-Framework for Instructional Design

Authors: Boon Yih Mah

Abstract:

Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI) is a hybrid e-framework for the development of a web-based instruction (WBI), which contributes towards instructional design and language development. WeCWI divides its contribution in instructional design into macro and micro perspectives. In macro perspective, being a 21st century educator by disseminating knowledge and sharing ideas with the in-class and global learners is initiated. By leveraging the virtue of technology, WeCWI aims to transform an educator into an aggregator, curator, publisher, social networker and ultimately, a web-based instructor. Since the most notable contribution of integrating technology is being a tool of teaching as well as a stimulus for learning, WeCWI focuses on the use of contemporary web tools based on the multiple roles played by the 21st century educator. The micro perspective in instructional design draws attention to the pedagogical approaches focusing on three main aspects: reading, discussion, and writing. With the effective use of pedagogical approaches through free reading and enterprises, technology adds new dimensions and expands the boundaries of learning capacity. Lastly, WeCWI also imparts the fundamental theories and models for web-based instructors’ awareness such as interactionist theory, cognitive information processing (CIP) theory, computer-mediated communication (CMC), e-learning interactionalbased model, inquiry models, sensory mind model, and leaning styles model.

Keywords: WeCWI, instructional discovery, technological discovery, pedagogical discovery, theoretical discovery.

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2417 Learning Styles of University Students in Bangkok: The Characteristics and the Relevant Instructional Context

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to identify learning styles of university students in Bangkok, and 2) to study the frequency of the relevant instructional context of the identified learning styles. Learning Styles employed in this study are those of Honey and Mumford, which include 1) Reflectors, 2) Theorists, 3) Pragmatists, and 4) Activists. The population comprises 1383 students and 5 lecturers. Research tools are 2 questionnaires – one used for identifying students- learning styles, and the other used for identifying the frequency of the relevant instructional context of the identified learning styles. The research findings reveal that 32.30 percent - are Activists, while 28.10 percent are Theorists, 20.10 are Reflectors, and 19.50 are Pragmatists. In terms of the relevant instructional context of the identified 4 learning styles, it is found that the frequency level of the instructional context is totally in high level. Moreover, 2 lists of the context being conducted most frequently are 'Lead'in activity to review background knowledge,- and 'Information retrieval report.' And these two activities serve the learning styles of theorists and activists. It is, therefore, suggested that more instructional context supporting the activists, the majority of the population, learning best by doing, as well as emotional learning situation should be added.

Keywords: Instructional Context, Learning Styles, Learning Style Preference, and Learning Style Questionnaire.

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2416 A Proposed Framework for Visualization to Teach Computer Science

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Computer programming is considered a very difficult course by many computer science students. The reasons for the difficulties include cognitive load involved in programming, different learning styles of students, instructional methodology and the choice of the programming languages. To reduce the difficulties the following have been tried: pair programming, program visualization, different learning styles etc. However, these efforts have produced limited success. This paper reviews the problem and proposes a framework to help students overcome the difficulties involved.

Keywords: Cognitive Load, Instructional Models, LearningStyles, Program Visualization.

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2415 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

Abstract:

Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Area of interest, eye tracking, biometrics, fixation, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, heat map, saccades, time to first fixation.

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2414 King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s “Learn Wisely” Concept: An Application to Instructional Design

Authors: Rossukhon Makaramani, Supanan Sittilerd

Abstract:

This study is about an application of King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s “Learn Wisely” (LW) concept in instructional design and management process at the Faculty of Education, Suan Sunahdha Rajabhat University. The concept suggests four strategies for true learning. Related literature and significant LW methods in teaching and learning are also reviewed and then applied in designing a pedagogy learning module. The design has been implemented in three classrooms with a total of 115 sophomore student teachers. After one consecutive semester of managing and adjusting the process by instructors and experts using collected data from minutes, assessment of learning management, satisfaction and learning achievement of the students, it is found that the effective SSRU model of LW instructional method comprises of five steps.

Keywords: Instructional Design, Learn Wisely Strategy, Pedagogy Learning Module, Teaching Method.

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2413 A Formal Approach for Instructional Design Integrated with Data Visualization for Learning Analytics

Authors: Douglas A. Menezes, Isabel D. Nunes, Ulrich Schiel

Abstract:

Most Virtual Learning Environments do not provide support mechanisms for the integrated planning, construction and follow-up of Instructional Design supported by Learning Analytic results. The present work aims to present an authoring tool that will be responsible for constructing the structure of an Instructional Design (ID), without the data being altered during the execution of the course. The visual interface aims to present the critical situations present in this ID, serving as a support tool for the course follow-up and possible improvements, which can be made during its execution or in the planning of a new edition of this course. The model for the ID is based on High-Level Petri Nets and the visualization forms are determined by the specific kind of the data generated by an e-course, a population of students generating sequentially dependent data.

Keywords: Educational data visualization, high-level petri nets, instructional design, learning analytics.

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2412 Open Educational Resource in Online Mathematics Learning

Authors: Haohao Wang

Abstract:

Technology, multimedia in Open Educational Resources, can contribute positively to student performance in an online instructional environment. Student performance data of past four years were obtained from an online course entitled Applied Calculus (MA139). This paper examined the data to determine whether multimedia (independent variable) had any impact on student performance (dependent variable) in online math learning, and how students felt about the value of the technology. Two groups of student data were analyzed, group 1 (control) from the online applied calculus course that did not use multimedia instructional materials, and group 2 (treatment) of the same online applied calculus course that used multimedia instructional materials. For the MA139 class, results indicate a statistically significant difference (p = .001) between the two groups, where group 1 had a final score mean of 56.36 (out of 100), group 2 of 70.68. Additionally, student testimonials were discussed in which students shared their experience in learning applied calculus online with multimedia instructional materials.

Keywords: Online learning, Open Educational Resources, Multimedia, Technology.

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2411 The Effects of the Impact of Instructional Immediacy on Cognition and Learning in Online Classes

Authors: Glenda A. Gunter

Abstract:

Current research has explored the impact of instructional immediacy, defined as those behaviors that help build close relationships or feelings of closeness, both on cognition and motivation in the traditional classroom and online classroom; however, online courses continue to suffer from higher dropout rates. Based on Albert Bandura-s Social Cognitive Theory, four primary relationships or interactions in an online course will be explored in light of how they can provide immediacy thereby reducing student attrition and improving cognitive learning. The four relationships are teacher-student, student-student, and student-content, and studentcomputer. Results of a study conducted with inservice teachers completing a 14-week online professional development technology course will be examined to demonstrate immediacy strategies that improve cognitive learning and reduce student attrition. Results of the study reveal that students can be motivated through various interactions and instructional immediacy behaviors which lead to higher completion rates, improved self-efficacy, and cognitive learning.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Self-Efficacy, Instructional immediacy, Student achievement.

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2410 Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Wen-Shin Tsai, Yu-Si Lin, Chen-Kai Shiu

Abstract:

Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. Hence, many schools do not have the ability to build an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a webbased virtual ecological pond. Supported by situated learning theory and the instructional design of “Aquatic Life" learning unit, elementary school students can actively explore in the virtual ecological pond to observe aquatic animals and plants and learn about the concept of ecological conservation. A teaching experiment was conducted to investigate the learning effectiveness and practicability of this instructional design, and the results showed that students improved a great deal in learning about aquatic life. They found the virtual ecological pond interesting, easy to operate and helpful to understanding the aquatic ecological system. Therefore, it is useful in elementary science education.

Keywords: Virtual reality, virtual ecological ponds, situated learning, instructional design, science education.

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2409 Instructional Design and Development Utilizing Technology: A Student Perspective

Authors: Lisa M. Weltzer-Ward, Abbie Brown

Abstract:

The sequence Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) provides a powerful methodology for designing computer-based educational materials. Helping students to understand this design process sequence may be achieved by providing them with direct, guided experience. This article examines such help and guidance and the overall learning process from a student-s personal experience.

Keywords: ADDIE, education, instructional design, web design.

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2408 Students’ Perception of Using Dental e-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate students’ perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding students’ perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, students' preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: E-models, inquiry-based curriculum, education.

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2407 A Game Design Framework for Vocational Education

Authors: Heide Lukosch, Roy Van Bussel, Sebastiaan Meijer

Abstract:

Serious games have proven to be a useful instrument to engage learners and increase motivation. Nevertheless, a broadly accepted, practical instructional design approach to serious games does not exist. In this paper, we introduce the use of an instructional design model that has not been applied to serious games yet, and has some advantages compared to other design approaches. We present the case of mechanics mechatronics education to illustrate the close match with timing and role of knowledge and information that the instructional design model prescribes and how this has been translated to a rigidly structured game design. The structured approach answers the learning needs of applicable knowledge within the target group. It combines advantages of simulations with strengths of entertainment games to foster learner-s motivation in the best possible way. A prototype of the game will be evaluated along a well-respected evaluation method within an advanced test setting including test and control group.

Keywords: Serious Gaming, Simulation, Complex Learning.

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2406 Effects of Multimedia-based Instructional Designs for Arabic Language Learning among Pupils of Different Achievement Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong & Ababneh, W. Ziad

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of modality principles in instructional software among first grade pupils- achievements in the learning of Arabic Language. Two modes of instructional software were systematically designed and developed, audio with images (AI), and text with images (TI). The quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample consisted of 123 male and female pupils from IRBED Education Directorate, Jordan. The pupils were randomly assigned to any one of the two modes. The independent variable comprised the two modes of the instructional software, the students- achievement levels in the Arabic Language class and gender. The dependent variable was the achievements of the pupils in the Arabic Language test. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Mayer-s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) showed that pupils using the (AI) mode performed significantly better than those using (TI) mode. This study concluded that the audio with images mode was an important aid to learning as compared to text with images mode.

Keywords: Cognitive theory of Multimedia Learning, ModalityPrinciple, Multimedia, Arabic Language learning

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2405 Podcasting as an Instructional Method: Case Study of a School Psychology Class

Authors: Jeff A. Tysinger, Dawn P. Tysinger

Abstract:

There has been considerable growth in online learning. Researchers continue to explore the impact various methods of delivery. Podcasting is a popular method for sharing information. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student motivation and the perception of the acquisition of knowledge in an online environment of a skill-based class. 25 students in a school psychology graduate class completed a pretest and posttest examining podcast use and familiarity. In addition, at the completion of the course they were administered a modified version of the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey. The four subscales were examined (attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction). Results indicated that students are motivated, they perceive podcasts as positive instructional tools, and students are successful in acquiring the needed information. Additional benefits of using podcasts and recommendations in school psychology training are discussed.

Keywords: Motivation, online learning, pedagogy, podcast.

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2404 Measuring Cognitive Load - A Solution to Ease Learning of Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Learning programming is difficult for many learners. Some researches have found that the main difficulty relates to cognitive load. Cognitive overload happens in programming due to the nature of the subject which is intrinisicly over-bearing on the working memory. It happens due to the complexity of the subject itself. The problem is made worse by the poor instructional design methodology used in the teaching and learning process. Various efforts have been proposed to reduce the cognitive load, e.g. visualization softwares, part-program method etc. Use of many computer based systems have also been tried to tackle the problem. However, little success has been made to alleviate the problem. More has to be done to overcome this hurdle. This research attempts at understanding how cognitive load can be managed so as to reduce the problem of overloading. We propose a mechanism to measure the cognitive load during pre instruction, post instruction and in instructional stages of learning. This mechanism is used to help the instruction. As the load changes the instruction is made to adapt itself to ensure cognitive viability. This mechanism could be incorporated as a sub domain in the student model of various computer based instructional systems to facilitate the learning of programming.

Keywords: Cognitive load, Working memory, Cognitive Loadmeasurement.

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2403 Transformative Leadership and Learning Management Systems Implementation: Leadership Practices in Instructional Design for Online Learning

Authors: Felix Brito

Abstract:

With the growth of online learning, several higher education institutions have attempted to incorporate technology in their curriculum. Successful technology implementation projects really on technology infrastructure and on the acceptance of education professionals towards innovation. This research study is aimed at illustrating the relevance of the human component in technology implementation projects in higher education by describing the Learning Management System implementation project executed by instructional designers working for a higher education institution in the southeast region of the United States. An analysis of the Transformative Leadership Theory, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the Diffusion of Innovation Process provide the support for a solid understanding of this issue and address recommendations for future technology implementation projects in higher education institutions.

Keywords: Learning management systems, transformative leadership theory, technology acceptance model, diffusion of innovation process, leadership, instructional design, online learning.

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2402 The Design and Development of Multimedia Pronunciation Learning Management System

Authors: Fei Ping Por, Soon Fook Fong

Abstract:

The proposed Multimedia Pronunciation Learning Management System (MPLMS) in this study is a technology with profound potential for inducing improvement in pronunciation learning. The MPLMS optimizes the digitised phonetic symbols with the integration of text, sound and mouth movement video. The components are designed and developed in an online management system which turns the web to a dynamic user-centric collection of consistent and timely information for quality sustainable learning. The aim of this study is to design and develop the MPLMS which serves as an innovative tool to improve English pronunciation. This paper discusses the iterative methodology and the three-phase Alessi and Trollip model in the development of MPLMS. To align with the flexibility of the development of educational software, the iterative approach comprises plan, design, develop, evaluate and implement is followed. To ensure the instructional appropriateness of MPLMS, the instructional system design (ISD) model of Alessi and Trollip serves as a platform to guide the important instructional factors and process. It is expected that the results of future empirical research will support the efficacy of MPLMS and its place as the premier pronunciation learning system.

Keywords: Design, development, multimedia, pronunciation, learning management system

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2401 Lean Models Classification: Towards a Holistic View

Authors: Y. Tiamaz, N. Souissi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a classification of Lean models which aims to capture all the concepts related to this approach and thus facilitate its implementation. This classification allows the identification of the most relevant models according to several dimensions. From this perspective, we present a review and an analysis of Lean models literature and we propose dimensions for the classification of the current proposals while respecting among others the axes of the Lean approach, the maturity of the models as well as their application domains. This classification allowed us to conclude that researchers essentially consider the Lean approach as a toolbox also they design their models to solve problems related to a specific environment. Since Lean approach is no longer intended only for the automotive sector where it was invented, but to all fields (IT, Hospital, ...), we consider that this approach requires a generic model that is capable of being implemented in all areas.

Keywords: Lean approach, lean models, classification, dimensions, holistic view.

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2400 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: Mixed Matrix Membrane, Permeation Models, Porous particles, Porosity.

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2399 Building an e-Learning System Model with Implications for Research and Instructional Use

Authors: Kuan-Chou Chen, Keh-Wen “Carin” Chuang

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates a model of an e-Learning system based on nowadays learning theory and distant education practice. The relationships in the model are designed to be simple and functional and do not necessarily represent any particular e- Learning environments. It is meant to be a generic e-Learning system model with implications for any distant education course instructional design. It allows online instructors to move away from the discrepancy between the courses and body of knowledge. The interrelationships of four primary sectors that are at the e-Learning system are presented in this paper. This integrated model includes [1] pedagogy, [2] technology, [3] teaching, and [4] learning. There are interactions within each of these sectors depicted by system loop map.

Keywords: e-Learning system, online courses instructionaldesign, integrated model, interrelationships.

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2398 MMU Simulation in Hardware Simulator Based-on State Transition Models

Authors: Zhang Xiuping, Yang Guowu, Zheng Desheng

Abstract:

Embedded hardware simulator is a valuable computeraided tool for embedded application development. This paper focuses on the ARM926EJ-S MMU, builds state transition models and formally verifies critical properties for the models. The state transition models include loading instruction model, reading data model, and writing data model. The properties of the models are described by CTL specification language, and they are verified in VIS. The results obtained in VIS demonstrate that the critical properties of MMU are satisfied in the state transition models. The correct models can be used to implement the MMU component in our simulator. In the end of this paper, the experimental results show that the MMU can successfully accomplish memory access requests from CPU.

Keywords: MMU, State transition, Model, Simulation.

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2397 Neuro-Hybrid Models for Automotive System Identification

Authors: Ventura Assuncao

Abstract:

In automotive systems almost all steps concerning the calibration of several control systems, e.g., low idle governor or boost pressure governor, are made with the vehicle because the timeto- production and cost requirements on the projects do not allow for the vehicle analysis necessary to build reliable models. Here is presented a procedure using parametric and NN (neural network) models that enables the generation of vehicle system models based on normal ECU engine control unit) vehicle measurements. These models are locally valid and permit pre and follow-up calibrations so that, only the final calibrations have to be done with the vehicle.

Keywords: Automotive systems, neuro-hybrid models, demodulator, nonlinear systems, identification, and neural networks.

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2396 A Method to Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines in d-q Axes

Authors: Mohamed A. Khlifi, Badr M. Alshammari

Abstract:

This paper discusses the general methods to saturation in the steady-state, two axis (d & q) frame models of synchronous machines. In particular, the important role of the magnetic coupling between the d-q axes (cross-magnetizing phenomenon), is demonstrated. For that purpose, distinct methods of saturation modeling of dumper synchronous machine with cross-saturation are identified, and detailed models synthesis in d-q axes. A number of models are given in the final developed form. The procedure and the novel models are verified by a critical application to prove the validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed models is reported. Advantages of some of the models over the existing ones and their applicability are discussed.

Keywords: Cross-magnetizing, models synthesis, synchronous machine, saturated modeling, state-space vectors.

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2395 Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Theoretical-and-Pedagogical e-Framework for Language Development

Authors: Boon Yih Mah

Abstract:

Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI)’s contribution towards language development can be divided into linguistic and non-linguistic perspectives. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI focuses on the literacy and language discoveries, while the cognitive and psychological discoveries are the hubs in non-linguistic perspective. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI draws attention to free reading and enterprises, which are supported by the language acquisition theories. Besides, the adoption of process genre approach as a hybrid guided writing approach fosters literacy development. Literacy and language developments are interconnected in the communication process; hence, WeCWI encourages meaningful discussion based on the interactionist theory that involves input, negotiation, output, and interactional feedback. Rooted in the elearning interaction-based model, WeCWI promotes online discussion via synchronous and asynchronous communications, which allows interactions happened among the learners, instructor, and digital content. In non-linguistic perspective, WeCWI highlights on the contribution of reading, discussion, and writing towards cognitive development. Based on the inquiry models, learners’ critical thinking is fostered during information exploration process through interaction and questioning. Lastly, to lower writing anxiety, WeCWI develops the instructional tool with supportive features to facilitate the writing process. To bring a positive user experience to the learner, WeCWI aims to create the instructional tool with different interface designs based on two different types of perceptual learning style.

Keywords: WeCWI, literacy discovery, language discovery, cognitive discovery, psychological discovery.

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2394 Dynamic Models versus Frailty Models for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

Abstract:

Recurrent event data is a special type of multivariate survival data. Dynamic and frailty models are one of the approaches that dealt with this kind of data. A comparison between these two models is studied using the empirical standard deviation of the standardized martingale residual processes as a way of assessing the fit of the two models based on the Aalen additive regression model. Here we found both approaches took heterogeneity into account and produce residual standard deviations close to each other both in the simulation study and in the real data set.

Keywords: Dynamic, frailty, misspecification, recurrent events.

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2393 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said C. Fares, Mary A. Fares

Abstract:

It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: Failure Rate, Interactive Learning, Student engagement, CS1.

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2392 The Effectiveness of Lesson Study via Learning Communities in Increasing Instructional Self-Efficacy of Beginning Special Educators

Authors: David D. Hampton

Abstract:

Lesson study is used as an instructional technique to promote both student and faculty learning. However, little is known about the usefulness of learning communities in supporting results of lesson study on the self-efficacy and development for tenure-track faculty. This study investigated the impact of participation in a lesson study learning community on 34 new faculty members at a mid-size Midwestern University, specifically regarding implementing lesson study evaluations by new faculty on their reported self-efficacy. Results indicate that participation in a lesson study learning community significantly increased faculty members’ lesson study self-efficacy as well as grant and manuscript production over one academic year. Suggestions for future lesson study around faculty learning communities are discussed.

Keywords: Lesson study, learning community, lesson study self-efficacy, new faculty.

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2391 Devising and Assessing the Efficacy of Mobile-Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning

Authors: Majlinda Fetaji, Alajdin Abazi, Zamir Dika, Bekim Fetaji

Abstract:

The assessment of the efficacy of devised Mobile- Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning was the focus of this research. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design. Research instruments were developed, validated and used for collecting data. Findings revealed that the students exposed to Mobile Task Based Learning Mode (MTBLM) in using Mobile-Assisted Instruction (MAI) performed significantly better. The implication of these findings is that, the Audio tutorial and Practice Mode (ATPM) (Stimulus instruments) of MAI had been found better over the other modes used in the study.

Keywords: Mobile-Assisted instructions, Mobile learning, learning instructions, task based learning.

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