Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 487

Search results for: Inlet temperature

487 Comparison of Different Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling Methods

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Gas turbine air inlet cooling is a useful method for increasing output for regions where significant power demand and highest electricity prices occur during the warm months. Inlet air cooling increases the power output by taking advantage of the gas turbine-s feature of higher mass flow rate when the compressor inlet temperature decreases. Different methods are available for reducing gas turbine inlet temperature. There are two basic systems currently available for inlet cooling. The first and most cost-effective system is evaporative cooling. Evaporative coolers make use of the evaporation of water to reduce the gas turbine-s inlet air temperature. The second system employs various ways to chill the inlet air. In this method, the cooling medium flows through a heat exchanger located in the inlet duct to remove heat from the inlet air. However, the evaporative cooling is limited by wet-bulb temperature while the chilling can cool the inlet air to temperatures that are lower than the wet bulb temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic model of a gas turbine is built to calculate heat rate, power output and thermal efficiency at different inlet air temperature conditions. Computational results are compared with ISO conditions herein called "base-case". Therefore, the two cooling methods are implemented and solved for different inlet conditions (inlet temperature and relative humidity). Evaporative cooler and absorption chiller systems results show that when the ambient temperature is extremely high with low relative humidity (requiring a large temperature reduction) the chiller is the more suitable cooling solution. The net increment in the power output as a function of the temperature decrease for each cooling method is also obtained.

Keywords: Absorption chiller, evaporative cooling, gas turbine, turbine inlet cooling.

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486 Modeling the Effect of Inlet Manifold Pipes Bending Angle on SI Engine Performance

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Isam H. Qasem , M.Riyad H. Abdelkader

Abstract:

the intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different bending manifold pipes on engine performance for different engine speed. Power, Torque, and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying bending pipes angles on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for 4-cylinders spark ignition engine with turbocharger has been built and calculated. The analysis of the results shows that for 120o angle the torque increases about 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm without changing in fuel consumption. For 90o angle the increment in torque is about 10 %. For the same bending angle the increment in brake power is around 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm. The increment in fuel consumption is about 12% for 60o and 30% for 90o between (6000- 7000) rpm.

Keywords: bending pipes, inlet manifold, spark ignition engines, performance

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485 Performance Improvement of a Supersonic External Compression Inlet by Heat Source Addition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Soltani, Mohammad Farahani, Javad Sepahi Younsi

Abstract:

Heat source addition to the axisymmetric supersonic inlet may improve the performance parameters, which will increase the inlet efficiency. In this investigation the heat has been added to the flow field at some distance ahead of an axisymmetric inlet by adding an imaginary thermal source upstream of cowl lip. The effect of heat addition on the drag coefficient, mass flow rate and the overall efficiency of the inlet have been investigated. The results show that heat addition causes flow separation, hence to prevent this phenomena, roughness has been added on the spike surface. However, heat addition reduces the drag coefficient and the inlet mass flow rate considerably. Furthermore, the effects of position, size, and shape on the inlet performance were studied. It is found that the thermal source deflects the flow streamlines. By improper location of the thermal source, the optimum condition has been obtained. For the optimum condition, the drag coefficient is considerably reduced and the inlet mass flow rate and its efficiency have been increased slightly. The optimum shape of the heat source is obtained too.

Keywords: Drag coefficient, heat source, performanceparameters, supersonic inlet.

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484 Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets

Authors: M. Jegannath, V. Akshaya, B. Arunkumar, G. Lakshmi Soundharya, V. Thenmozhi, S. Varun, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

For scarf inlet design, the primary variable of interest is the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of scarf inlets, inlet design, modern aircraft inlets, subsonic scarf inlet.

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483 Effect of Inlet Valve Variable Timing in the Spark Ignition Engine on Achieving Greener Transport

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Yousef S. Najjar, Kutaeba J. AL-Khishali

Abstract:

The current emission legislations and the large concern about the environment produced very numerous constraints on both governments and car manufacturers. Also the cost of energy increase means a reduction in fuel consumption must be met, without largely affecting the current engine production and performance. It is the intension to contribute towards the development and pursuing, among others on variable valve timing (VVT), for improving the engine performance. The investigation of the effect of (IVO) and (IVC) to optimize engine torque and volumetric efficiency for different engine speeds was considered. Power, BMEP and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying inlet valve timing on them for all cases. A special program used to carry out the calculations. The analysis of the results shows that the reduction of 10% of (IVO) angle gave an improvement of around 1.3% in torque, BSFC, and volumetric efficiency, while a 10% decrease in (IVC) caused a 0.1% reduction in power, torque, and volumetric efficiency.

 

Keywords: Green transportation, inlet valve variable timing, performance, spark ignition engines.

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482 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: Catalytic muffler, Perforated inlet cone, Catalysts, Perforated pipe, Flow uniformity, Pressure drop.

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481 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: Catalytic combustion, Methane, BOP, MCFC power generation system, Inlet temperature, Excess air ratio, Space velocity.

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480 Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation

Authors: T. C. B. N. Assunção, J. L. Silvino, P. Resende

Abstract:

The winding hot-spot temperature is one of the most critical parameters that affect the useful life of the power transformers. The winding hot-spot temperature can be calculated as function of the top-oil temperature that can estimated by using the ambient temperature and transformer loading measured data. This paper proposes the estimation of the top-oil temperature by using a method based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach. The estimated top-oil temperature is compared with measured data of a power transformer in operation. The results are also compared with methods based on the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and Artificial Neural Networks. It is shown that the Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach presents better performance than the methods based in the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and artificial neural networks.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Hot-spot Temperature, Least Squares Support Vector, Top-oil Temperature.

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479 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors

Authors: Fred Lacy

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

Keywords: Callendar–van Dusen, conductivity, mean free path, resistance temperature detector, temperature sensor.

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478 Study of Temperature Difference and Current Distribution in Parallel-Connected Cells at Low Temperature

Authors: Sara Kamalisiahroudi, Jun Huang, Zhe Li, Jianbo Zhang

Abstract:

Two types of commercial cylindrical lithium ion batteries (Panasonic 3.4 Ah NCR-18650B and Samsung 2.9 Ah INR-18650), were investigated experimentally. The capacities of these samples were individually measured using constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) method at different ambient temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 25°C). Their internal resistance was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and pulse discharge methods. The cells with different configurations of parallel connection NCR-NCR, INR-INR and NCR-INR were charged/discharged at the aforementioned ambient temperatures. The results showed that the difference of internal resistance between cells much more evident at low temperatures. Furthermore, the parallel connection of NCR-NCR exhibits the most uniform temperature distribution in cells at -10°C, this feature is quite favorable for the safety of the battery pack.

Keywords: Batteries in parallel connection, internal resistance, low temperature, temperature difference, current distribution.

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477 Effects of Temperature-Dependent Material Properties on Stress and Temperature in Cracked Metal Plate under Electric Current Load

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

Using the finite element analyses, this paper discusses the effects of temperature-dependent material properties on the stress and temperature fields in a cracked metal plate under the electric current load. The practical and complicated results are obtained when the temperature-dependent material properties are adopted in the analysis. If the simplified (temperature-independent) material properties are used, incorrect results will be obtained.

Keywords: Joule heating, temperature-dependent, crack tip, finite element.

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476 Measurement and Analysis of Temperature Effects on Box Girders of Continuous Rigid Frame Bridges

Authors: Bugao Wang, Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

Researches on the general rules of temperature field changing and their effects on the bridge in construction are necessary. This paper investigated the rules of temperature field changing and its effects on bridge using onsite measurement and computational analysis. Guanyinsha Bridge was used as a case study in this research. The temperature field was simulated in analyses. The effects of certain boundary conditions such as sun radiance, wind speed, and model parameters such as heat factor and specific heat on temperature field are investigated. Recommended values for these parameters are proposed. The simulated temperature field matches the measured observations with high accuracy. At the same time, the stresses and deflections of the bridge computed with the simulated temperature field matches measured values too. As a conclusion, the temperature effect analysis of reinforced concrete box girder can be conducted directly based on the reliable weather data of the concerned area.

Keywords: continuous rigid frame bridge, temperature effectanalysis, temperature field, temperature field simulation

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475 Analysis of Tool-Chip Interface Temperature with FEM and Empirical Verification

Authors: M. Bagheri, P. Mottaghizadeh

Abstract:

Reliable information about tool temperature distribution is of central importance in metal cutting. In this study, tool-chip interface temperature was determined in cutting of ST37 steel workpiece by applying HSS as the cutting tool in dry turning. Two different approaches were implemented for temperature measuring: an embedded thermocouple (RTD) in to the cutting tool and infrared (IR) camera. Comparisons are made between experimental data and results of MSC.SuperForm and FLUENT software. An investigation of heat generation in cutting tool was performed by varying cutting parameters at the stable cutting tool geometry and results were saved in a computer; then the diagrams of tool temperature vs. various cutting parameters were obtained. The experimental results reveal that the main factors of the increasing cutting temperature are cutting speed (V ), feed rate ( S ) and depth of cut ( h ), respectively. It was also determined that simultaneously change in cutting speed and feed rate has the maximum effect on increasing cutting temperature.

Keywords: Cutting parameters, Finite element modeling, Temperature measurement, Tool-chip interface temperature.

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474 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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473 Negative Temperature Dependence of a Gravity - A Reality

Authors: Alexander L. Dmitriev, Sophia A. Bulgakova

Abstract:

Temperature dependence of force of gravitation is one of the fundamental problems of physics. This problem has got special value in connection with that the general theory of relativity, supposing the weakest positive influence of a body temperature on its weight, actually rejects an opportunity of measurement of negative influence of temperature on gravity in laboratory conditions. Really, the recognition of negative temperature dependence of gravitation, for example, means basic impossibility of achievement of a singularity («a black hole») at a gravitational collapse. Laboratory experiments with exact weighing the heated up metal samples, indicating negative influence temperatures of bodies on their physical weight are described. Influence of mistakes of measurements is analyzed. Calculations of distribution of temperature in volume of the bar, agreed with experimental data of time dependence of weight of samples are executed. The physical substantiation of negative temperature dependence of weight of the bodies, based on correlation of acceleration at thermal movement of micro-particles of a body and its absolute temperature, are given.

Keywords: Gravitation, temperature, weight.

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472 Investigation and Perfection of Centrifugal Compressor Stages by CFD Methods

Authors: Y. Galerkin, L. Marenina

Abstract:

Stator elements «Vane diffuser + crossover + return channel» of stages with different specific speed were investigated by CFD calculations. The regime parameter was introduced to present efficiency and loss coefficient performance of all elements together. Flow structure demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of design. Flow separation in crossovers was eliminated by its shape modification. Efficiency increased visibly. Calculated CFD performances are in acceptable correlation with predicted ones by engineering design method. The information obtained is useful for design method better calibration.

Keywords: Vane diffuser, return channel, crossover, efficiency, loss coefficient, inlet flow angle.

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471 Instability Problem of Turbo-Machines with Radial Distortion Problems

Authors: Yasuo Obikane, Sofiane Khelladi

Abstract:

In the upstream we place a piece of ring and rotate it with 83Hz, 166Hz, 333Hz,and 666H to find the effect of the periodic distortion.In the experiment this type of the perturbation will not allow since the mechanical failure of any parts of the equipment in the upstream will destroy the blade system. This type of study will be only possible by CFD. We use two pumps NS32 (ENSAM) and three blades pump (Tamagawa Univ). The benchmark computations were performed without perturbation parts, and confirm the computational results well agreement in head-flow rate. We obtained the pressure fluctuation growth rate that is representing the global instability of the turbo-system. The fluctuating torque components were 0.01Nm(5000rpm), 0.1Nm(10000rmp), 0.04Nm(20000rmp), 0.15Nm( 40000rmp) respectively. Only for 10000rpm(166Hz) the output toque was random, and it implies that it creates unsteady flow by separations on the blades, and will reduce the pressure loss significantly

Keywords: inlet distorsion, perturbation, turbo-machine

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470 Distortion of Flow Measurement and Cavitation Occurs Due to Orifice Inlet Velocity Profiles

Authors: Byung-Soo Shin, Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

This analysis investigates the distortion of flow measurement and the increase of cavitation along orifice flowmeter. The analysis using the numerical method (CFD) validated the distortion of flow measurement through the inlet velocity profile considering the convergence and grid dependency. Realizable k-e model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this numerical analysis. This analysis also estimated the vulnerability of cavitation effect due to inlet velocity profile. The investigation concludes that inclined inlet velocity profile could vary the pressure which was measured at pressure tab near pipe wall and it led to distort the pressure values ranged from -3.8% to 5.3% near the orifice plate and to make the increase of cavitation. The investigation recommends that the fully developed inlet velocity flow is beneficial to accurate flow measurement in orifice flowmeter.

Keywords: Orifice, k-e model, CFD

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469 Modeling of Temperature Fields of Gas Turbine Blades by Considering Heat Flow and Specified Temperature

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

A new mathematical model for calculating the temperature field of the profile part of the cooled blades of gas turbines is developed. The theoretical substantiation of the method is based on the application of the method of potential theory (the method of boundary integral equations). The effectiveness of the implementation of the developed mathematical model is confirmed on the basis of a computational experiment.

Keywords: Modeling of temperature fields, gas turbine blades, integral methods, cooled blades, gas turbines.

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468 Location of Vortex Formation Threshold at Suction Inlets near Ground Planes – Ascending and Descending Conditions

Authors: Wei Hua Ho

Abstract:

Vortices can develop in intakes of turbojet and turbo fan aero engines during high power operation in the vicinity of solid surfaces. These vortices can cause catastrophic damage to the engine. The factors determining the formation of the vortex include both geometric dimensions as well as flow parameters. It was shown that the threshold at which the vortex forms or disappears is also dependent on the initial flow condition (i.e. whether a vortex forms after stabilised non vortex flow or vice-versa). A computational fluid dynamics study was conducted to determine the difference in thresholds between the two conditions. This is the first reported numerical investigation of the “memory effect". The numerical results reproduce the phenomenon reported in previous experimental studies and additional factors, which had not been previously studied, were investigated. They are the rate at which ambient velocity changes and the initial value of ambient velocity. The former was found to cause a shift in the threshold but not the later. It was also found that the varying condition thresholds are not symmetrical about the neutral threshold. The vortex to no vortex threshold lie slightly further away from the neutral threshold compared to the no vortex to vortex threshold. The results suggests that experimental investigation of vortex formation threshold performed either in vortex to no vortex conditions, or vice versa, solely may introduce mis-predictions greater than 10%.

Keywords: Jet Engine Test Cell, Unsteady flow, Inlet Vortex

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467 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100oC to 140oC using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature.

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466 Influence of Temperature Variations on Calibrated Cameras

Authors: Peter Podbreznik, Božidar Potocnik

Abstract:

The camera parameters are changed due to temperature variations, which directly influence calibrated cameras accuracy. Robustness of calibration methods were measured and their accuracy was tested. An error ratio due to camera parameters change with respect to total error originated during calibration process was determined. It pointed out that influence of temperature variations decrease by increasing distance of observed objects from cameras.

Keywords: camera calibration, perspective projection matrix, epipolar geometry, temperature variation.

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465 A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements

Authors: J. Junk, M. Eickermann

Abstract:

The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the Small Hive Beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year. Additionally, based on our meteorological data sets a first migration of SHB to apiaries can be expected from mid of March up to April. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.

Keywords: Aethina tumida, air temperature, larval development, soil temperature.

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464 Effects of Inlet Distorted Flows on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Asad Islam, Khalid Parvez

Abstract:

Compressor fans in modern aircraft engines are of considerate importance, as they provide majority of thrust required by the aircraft. Their challenging environment is frequently subjected to non-uniform inflow conditions. These conditions could be either due to the flight operating requirements such as take-off and landing, wake interference from aircraft fuselage or cross-flow wind conditions. So, in highly maneuverable flights regimes of fighter aircrafts affects the overall performance of an engine. Since the flow in compressor of an aircraft application is highly sensitive because of adverse pressure gradient due to different flow orientations of the aircraft. Therefore, it is prone to unstable operations. This paper presents the study that focuses on axial compressor response to inlet flow orientations for the range of angles as 0 to 15 degrees. For this purpose, NASA Rotor-37 was taken and CFD mesh was developed. The compressor characteristics map was generated for the design conditions of pressure ratio of 2.106 with the rotor operating at rotational velocity of 17188.7 rpm using CFD simulating environment of ANSYS-CFX®. The grid study was done to see the effects of mesh upon computational solution. Then, the mesh giving the best results, (when validated with the available experimental NASA’s results); was used for further distortion analysis. The flow in the inlet nozzle was given angle orientations ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. The CFD results are analyzed and discussed with respect to stall margin and flow separations due to induced distortions.

Keywords: Angle, ANSYS-CFX®, axial compressor, Bladegen®, CFD, distortions.

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463 Thermography Evaluation on Facial Temperature Recovery after Elastic Gum

Authors: A. Dionísio, L. Roseiro, J. Fonseca, P. Nicolau

Abstract:

Thermography is a non-radiating and contact-free technology which can be used to monitor skin temperature. The efficiency and safety of thermography technology make it a useful tool for detecting and locating thermal changes in skin surface, characterized by increases or decreases in temperature. This work intends to be a contribution for the use of thermography as a methodology for evaluation of skin temperature in the context of orofacial biomechanics. The study aims to identify the oscillations of skin temperature in the left and right hemiface regions of the masseter muscle, during and after thermal stimulus, and estimate the time required to restore the initial temperature after the application of the stimulus. Using a FLIR T430sc camera, a data acquisition protocol was followed with a group of eight volunteers, aged between 22 and 27 years. The tests were performed in a controlled environment with the volunteers in a comfortably static position. The thermal stimulus involves the use of an ice volume with controlled size and contact surface. The skin surface temperature was recorded in two distinct situations, namely without further stimulus and with the additions of a stimulus obtained by a chewing gum. The data obtained were treated using FLIR Research IR Max software. The time required to recover the initial temperature ranged from 20 to 52 minutes when no stimulus was added and varied between 8 and 26 minutes with the chewing gum stimulus. These results show that recovery is faster with the addition of the stimulus and may guide clinicians regarding the pre and post-operative times with ice therapy, in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulus that increases muscle functions (e.g. phonetics or mastication).

Keywords: Thermography, orofacial biomechanics, skin temperature, ice therapy.

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462 Using ANSYS to Realize a Semi-Analytical Method for Predicting Temperature Profile in Injection/Production Well

Authors: N. Tarom, M.M. Hossain

Abstract:

Determination of wellbore problems during a production/injection process might be evaluated thorough temperature log analysis. Other applications of this kind of log analysis may also include evaluation of fluid distribution analysis along the wellbore and identification of anomalies encountered during production/injection process. While the accuracy of such prediction is paramount, the common method of determination of a wellbore temperature log includes use of steady-state energy balance equations, which hardly describe the real conditions as observed in typical oil and gas flowing wells during production operation; and thus increase level of uncertainties. In this study, a practical method has been proposed through development of a simplified semianalytical model to apply for predicting temperature profile along the wellbore. The developed model includes an overall heat transfer coefficient accounting all modes of heat transferring mechanism, which has been focused on the prediction of a temperature profile as a function of depth for the injection/production wells. The model has been validated with the results obtained from numerical simulation.

Keywords: Energy balance equation, reservoir and well performance, temperature log, overall heat transfer coefficient.

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461 Role and Effect of Temperature on LPG Sweetening Process

Authors: Ali Samadi Afshar, Sayed Reaza Hashemi

Abstract:

In the gas refineries of Iran-s South Pars Gas Complex, Sulfrex demercaptanization process is used to remove volatile and corrosive mercaptans from liquefied petroleum gases by caustic solution. This process consists of two steps. Removing low molecular weight mercaptans and regeneration exhaust caustic. Some parameters such as LPG feed temperature, caustic concentration and feed-s mercaptan in extraction step and sodium mercaptide content in caustic, catalyst concentration, caustic temperature, air injection rate in regeneration step are effective factors. In this paper was focused on temperature factor that play key role in mercaptans extraction and caustic regeneration. The experimental results demonstrated by optimization of temperature, sodium mercaptide content in caustic because of good oxidation minimized and sulfur impurities in product reduced.

Keywords: Caustic regeneration, demercaptanization, LPG sweetening, mercaptan extraction, temperature.

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460 Effect of Swirl on Gas-Fired Combustion Behavior in a 3-D Rectangular Combustion Chamber

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to investigate the turbulent reacting flow in a three dimensional combustor with emphasis on the effect of inlet swirl flow through a numerical simulation. Flow field is analyzed using the SIMPLE method which is known as stable as well as accurate in the combustion modeling, and the finite volume method is adopted in solving the radiative transfer equation. In this work, the thermal and flow characteristics in a three dimensional combustor by changing parameters such as equivalence ratio and inlet swirl angle have investigated. As the equivalence ratio increases, which means that more fuel is supplied due to a larger inlet fuel velocity, the flame temperature increases and the location of maximum temperature has moved towards downstream. In the mean while, the existence of inlet swirl velocity makes the fuel and combustion air more completely mixed and burnt in short distance. Therefore, the locations of the maximum reaction rate and temperature were shifted to forward direction compared with the case of no swirl.

Keywords: Gaseous Fuel, Inlet Swirl, Thermal Radiation, Turbulent Combustion

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459 Porous Effect on Heat Transfer of Non Uniform Velocity Inlet Flow Using LBM

Authors: A. Hasanpour, M. Farhadi, K.Sedighi, H.R.Ashorynejad

Abstract:

A numerical study of flow in a horizontally channel partially filled with a porous screen with non-uniform inlet has been performed by lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The flow in porous layer has been simulated by the Brinkman-Forchheimer model. Numerical solutions have been obtained for variable porosity models and the effects of Darcy number and porosity have been studied in detail. It is found that the flow stabilization is reliant on the Darcy number. Also the results show that the stabilization of flow field and heat transfer is depended to Darcy number. Distribution of stream field becomes more stable by decreasing Darcy number. Results illustrate that the effect of variable porosity is significant just in the region of the solid boundary. In addition, difference between constant and variable porosity models is decreased by decreasing the Darcy number.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Porous Media, Variable Porosity, Flow Stabilization

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458 A New Empirical Expression of the Breakdown Voltage for Combined Variations of Temperature and Pressure

Authors: Elyse Sili, Jean Pascal Cambronne

Abstract:

In aircraft applications, according to the nature of electrical equipment its location may be in unpressurized area or very close to the engine; thus, the environmental conditions may change from atmospheric pressure to less than 100 mbar, and the temperature may be higher than the ambient one as in most real working conditions of electrical equipment. Then, the classical Paschen curve has to be replotted since these parameters may affect the discharge ignition voltage. In this paper, we firstly investigate the domain of validity of two corrective expressions on the Paschen-s law found in the literature, in case of changing the air environment and known as Peek and Dunbar corrections. Results show that these corrections are no longer valid for combined variation of temperature and pressure. After that, a new empirical expression for breakdown voltage is proposed and is validated in the case of combined variations of temperature and pressure.

Keywords: Gas breakdown, gas density, Paschen curve, temperature effects

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