Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 662

Search results for: Hysteresis current controller (HCC)

662 A Fixed Band Hysteresis Current Controller for Voltage Source AC Chopper

Authors: K. Derradji Belloum, A. Moussi

Abstract:

Most high-performance ac drives utilize a current controller. The controller switches a voltage source inverter (VSI) such that the motor current follows a set of reference current waveforms. Fixed-band hysteresis (FBH) current control has been widely used for the PWM inverter. We want to apply the same controller for the PWM AC chopper. The aims of the controller is to optimize the harmonic content at both input and output sides, while maintaining acceptable losses in the ac chopper and to control in wide range the fundamental output voltage. Fixed band controller has been simulated and analyzed for a single-phase AC chopper and are easily extended to three-phase systems. Simulation confirmed the advantages and the excellent performance of the modulation method applied for the AC chopper.

Keywords: AC chopper, Current controller, Distortion factor, Hysteresis, Input Power Factor, PWM.

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661 Adaptive Hysteresis Based SHAF Using PI and FLC Controller for Current Harmonics Mitigation

Authors: Ravit Gautam, Dipen A. Mistry, Manmohan Singh Meena, Bhupelly Dheeraj, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

Due to the increased use of the power electronic equipment, harmonics in the power system has increased to a greater extent. These harmonics results a poor power quality causing a major effect on the customers. Shunt active filters (SHAF) are used for the mitigations of the current harmonics and to maintain constant DC link voltage. PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) were used to control the performance of the shunt active filter under both balance and unbalance source voltage condition. The results found were not satisfying the IEEE-519 standards of THD to be less than 5%. Hysteresis band current control was used to obtain the gating signals for SHAF, though it has some drawbacks and thus to obtain a better performance of the SHAF to mitigate the harmonics, adaptive hysteresis band current control scheme is implemented. Adaptive hysteresis based SHAF is used to obtain better compensation of current harmonics and to regulate the DC link voltage in a better way.

Keywords: DC Link Voltage, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Adaptive Hysteresis, Harmonics, Shunt Active Filter.

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660 Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Shunt Active Filter with Different MFs for Current Harmonics Elimination

Authors: Shreyash Sinai Kunde, Siddhang Tendulkar, Shiv Prakash Gupta, Gaurav Kumar, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

One of the major power quality concerns in modern times is the problem of current harmonics. The current harmonics is caused due to the increase in non-linear loads which is largely dominated by power electronics devices. The Shunt active filtering is one of the best solutions for mitigating current harmonics. This paper describes a fuzzy logic controller based (FLC) based three Phase Shunt active Filter to achieve low current harmonic distortion (THD) and Reactive power compensation. The performance of fuzzy logic controller is analysed under both balanced sinusoidal and unbalanced sinusoidal source condition. The above controller serves the purpose of maintaining DC Capacitor Voltage constant. The proposed shunt active filter uses hysteresis current controller for current control of IGBT based PWM inverter. The simulation results of model in Simulink MATLAB reveals satisfying results.

Keywords: Shunt active filter, Current harmonics, Fuzzy logic controller, Hysteresis current controller.

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659 Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter

Authors: Kavala Kiran Kumar, R. Govardhana Rao

Abstract:

Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.

Keywords: Active power filters (APF), Fuzzy logic controller (FLC), Hysteresis current controller (HCC), PID, Total harmonic Distortion (THD), Voltage source inverter (VSI).

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658 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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657 Optimal Switching Strategies for Tracking of Currents of Voltage Source Converters

Authors: R. Oloomi, M. A. Sadrnia

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new optimal feedback controller for voltage source converters VSC's, for current regulated voltage source converters, which allows compensate the harmonics of current produced by nonlinear loads and load reactive power. The aim of the present paper is to describe a novel switching signal generation technique called optimal controller which guarantees that the injected currents follow the reference currents determined by the compensation strategy, with the smallest possible tracking error and fixed switching frequency. It is compared with well-known hysteresis current controller HCC. The validity of presented method and its comparison with HCC is studied through simulation results.

Keywords: Hysteresis Current Controller, Optimal Controller, Switching pattern, Voltage Source Converter.

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656 The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters

Authors: T. Narongrit, K-L. Areerak, K-N. Areerak

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.

Keywords: hysteresis current control, delta modulation current control, pulse width modulation control, shunt active power filter, synchronous detection.

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655 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching.

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654 Multi-Line Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) Controller for Transient Stability Analysis of a Multi-Machine Power System Network

Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju

Abstract:

A considerable progress has been achieved in transient stability analysis (TSA) with various FACTS controllers. But, all these controllers are associated with single transmission line. This paper is intended to discuss a new approach i.e. a multi-line FACTS controller which is interline power flow controller (IPFC) for TSA of a multi-machine power system network. A mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM) presented and this model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm. Then, the reduced admittance matrix of a multi-machine power system network for a three phase fault without and with IPFC is obtained which is required to draw the machine swing curves. A general approach based on L-index has also been discussed to find the best location of IPFC to reduce the proximity to instability of a power system. Numerical results are carried out on two test systems namely, 6-bus and 11-bus systems. A program in MATLAB has been written to plot the variation of generator rotor angle and speed difference curves without and with IPFC for TSA and also a simple approach has been presented to evaluate critical clearing time for test systems. The results obtained without and with IPFC are compared and discussed.

Keywords: Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS), first swing stability, interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM).

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653 Comparison between PI and PR Current Controllers in Grid Connected PV Inverters

Authors: D. Zammit, C. Spiteri Staines, M. Apap

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison between Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Resonant (PR) current controllers used in Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Inverters. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. A 3kW Grid-Connected PV Inverter was designed and constructed for this research.

Keywords: Inverters, Proportional-Integral Controller, Proportional-Resonant Controller, Photovoltaic.

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652 Incorporation of SVS CBVLC Supplementary Controller for Damping SSR in Power System

Authors: Narendra Kumar, Sanjiv Kumar

Abstract:

Static VAR System (SVS) is a kind of FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. In this paper presents a systematic approach for designing SVS supplementary controller, which is used to improve the damping of power system oscillation. The combined bus voltage and line current (CBVLC) supplementary controller has been developed and incorporated in the SVS control system located at the middle of the series compensated long transmission line. Damping of torsional stresses due to subsynchronous resonance resulting from series capacitive compensation using CBVLC is investigated in this paper. Simulation results are carried out with MATLAB/Simulink on the IEEE first benchmark model (FBM). The simulation results show that the oscillations are satisfactorily damped out by the SVS supplementary controller. Time domain simulation is performed on power system and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Bus voltage and line current (BVLC), series compensation, sub synchronous resonance (SSR), supplementary controller, eigenvalue investigation.

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651 Experimental Study on the Hysteresis Properties in Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Ching-Huei Lin, Yao-Pang Hsu, M. Z. Dosaev, Yu. D. Selyutskii, L. A. Klimina

Abstract:

Hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in the operations of both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWTs and VAWTs). In this study, wind tunnel experiments were applied to investigate the characters of hysteresis phenomena between the angular speed and the external resistance of electrical loading during the operation of a Darrieus type VAWT. Data of output voltage, output current, angular speed of wind turbine under different wind speeds are measured and analyzed. Results show that the range of external resistance changes with the wind speed. The range decreases as the wind speed increases following an exponential decay form. Experiments also indicate that the maximum output power of wind turbines is always inside the range where hysteresis happened. These results provide an important reference to the design of output control system of wind turbines.

Keywords: Hysteresis phenomenon, Angular speed, Range ofexternal resistance

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650 Qualitative Modelling for Ferromagnetic Hysteresis Cycle

Authors: M. Mordjaoui, B. Boudjema, M. Chabane, R. Daira

Abstract:

In determining the electromagnetic properties of magnetic materials, hysteresis modeling is of high importance. Many models are available to investigate those characteristics but they tend to be complex and difficult to implement. In this paper a new qualitative hysteresis model for ferromagnetic core is presented, based on the function approximation capabilities of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The proposed ANFIS model combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach can restored the hysteresis curve with a little RMS error. The model accuracy is good and can be easily adapted to the requirements of the application by extending or reducing the network training set and thus the required amount of measurement data.

Keywords: ANFIS modeling technique, magnetic hysteresis, Jiles-Atherton model, ferromagnetic core.

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649 Influence of Hydraulic Hysteresis on Effective Stress in Unsaturated Clay

Authors: Anuchit Uchaipichat

Abstract:

A comprehensive program of laboratory testing on a compacted kaolin in a modified triaxial cell was perform to investigate the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on effective stress in unsaturated soils. The test data are presented on a range of constant suction shear tests along wetting and drying paths. The values of effective stress parameter χ at different matric suction were determined using the test results. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis phenomenon on the effective stress was observed. The values of effective stress parameter χ obtained from the experiments were compared with those obtained from the expressions proposed in literature.

Keywords: Unsaturated soils, Hydraulic hysteresis, Effectivestress

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648 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: Contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device.

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647 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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646 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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645 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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644 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: State of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation.

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643 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: Co-current, counter current, Euler Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer.

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642 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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641 A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror

Authors: Jasdeep Kaur, Nupur Prakash, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.

Keywords: Current Mirrors, Composite Cascode Structure, Current Source/Sink

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640 Implementation the Average Input Current Mode Control of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Low-Cost Microcontroller

Authors: Yin Yin Phyo, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

In this paper, the average input current mode control is proposed for two-phase interleaved boost converter with two separate input inductors operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuits of its different four modes of operation. The small ripple approximation is derived to find the transfer functions from dynamic model using switching function. In average input current mode control, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop are designed with PI controller using bode analysis. Anti-windup structure is applied for PI controllers in control system. Moreover, the simulation work is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. And, the hardware prototype is implemented by using low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Finally, the laboratory prototype, available from the local market, is constructed to validate the mathematical model. The results show that the output voltage response is the faster rise time and settling time with acceptable overshoot.

Keywords: Average input current mode control, interleaved boost converter, low-cost microcontroller, PI controller, switching function.

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639 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

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638 Hysteresis Modulation Based Sliding Mode Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter

Authors: K. Ramash Kumar, S. Jeevananthan

Abstract:

The Object of this paper is to design and analyze a Hysteresis modulation based sliding mode control (HMSMC) for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a HMSMC capable of providing the good steady state and dynamic performance compared to conventional controllers. Dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter are derived by using state space average method. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The HMSMC for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for line changes, load changes and also for components variations.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Positive output elementarysuper lift Luo converter (POESLLC), Hysteresis modulation basedsliding mode control (HMSMC).

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637 Implementation of Second Order Current- Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Current Controllability

Authors: Koson Pitaksuttayaprot, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

The realization of current-mode quadrature oscillators using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed oscillators can provide 2 sinusoidal output currents with 90º phase difference. It is enabled non-interactive dual-current control for both the condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. High output impedances of the configurations enable the circuit to be cascaded without additional current buffers. The use of only grounded capacitors is ideal for integration. The circuit performances are depicted through PSpice simulations, they show good agreement to theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Current-mode, Oscillator, Integrated circuit, CCCCTA.

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636 A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)

Authors: Karama M. AL-Tamimi, Munir A. Al-Absi

Abstract:

A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.

Keywords: LCCA, OTA, Logarithmic, VGA, Weak inversion, Current-mode

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635 About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath

Authors: V.V. Lyahov, V.M. Neshchadim

Abstract:

The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.

Keywords: Distribution function, electromagnetic field, magnetoactive plasma, nonelectroneutral current sheath, structural instability, bifurcational current sheath.

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634 A ±0.5V BiCMOS Class-A Current Conveyor

Authors: Subodh Thankachan, Manisha Pattanaik, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

In this paper, a new BiCMOS CCII and CCCII, capable of operate at ±0.5V and having wide dynamic range with achieved bandwidth of 480MHz and 430MHz respectively have been proposed. The structures have been found to be insensitive to the threshold voltage variations. The proposed circuits are suitable for implementation using 0.25μm BiCMOS technology. Pspice simulations confirm the performance of the proposed structures.

Keywords: BiCMOS, Current conveyor, Compound current conveyor, Low supply voltage, Threshold voltage variation.

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633 LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System

Authors: Santosh Kr. Choudhary

Abstract:

In this article, LQR based PID controller design for 3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper explains the simple approach for the approximation of PID design parameters from the LQR controller gain matrix. The simulation results show that the investigated controller has both static and dynamic performance, therefore the stability and the quick control effect can be obtained simultaneously for the 3DOF helicopter system.

Keywords: 3DOF helicopter system, PID controller, LQR controller, modeling, simulation.

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