Search results for: Homogeneous catalysis
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 210

Search results for: Homogeneous catalysis

210 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis: Teachings of the Thermal Energy and Power Engineering Course

Authors: Junjie Chen

Abstract:

It is usually difficult for students to understand some basic theories in learning thermal energy and power engineering course. A new teaching method was proposed that we should introduce the comparison research method of those theories to help them being understood. “Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis” teaching is analyzed as an example by comparison research method.

Keywords: Homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, thermal energy and power engineering, teaching method, comparison research method.

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209 Performance Evaluation of TCP Vegas versus Different TCP Variants in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Wired Networks

Authors: B. S. Yew, B. L. Ong, R. B. Ahmad

Abstract:

A study on the performance of TCP Vegas versus different TCP variants in homogeneous and heterogeneous wired networks are performed via simulation experiment using network simulator (ns-2). This performance evaluation prepared a comparison medium for the performance evaluation of enhanced-TCP Vegas in wired network and for wireless network. In homogeneous network, the performance of TCP Tahoe, TCP Reno, TCP NewReno, TCP Vegas and TCP SACK are analyzed. In heterogeneous network, the performances of TCP Vegas against TCP variants are analyzed. TCP Vegas outperforms other TCP variants in homogeneous wired network. However, TCP Vegas achieves unfair throughput in heterogeneous wired network.

Keywords: TCP Vegas, Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, WiredNetwork.

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208 A Comparison between Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Gas Flow Model in Slurry Bubble Column Reactor for Direct Synthesis of DME

Authors: Sadegh Papari, Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study, a heterogeneous and homogeneous gas flow dispersion model for simulation and optimisation of a large-scale catalytic slurry reactor for the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas and CO2, using a churn-turbulent regime was developed. In the heterogeneous gas flow model the gas phase was distributed into two bubble phases: small and large, however in the homogeneous one, the gas phase was distributed into only one large bubble phase. The results indicated that the heterogeneous gas flow model was in more agreement with experimental pilot plant data than the homogeneous one.

Keywords: Modelling, Slurry bubble column, Dimethyl ether synthesis, Homogeneous gas flow, Heterogeneous gas flow

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207 Spatial Analysis and Statistics for Zoning of Urban Areas

Authors: Benedetto Manganelli, Beniamino Murgante

Abstract:

The use of statistical data and of the neural networks, capable of elaborate a series of data and territorial info, have allowed the making of a model useful in the subdivision of urban places into homogeneous zone under the profile of a social, real estate, environmental and urbanist background of a city. The development of homogeneous zone has fiscal and urbanist advantages. The tools in the model proposed, able to be adapted to the dynamic changes of the city, allow the application of the zoning fast and dynamic.

Keywords: Homogeneous Urban Areas, Multidimensional Scaling, Neural Network, Real Estate Market, Urban Planning.

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206 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: Spectral decomposition, eigenvalues of the Jacobian, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems.

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205 Stability of Homogeneous Smart Beams based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter and foundation coefficient on the stability of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Stability, Homogeneous beam- Piezoelectric layer

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204 On the Robust Stability of Homogeneous Perturbed Large-Scale Bilinear Systems with Time Delays and Constrained Inputs

Authors: Chien-Hua Lee, Cheng-Yi Chen

Abstract:

The stability test problem for homogeneous large-scale perturbed bilinear time-delay systems subjected to constrained inputs is considered in this paper. Both nonlinear uncertainties and interval systems are discussed. By utilizing the Lyapunove equation approach associated with linear algebraic techniques, several delay-independent criteria are presented to guarantee the robust stability of the overall systems. The main feature of the presented results is that although the Lyapunov stability theorem is used, they do not involve any Lyapunov equation which may be unsolvable. Furthermore, it is seen the proposed schemes can be applied to solve the stability analysis problem of large-scale time-delay systems.

Keywords: homogeneous bilinear system, constrained input, time-delay, uncertainty, transient response, decay rate.

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203 Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Cellulose in Homogeneous Medium – Effect of Solvent and Initiator

Authors: B. Tosh, C. R. Routray

Abstract:

Homogeneous graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto cellulose was carried out in N, N – dimethyl acetamide/LiCl (DMAc/LiCl) and dimethyl sulfoxide/ paraformaldehyde (DMSO/PF) solvent system taking ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and tin (II)-2-ethyl hexanoate [Sn(Oct)2] as initiators. Different grafting parameters like graft yield (GY), grafting efficiency (GE) and total conversion of monomer to polymer (TC) were evaluated at different reaction conditions of temperature, time, and variation of the amount of monomer and initiator. The viscosity average molecular weight of grafted PMMA and number of grafts per cellulose chain were also calculated. The products were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses and possible reaction mechanisms were deduced. Thermal degradation of the grafted products was also studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermo-gravimetry (DTG).

Keywords: Grafting, grafting efficiency, homogeneous medium, methyl methacrylate.

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202 Stochastic Comparisons of Heterogeneous Samples with Homogeneous Exponential Samples

Authors: Nitin Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

In the present communication, stochastic comparison of a series (parallel) system having heterogeneous components with random lifetimes and series (parallel) system having homogeneous exponential components with random lifetimes has been studied. Further, conditions under which such a comparison is possible has been established.

Keywords: Exponential distribution, Order statistics, Star ordering, Stochastic ordering.

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201 Evaluation of Ensemble Classifiers for Intrusion Detection

Authors: M. Govindarajan

Abstract:

One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed with homogeneous ensemble classifier using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifier using arcing and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of standard datasets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase, and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments is conducted for standard datasets of intrusion detection. The performance of the proposed homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers are compared to the performance of other standard homogeneous and heterogeneous ensemble methods. The standard homogeneous ensemble methods include Error correcting output codes, Dagging and heterogeneous ensemble methods include majority voting, stacking. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and the proposed bagged RBF and SVM performs significantly better than ECOC and Dagging and the proposed hybrid RBF-SVM performs significantly better than voting and stacking. Also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for standard datasets of intrusion detection. 

Keywords: Data mining, ensemble, radial basis function, support vector machine, accuracy.

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200 GCM Based Fuzzy Clustering to Identify Homogeneous Climatic Regions of North-East India

Authors: Arup K. Sarma, Jayshree Hazarika

Abstract:

The North-eastern part of India, which receives heavier rainfall than other parts of the subcontinent, is of great concern now-a-days with regard to climate change. High intensity rainfall for short duration and longer dry spell, occurring due to impact of climate change, affects river morphology too. In the present study, an attempt is made to delineate the North-eastern region of India into some homogeneous clusters based on the Fuzzy Clustering concept and to compare the resulting clusters obtained by using conventional methods and nonconventional methods of clustering. The concept of clustering is adapted in view of the fact that, impact of climate change can be studied in a homogeneous region without much variation, which can be helpful in studies related to water resources planning and management. 10 IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) stations, situated in various regions of the North-east, have been selected for making the clusters. The results of the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) analysis show different clustering patterns for different conditions. From the analysis and comparison it can be concluded that nonconventional method of using GCM data is somehow giving better results than the others. However, further analysis can be done by taking daily data instead of monthly means to reduce the effect of standardization.

Keywords: Climate change, conventional and nonconventional methods of clustering, FCM analysis, homogeneous regions.

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199 Dynamic Stability of Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies dynamic stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to periodic axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing dynamic equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, foundation coefficient and piezoelectric thickness on the unstable regions are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Homogeneous graded beam-Piezoelectric layer, Harmonic balance method.

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198 Computing Transition Intensity Using Time-Homogeneous Markov Jump Process: Case of South African HIV/AIDS Disposition

Authors: A. Bayaga

Abstract:

This research provides a technical account of estimating Transition Probability using Time-homogeneous Markov Jump Process applying by South African HIV/AIDS data from the Statistics South Africa. It employs Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) model to explore the possible influence of Transition Probability of mortality cases in which case the data was based on actual Statistics South Africa. This was conducted via an integrated demographic and epidemiological model of South African HIV/AIDS epidemic. The model was fitted to age-specific HIV prevalence data and recorded death data using MLE model. Though the previous model results suggest HIV in South Africa has declined and AIDS mortality rates have declined since 2002 – 2013, in contrast, our results differ evidently with the generally accepted HIV models (Spectrum/EPP and ASSA2008) in South Africa. However, there is the need for supplementary research to be conducted to enhance the demographic parameters in the model and as well apply it to each of the nine (9) provinces of South Africa.

Keywords: AIDS mortality rates, Epidemiological model, Time-homogeneous Markov Jump Process, Transition Probability, Statistics South Africa.

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197 Electromagnetic Flow Meter Efficiency

Authors: Andrey D. Andreev, Ilona I. Iatcheva, Dimitar N. Karastoyanov, Rumena D. Stancheva

Abstract:

A study of electromagnetic flow meter is presented in the paper. Comparison has been made between the analytical and the numerical results by the use of FEM numerical analysis (Quick Field 5.6) for determining polarization voltage through the circle cross section of the polarization transducer. Exciting and geometrical parameters increasing its effectiveness has been examined. The aim is to obtain maximal output signal. The investigations include different variants of the magnetic flux density distribution around the tube: homogeneous field of magnitude Bm, linear distribution with maximal value Bm and trapezium distribution conserving the same exciting magnetic energy as the homogeneous field.

Keywords: Effectiveness, electromagnetic flow meter, finite element method, polarization voltage.

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196 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.

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195 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: Bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy.

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194 [Ti(OC4H9)4/2,5-Dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/Ethylene Chlorobromide] as a Novel Homogeneous Catalyst System Effective for the Ethylene Dimerization Reaction

Authors: Seyed Hamed Mahdaviani, Davood Soudbar, Matin Parvari

Abstract:

In the present research, the titanium-catalyzed ethylene dimerization and more specifically, the concomitant byproducts and polymer formation have been studied in the presence of 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran as an electron donor compound in the combination with triethylaluminium (TEA) as activator. Then, we added ethylene chlorobromide as a new efficient promoter to the relevant catalyst system. Finally, the behavior of novel homogeneous [Titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OC4H9)4)/2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/ethylene chlorobromide] was investigated in the various operating conditions for the optimum production of 1-butene. In the optimum conditions, a very high ethylene conversion (almost 90.77 %), a relative high selectivity to 1-butene (79.00 %), yield of reaction equal to 71.70 % and a significant productivity (turnover frequency equal to 1370 h-1) were achieved.

Keywords: Ethylene dimerization, 2, 5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran, ethylene chlorobromide, polymeric compounds

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193 A New Muscle Architecture Model with Non-Uniform Distribution of Muscle Fiber Types

Authors: Javier Navallas, Armando Malanda, Luis Gila, Javier Rodriguez, Ignacio Rodriguez

Abstract:

According to previous studies, some muscles present a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of its muscle fiber types and motor unit types. However, available muscle models only deal with muscles with homogeneous distributions. In this paper, a new architecture muscle model is proposed to permit the construction of non-uniform distributions of muscle fibers within the muscle cross section. The idea behind is the use of a motor unit placement algorithm that controls the spatial overlapping of the motor unit territories of each motor unit type. Results show the capabilities of the new algorithm to reproduce arbitrary muscle fiber type distributions.

Keywords: muscle model, muscle architecture, motor unit, EMG simulation.

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192 Preparation of Homogeneous Dense Composite of Zirconia and Alumina (ZTA)using Colloidal Filtration

Authors: H. Wakily, M. Mehrali, H. S. C. Metselaar

Abstract:

Homogeneous composites of alumina and zirconia with a small amount of MgO (<1 wt %) were prepared by colloidal filtration. The object of using ZrO2 (15wt %) was to provide zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). Suspensions of alumina and Zirconia with various solid loadings and various concentrations of Dolapix CE64 as surfactant were studied. The stability of these suspensions was investigated using rheological measurements. The optimum amount of using Dolapix was 0.8wt% for ZTA containing MgO suspension which gave low apparent viscosity in basic area (100 mPa s at shear rate of 50 s-1). The satisfactory mixtures were made into sample pallets using colloidal filtration. The process was completed with pressureless sintering in suitable temperature. Phase, grain size and qualitative compositional analysis were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. ZTA containing 0.05 wt% MgO shows the lowest grain size for alumina around 0.5 μm. Densification studies show that near full densities (>99%) were obtained for ZTA ceramic containing 0.05 wt% MgO in 1500 °C.

Keywords: Colloidal filtration, Dolapix, MgO, Zirconiatoughened alumina.

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191 Dynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Grid Computing

Authors: Belabbas Yagoubi, Yahya Slimani

Abstract:

Workload and resource management are two essential functions provided at the service level of the grid software infrastructure. To improve the global throughput of these software environments, workloads have to be evenly scheduled among the available resources. To realize this goal several load balancing strategies and algorithms have been proposed. Most strategies were developed in mind, assuming homogeneous set of sites linked with homogeneous and fast networks. However for computational grids we must address main new issues, namely: heterogeneity, scalability and adaptability. In this paper, we propose a layered algorithm which achieve dynamic load balancing in grid computing. Based on a tree model, our algorithm presents the following main features: (i) it is layered; (ii) it supports heterogeneity and scalability; and, (iii) it is totally independent from any physical architecture of a grid.

Keywords: Grid computing, load balancing, workload, tree based model.

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190 Static Response of Homogeneous Clay Stratum to Imposed Structural Loads

Authors: Aaron Aboshio

Abstract:

Numerical study of the static response of homogeneous clay stratum considering a wide range of cohesion and subject to foundation loads is presented. The linear elastic–perfectly plastic constitutive relation with the von Mises yield criterion were utilised to develop a numerically cost effective finite element model for the soil while imposing a rigid body constrain to the foundation footing. From the analyses carried out, estimate of the bearing capacity factor, Nc as well as the ultimate load-carrying capacities of these soils, effect of cohesion on foundation settlements, stress fields and failure propagation were obtained. These are consistent with other findings in the literature and hence can be a useful guide in design of safe foundations in clay soils for buildings and other structure.

Keywords: Bearing capacity factors, finite element method, safe bearing pressure, structure-soil interaction.

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189 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

An analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a couple stress fluid in the presence of magnetic field with both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions is presented. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition and long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average effective coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient tends to decrease with magnetic field parameter, homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter and amplitude ratio but tends to increase with heterogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: Dispersion, Peristalsis, Couple stress fluid, Chemicalreaction, Magnetic field.

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188 The Effects of Peristalsis on Dispersion of a Micropolar Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

The paper presents an analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a micropolar fluid in the presence of magnetic field and both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition under long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient increases with amplitude ratio, cross viscosity coefficient and heterogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter. But it decreases with magnetic field parameter and homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter. It can be noted that the presence of peristalsis enhances dispersion of a solute.

Keywords: Peristalsis, Dispersion, Chemical reaction, Magneticfield, Micropolar fluid

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187 Bidirectional Pendulum Vibration Absorbers with Homogeneous Variable Tangential Friction: Modelling and Design

Authors: Emiliano Matta

Abstract:

Passive resonant vibration absorbers are among the most widely used dynamic control systems in civil engineering. They typically consist in a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical appendage of the main structure, tuned to one structural target mode through frequency and damping optimization. One classical scheme is the pendulum absorber, whose mass is constrained to move along a curved trajectory and is damped by viscous dashpots. Even though the principle is well known, the search for improved arrangements is still under way. In recent years this investigation inspired a type of bidirectional pendulum absorber (BPA), consisting of a mass constrained to move along an optimal three-dimensional (3D) concave surface. For such a BPA, the surface principal curvatures are designed to ensure a bidirectional tuning of the absorber to both principal modes of the main structure, while damping is produced either by horizontal viscous dashpots or by vertical friction dashpots, connecting the BPA to the main structure. In this paper, a variant of BPA is proposed, where damping originates from the variable tangential friction force which develops between the pendulum mass and the 3D surface as a result of a spatially-varying friction coefficient pattern. Namely, a friction coefficient is proposed that varies along the pendulum surface in proportion to the modulus of the 3D surface gradient. With such an assumption, the dissipative model of the absorber can be proven to be nonlinear homogeneous in the small displacement domain. The resulting homogeneous BPA (HBPA) has a fundamental advantage over conventional friction-type absorbers, because its equivalent damping ratio results independent on the amplitude of oscillations, and therefore its optimal performance does not depend on the excitation level. On the other hand, the HBPA is more compact than viscously damped BPAs because it does not need the installation of dampers. This paper presents the analytical model of the HBPA and an optimal methodology for its design. Numerical simulations of single- and multi-story building structures under wind and earthquake loads are presented to compare the HBPA with classical viscously damped BPAs. It is shown that the HBPA is a promising alternative to existing BPA types and that homogeneous tangential friction is an effective means to realize systems provided with amplitude-independent damping.

Keywords: Amplitude-independent damping, Homogeneous friction, Pendulum nonlinear dynamics, Structural control, Vibration resonant absorbers.

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186 Plasma Density Distribution in Asymmetric Geometry Capacitive Coupled Plasma Discharge System

Authors: Yinchang Du, Yangfang Li

Abstract:

In this work, we used the single Langmuir probe to measure the plasma density distribution in an geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma discharge system. Because of the frame structure of powered electrode, the plasma density was not homogeneous in the discharge volume. It was higher under the frame, but lower in the centre. Finite element simulation results showed a good agreement with the experiment results. To increase the electron density in the central volume and improve the homogeneity of the plasma, we added an auxiliary electrode, powered by DC voltage, in the simulation geometry. The simulation results showed that the auxiliary electrode could alter the potential distribution and improve the density homogeneity effectively.

Keywords: Capacitive coupled discharge, asymmetric discharge, homogeneous plasma.

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185 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid through a Porous Medium with Slip Condition

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

The paper presents an analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a couple stress fluid through a porous medium with slip condition in the presence of both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition and long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient tends to increase with permeability parameter but tends to decrease with homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter, couple stress parameter, slip parameter and heterogeneous reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: Dispersion, Peristalsis, Couple stress fluid, Porousmedium, Chemical reaction, Slip condition.

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184 A Local Statistics Based Region Growing Segmentation Method for Ultrasound Medical Images

Authors: Ashish Thakur, Radhey Shyam Anand

Abstract:

This paper presents the region based segmentation method for ultrasound images using local statistics. In this segmentation approach the homogeneous regions depends on the image granularity features, where the interested structures with dimensions comparable to the speckle size are to be extracted. This method uses a look up table comprising of the local statistics of every pixel, which are consisting of the homogeneity and similarity bounds according to the kernel size. The shape and size of the growing regions depend on this look up table entries. The algorithms are implemented by using connected seeded region growing procedure where each pixel is taken as seed point. The region merging after the region growing also suppresses the high frequency artifacts. The updated merged regions produce the output in formed of segmented image. This algorithm produces the results that are less sensitive to the pixel location and it also allows a segmentation of the accurate homogeneous regions.

Keywords: Local statistics, region growing, segmentation, ultrasound images.

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183 CFD Analysis of Two Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe – Prediction of Pressure Drop

Authors: P. Bhramara, V. D. Rao, K. V. Sharma , T. K. K. Reddy

Abstract:

In designing of condensers, the prediction of pressure drop is as important as the prediction of heat transfer coefficient. Modeling of two phase flow, particularly liquid – vapor flow under diabatic conditions inside a horizontal tube using CFD analysis is difficult with the available two phase models in FLUENT due to continuously changing flow patterns. In the present analysis, CFD analysis of two phase flow of refrigerants inside a horizontal tube of inner diameter, 0.0085 m and 1.2 m length is carried out using homogeneous model under adiabatic conditions. The refrigerants considered are R22, R134a and R407C. The analysis is performed at different saturation temperatures and at different flow rates to evaluate the local frictional pressure drop. Using Homogeneous model, average properties are obtained for each of the refrigerants that is considered as single phase pseudo fluid. The so obtained pressure drop data is compared with the separated flow models available in literature.

Keywords: Adiabatic conditions, CFD analysis, Homogeneousmodel and Liquid – Vapor flow.

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182 Characterizing the Geometry of Envy Human Behaviour Using Game Theory Model with Two Types of Homogeneous Players

Authors: A. S. Mousa, R. I. Rajab, A. A. Pinto

Abstract:

An envy behavioral game theoretical model with two types of homogeneous players is considered in this paper. The strategy space of each type of players is a discrete set with only two alternatives. The preferences of each type of players is given by a discrete utility function. All envy strategies that form Nash equilibria and the corresponding envy Nash domains for each type of players have been characterized. We use geometry to construct two dimensional envy tilings where the horizontal axis reflects the preference for players of type one, while the vertical axis reflects the preference for the players of type two. The influence of the envy behavior parameters on the Cartesian position of the equilibria has been studied, and in each envy tiling we determine the envy Nash equilibria. We observe that there are 1024 combinatorial classes of envy tilings generated from envy chromosomes: 256 of them are being structurally stable while 768 are with bifurcation. Finally, some conditions for the disparate envy Nash equilibria are stated.

Keywords: Game theory, Nash Equilibrium, envy Nash Equilibrium, geometric tilings, bifurcation thresholds.

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181 Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil with Sulfated Zirconia: Effect of Calcination Temperature

Authors: Suthat Turapan, Cattareya Yotkamchornkun, Kamchai Nuithitikul

Abstract:

The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil with a homogeneous base catalyst is unlikely owing to considerable formation of soap. Free fatty acids (FFA) in crude palm oil need to be reduced, e.g. by esterification. This study investigated the activity of sulfated zirconia calcined at various temperatures for esterification of FFA in crude palm oil to biodiesel. It was found that under a proper reaction condition, sulfated zirconia well catalyzes esterification. FFA content can be reduced to an acceptable value for typical biodiesel production with a homogeneous base catalyst. Crystallinity and sulfate attachment of sulfated zirconia depend on calcination temperature during the catalyst preparation. Too low temperature of calcination gives amorphous sulfated zirconia which has low activity for esterification of FFA. In contrast, very high temperature of calcination removes sulfate group, consequently, conversion of FFA is reduced. The appropriate temperature range of calcination is 550-650 oC.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Esterification, Free fatty acids, Sulfatedzirconia.

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