Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6978

Search results for: High mechanical strength

6978 Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

Keywords: Gas analysis, high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fibers, raw rice husk.

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6977 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: High tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology.

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6976 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin

Abstract:

Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: High-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide.

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6975 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: PSC members, shear failure mode, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, shear behavior.

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6974 A Study on Cement-Based Composite Containing Polypropylene Fibers and Finely Ground Glass Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: O. Alidoust, I. Sadrinejad, M. A. Ahmadi

Abstract:

High strength concrete has been used in situations where it may be exposed to elevated temperatures. Numerous authors have shown the significant contribution of polypropylene fiber to the spalling resistance of high strength concrete. When cement-based composite that reinforced by polypropylene fibers heated up to 170 °C, polypropylene fibers readily melt and volatilize, creating additional porosity and small channels in to the matrix that cause the poor structure and low strength. This investigation develops on the mechanical properties of mortar incorporating polypropylene fibers exposed to high temperature. Also effects of different pozzolans on strength behaviour of samples at elevated temperature have been studied. To reach this purpose, the specimens were produced by partial replacement of cement with finely ground glass, silica fume and rice husk ash as high reactive pozzolans. The amount of this replacement was 10% by weight of cement to find the effects of pozzolans as a partial replacement of cement on the mechanical properties of mortars. In this way, lots of mixtures with 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of polypropylene fibers were cast and tested for compressive and flexural strength, accordance to ASTM standard. After that specimens being heated to temperatures of 300, 600 °C, respectively, the mechanical properties of heated samples were tested. Mechanical tests showed significant reduction in compressive strength which could be due to polypropylene fiber melting. Also pozzolans improve the mechanical properties of sampels.

Keywords: Mechanical properties, compressive strength, Flexural strength, pozzolanic behavior.

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6973 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: Compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash.

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6972 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: Diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior.

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6971 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fibers content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; fibers volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76% and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fibers content added; whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fibers content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers.

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6970 Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Prabhat Ranjan Prem, B.H.Bharatkumar, Nagesh R Iyer

Abstract:

A research program is conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete, target compressive strength at the age of 28 days being more than 150 MPa. The methodology to develop such mix has been explained. The material properties, mix design and curing regime are determined. The material attributes are understood by studying the stress strain behaviour of UHPC cylinders under uniaxial compressive loading. The load –crack mouth opening displacement (cmod) of UHPC beams, flexural strength and fracture energy was evaluated using third point loading test. Compressive strength and Split tensile strength results are determined to find out the compressive and tensile behaviour. Residual strength parameters are presented vividly explaining the flexural performance, toughness of concrete.Durability studies were also done to compare the effect of fibre to that of a control mix For all the studies the Mechanical properties were evaluated by varying the percentage and aspect ratio of steel fibres The results reflected that higher aspect ratio and fibre volume produced drastic changes in the cube strength, cylinder strength, post peak response, load-cmod, fracture energy flexural strength, split tensile strength, residual strength and durability. In regards to null application of UHPC in India, an initiative is undertaken to comprehend the mechanical behaviour of UHPC, which will be vital for longer run in commercialization for structural applications.

Keywords: Ultra High Performance Concrete, Reinforcement Index, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Residual Strength, Fracture Energy, Stress-Strain Relationships, Load-Crack Mouth Opening Displacement and Durability.

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6969 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH, as a sustainable material, instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties.

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6968 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali

Abstract:

This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: Experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading.

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6967 Laboratory Investigations on Mechanical Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete and Composite Sections

Authors: Aravindkumar B. Harwalkar, S. S. Awanti

Abstract:

Use of fly ash as a supplementary cementing material in large volumes can bring both technological and economic benefits for concrete industry. In this investigation mix proportions for high volume fly ash concrete were determined at cement replacement levels of 50%, 55%, 60% and 65% with low calcium fly ash. Flexural and compressive strengths of different mixes were measured at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days. Flexural strength of composite section prepared from pavement quality and lean high volume fly ash concrete was determined at the age of 28 days. High volume fly ash concrete mixes exhibited higher rate of strength gain and age factors than corresponding reference concrete mixes. The optimum cement replacement level for pavement quality concrete was found to be 60%. The consideration of bond between pavement quality and lean of high volume fly ash concrete will be beneficial in design of rigid pavements.

Keywords: Keywords—Composite section, Compressive strength, Flexural strength, Fly ash.

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6966 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: C. B. K.Rao, Rooban Kumar

Abstract:

Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and constituents when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Principal effects due to elevated temperatures are loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete. The experimental results of normal concrete and high strength concrete subjected elevated temperatures at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching on different grade of concrete are reported in this paper.

Keywords: High strength concrete, Normal strength concrete, Elevated Temperature, Loss of mass.

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6965 Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

Authors: S.M. Gupta, V.K. Sehgal, S.K. Kaushik

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the shrinkage of High Strength Concrete. High Strength Concrete is made by partially replacement of cement by flyash and silica fume. The shrinkage of High Strength Concrete has been studied using the different types of coarse and fine aggregates i.e. Sandstone and Granite of 12.5 mm size and Yamuna and Badarpur Sand. The Mix proportion of concrete is 1:0.8:2.2 with water cement ratio as 0.30. Superplasticizer dose @ of 2% by weight of cement is added to achieve the required degree of workability in terms of compaction factor. From the test results of the above investigation it can be concluded that the shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete increases with age. The shrinkage strain of concrete with replacement of cement by 10% of Flyash and Silica fume respectively at various ages are more (6 to 10%) than the shrinkage strain of concrete without Flyash and Silica fume. The shrinkage strain of concrete with Badarpur sand as Fine aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (10%) than that of concrete with Yamuna Sand. Further, the shrinkage strain of concrete with Granite as Coarse aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (6 to 7%) than that of concrete with Sand stone as aggregate of same size. The shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete is also compared with that of normal strength concrete. Test results show that the shrinkage strain of high strength concrete is less than that of normal strength concrete.

Keywords: Shrinkage high strength concrete, fly ash, silica fume& superplastizers.

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6964 Investigation of Rehabilitation Effects on Fire Damaged High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Eun Mi Ryu, Ah Young An, Ji Yeon Kang, Yeong Soo Shin, Hee Sun Kim

Abstract:

When high strength reinforced concrete is exposed to high temperature due to a fire, deteriorations occur such as loss in strength and elastic modulus, cracking and spalling of the concrete. Therefore, it is important to understand risk of structural safety in building structures by studying structural behaviors and rehabilitation of fire damaged high strength concrete structures. This paper aims at investigating rehabilitation effect on fire damaged high strength concrete beams using experimental and analytical methods. In the experiments, flexural specimens with high strength concrete are exposed to high temperatures according to ISO 834 standard time temperature curve. From four-point loading test, results show that maximum loads of the rehabilitated beams are similar to or higher than those of the non-fire damaged RC beam. In addition, structural analyses are performed using ABAQUS 6.10-3 with same conditions as experiments to provide accurate predictions on structural and mechanical behaviors of rehabilitated RC beams. The parameters are the fire cover thickness and strengths of repairing mortar. Analytical results show good rehabilitation effects, when the results predicted from the rehabilitated models are compared to structural behaviors of the non-damaged RC beams. In this study, fire damaged high strength concrete beams are rehabilitated using polymeric cement mortar. The predictions from the finite element (FE) models show good agreements with the experimental results and the modeling approaches can be used to investigate applicability of various rehabilitation methods for further study.

Keywords: Fire, High strength concrete, Rehabilitation, Reinforced concrete beam.

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6963 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

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6962 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental  study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and  flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength  Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition,  the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after  heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the  test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse  velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method  for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three  grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up  to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results  show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes  heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that  mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an  increase in temperature.

 

Keywords: High temperature, Compressive strength, Mass loss, Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

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6961 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva

Abstract:

The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% @ 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes that have been designed, three were conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen were HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days, and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave-One-Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: ANN, concrete mixes, compressive strength, fly ash, high performance concrete, linear regression, strength prediction models.

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6960 Springback Simulations of Monolithic and Layered Steels Used for Pressure Equipment

Authors: Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Carbon steel is used in boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, structural elements and other moderatetemperature service systems in which good strength and ductility are desired. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part A (2004) provides specifications of ferrous materials for construction of pressure equipment, covering wide range of mechanical properties including high strength materials for power plants application. However, increased level of springback is one of the major problems in fabricating components of high strength steel using bending. Presented work discuss the springback simulations for five different steels (i.e. SA-36, SA-299, SA-515 grade 70, SA-612 and SA-724 grade B) using finite element analysis of air V-bending. Analytical springback simulations of hypothetical layered materials are presented. Result shows that; (i) combination of the material property parameters controls the springback, (ii) layer of the high ductility steel on the high strength steel greatly suppresses the springback.

Keywords: Carbon steel, Finite element analysis, Layeredmaterial, Springback

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6959 The Effect of Confinement Shapes on Over-Reinforced HSC Beams

Authors: Ross Jeffry, Muhammad N. S. Hadi

Abstract:

High strength concrete (HSC) provides high strength but lower ductility than normal strength concrete. This low ductility limits the benefit of using HSC in building safe structures. On the other hand, when designing reinforced concrete beams, designers have to limit the amount of tensile reinforcement to prevent the brittle failure of concrete. Therefore the full potential of the use of steel reinforcement can not be achieved. This paper presents the idea of confining concrete in the compression zone so that the HSC will be in a state of triaxial compression, which leads to improvements in strength and ductility. Five beams made of HSC were cast and tested. The cross section of the beams was 200×300 mm, with a length of 4 m and a clear span of 3.6 m subjected to four-point loading, with emphasis placed on the midspan deflection. The first beam served as a reference beam. The remaining beams had different tensile reinforcement and the confinement shapes were changed to gauge their effectiveness in improving the strength and ductility of the beams. The compressive strength of the concrete was 85 MPa and the tensile strength of the steel was 500 MPa and for the stirrups and helixes was 250 MPa. Results of testing the five beams proved that placing helixes with different diameters as a variable parameter in the compression zone of reinforced concrete beams improve their strength and ductility.

Keywords: Confinement, ductility, high strength concrete, reinforced concrete beam.

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6958 Aging and Mechanical Behavior of Be-Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash, S. Alkahtani

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of pre-aging and aging parameters (time and temperature) on the mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys. Ultimate tensile strength, 0.5% offset yield strength and % elongation measurements were carried out on specimens prepared from cast and heat treated 7075 alloys. Aging treatments were carried out for the as solution treated (SHT) specimens (after quenching in warm water). The specimens were aged at different conditions; Natural aging was carried out at room temperature for different periods of time. Double aging was performed for SHT conditions (pre-aged at different time and temperature followed by high temperature aging). Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation as a function of different pre-aging and aging parameters are analyzed to acquire an understanding of the effects of these variables and their interactions on the mechanical properties of Be-treated 7075 alloys.

Keywords: Duplex Aging Treatment, Mechanical Properties, Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys.

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6957 Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Surface Modified Nano Sized TiO2 Particles

Authors: Mirigul Altan, Huseyin Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastics occupy wide place in the applications of automotive, electronics and house goods. Especially reinforced plastics become popular because of their high strength besides their advantages of low weight and easy manufacturability. In this study, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites reinforced with surface modified nano titan dioxide (TiO2) particles were investigated. Surface modification was made by coating the nano powders with maleic anhydride grafted styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane, respectively. After surface modification, PP/TiO2 and HDPE/TiO2 composites were obtained by using twin screw extruder at titan dioxide loading of 1 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.%. Effects of surface modification were determined by thermal and morphological analysis. SEBS-g-MA provided bridging effect between TiO2 particles and polymer matrix while silane was effective as a dispersant. Depending on that, homogenous structures without agglomeration were obtained. Mechanical tests were performed on the injection moldings of the composites for obtaining the impact strength, tensile strength, stress at break, elongation and elastic modulus. Reinforced HDPE and PP moldings gave higher tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the rigid structure of TiO2. Slight increment was seen in stress at break. Elongation and impact strength decreased due to the stiffness of the nano titan dioxide.

Keywords: High density polyethylene, mechanical properties, nano TiO2, polypropylene.

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6956 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength.

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6955 Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: M. Aruna

Abstract:

Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fibre-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced Composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. Sisal fibres are abundantly available in the hot areas. Sisal fibre has emerged as a reinforcing material for concretes, used in civil structures. In this work, properties such as hardness and tensile strength of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites with 6, 12, 18 and 24% by weight of sisal fibres were assessed. Sisal fibre reinforced cement composite slabs with long sisal fibres were manufactured using a cast hand lay up technique. Mechanical response was measured under tension. The high energy absorption capacity of the developed composite system was reflected in high toughness values under tension respectively. 

Keywords: Sisal fibre, fibre-reinforced concrete, mechanical behaviour.

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6954 Physio-mechanical Properties of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 and SiC

Authors: D. Sujan, Z. Oo, M. E. Rahman, M. A. Maleque, C. K. Tan

Abstract:

Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are potential materials for various applications due to their advantageous of physical and mechanical properties. This paper presents a study on the performance of stir cast Al2O3 SiC reinforced metal matrix composite materials. The results indicate that the composite materials exhibit improved physical and mechanical properties, such as, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high ultimate tensile strength, high impact strength, and hardness. It has been found that with the increase of weight percentage of reinforcement particles in the aluminium metal matrix, the new material exhibits lower wear rate against abrasive wearing. Being extremely lighter than the conventional gray cast iron material, the Al-Al2O3 and Al-SiC composites could be potential green materials for applications in the automobile industry, for instance, in making car disc brake rotors.

Keywords: Metal Matrix Composite, Strength to Weight Ratio, Wear Rate

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6953 Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veerasham

Abstract:

The refractory high entropy alloys are potential materials for high-temperature applications because of their ability to retain high strength up to 1600°C. However, their practical applications were limited due to poor elongation at room temperature. Therefore, decreasing the average valence electron concentrations (VEC) is an effective design strategy to improve the intrinsic ductility of refractory high entropy alloys. In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. Subsequently, the reverse rolled 90% samples were utilized for annealing treatment at 800°C and 1000°C for 1 h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains body-centered cubic (BCC) single-phase; upon annealing at 800 °C, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. The reverse rolled condition and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without compromising loss of ductility called “strength-ductility” trade-off. The reverse-rolled 90% and annealing treatment carried out at temperature about 1000°C for 1 h consist of UTS 1430 MPa and 1556 MPa with an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively. The development of hierarchical microstructure prevailed for the annealed 1000°C which led to the simultaneous increase in tensile strength and elongation.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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6952 The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft

Authors: Shwe Wut Hmon Aye, Kay Thi Lwin, Waing Waing Kay Khine Oo

Abstract:

As the material used for fuselage structure must possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on 7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ageing, heat treatment, strength.

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6951 Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.

Keywords: Blast furnace iron slag, HMA, Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength.

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6950 Overview Studies of High Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Raya Harkouss, Bilal Hamad

Abstract:

Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) is considered as a relatively new technology created as an effective solution to problems associated with low quality consolidation. A SCC mix is defined as successful if it flows freely and cohesively without the intervention of mechanical compaction. The construction industry is showing high tendency to use SCC in many contemporary projects to benefit from the various advantages offered by this technology.

At this point, a main question is raised regarding the effect of enhanced fluidity of SCC on the structural behavior of high strength self-consolidating reinforced concrete.

A three phase research program was conducted at the American University of Beirut (AUB) to address this concern. The first two phases consisted of comparative studies conducted on concrete and mortar mixes prepared with second generation Sulphonated Naphtalene-based superplasticizer (SNF) or third generation Polycarboxylate Ethers-based superplasticizer (PCE). The third phase of the research program investigates and compares the structural performance of high strength reinforced concrete beam specimens prepared with two different generations of superplasticizers that formed the unique variable between the concrete mixes. The beams were designed to test and exhibit flexure, shear, or bond splitting failure.

The outcomes of the experimental work revealed comparable resistance of beam specimens cast using self-compacting concrete and conventional vibrated concrete. The dissimilarities in the experimental values between the SCC and the control VC beams were minimal, leading to a conclusion, that the high consistency of SCC has little effect on the flexural, shear and bond strengths of concrete members.

Keywords: Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), high-strength concrete, concrete admixtures, mechanical properties of hardened SCC, structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams.

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6949 Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Robert J. Thomas, Colton Bedke, Andrew Sorensen

Abstract:

The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.

Keywords: Charpy impact test, dynamic shear, impact loading, ultra-high performance concrete.

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