Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2548

Search results for: High Power Application

2398 Prediction of Nonlinear Torsional Behavior of High Strength RC Beams

Authors: Woo-Young Jung, Minho Kwon

Abstract:

Seismic design criteria based on performance of structures have recently been adopted by practicing engineers in response to destructive earthquakes. A simple but efficient structural-analysis tool capable of predicting both the strength and ductility is needed to analyze reinforced concrete (RC) structures under such event. A three-dimensional lattice model is developed in this study to analyze torsions in high-strength RC members. Optimization techniques for determining optimal variables in each lattice model are introduced. Pure torsion tests of RC members are performed to validate the proposed model. Correlation studies between the numerical and experimental results confirm that the proposed model is well capable of representing salient features of the experimental results.

Keywords: Torsion, non-linear analysis, three-dimensional lattice, high-strength concrete.

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2397 Fuzzy Logic Controlled Shunt Active Power Filter for Three-phase Four-wire Systems with Balanced and Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Ahmed A. Helal, Nahla E. Zakzouk, Yasser G. Desouky

Abstract:

This paper presents a fuzzy logic controlled shunt active power filter used to compensate for harmonic distortion in three-phase four-wire systems. The shunt active filter employs a simple method for the calculation of the reference compensation current based of Fast Fourier Transform. This presented filter is able to operate in both balanced and unbalanced load conditions. A fuzzy logic based current controller strategy is used to regulate the filter current and hence ensure harmonic free supply current. The validity of the presented approach in harmonic mitigation is verified via simulation results of the proposed test system under different loading conditions.

Keywords: Active power filters, Fuzzy logic controller, Power quality

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2396 Application of Soft Computing Methods for Economic Dispatch in Power Systems

Authors: Jagabondhu Hazra, Avinash Sinha

Abstract:

Economic dispatch problem is an optimization problem where objective function is highly non linear, non-convex, non-differentiable and may have multiple local minima. Therefore, classical optimization methods may not converge or get trapped to any local minima. This paper presents a comparative study of four different evolutionary algorithms i.e. genetic algorithm, bacteria foraging optimization, ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization for solving the economic dispatch problem. All the methods are tested on IEEE 30 bus test system. Simulation results are presented to show the comparative performance of these methods.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, bacteria foraging optimization, economic dispatch, evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization.

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2395 Determination of the Characteristics for Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Electric Power Systems

Authors: Sezen Yildirim, Tahir Çetin Akinci, Serhat Seker, Nazmi Ekren

Abstract:

Ferroresonance is an electrical phenomenon in nonlinear character, which frequently occurs in power system due to transmission line faults and single or more-phase switching on the lines as well as usage of the saturable transformers. In this study, the ferroresonance phenomena are investigated under the modeling of the West Anatolian Electric Power Network of 380 kV in Turkey. The ferroresonance event is observed as a result of removing the loads at the end of the lines. In this sense, two different cases are considered. At first, the switching is applied at 2nd second and the ferroresonance affects are observed between 2nd and 4th seconds in the voltage variations of the phase-R. Hence the ferroresonance and nonferroresonance parts of the overall data are compared with each others using the Fourier transform techniques to show the ferroresonance affects.

Keywords: Ferroresonance, West Anatolian Electric Power System, Power System Modeling, Switching, Spectral Analysis.

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2394 Design of Power System Stabilizer Based on Sliding Mode Control Theory for Multi- Machine Power System

Authors: Hossein Shahinzadeh, Ladan Darougaran, Ebrahim Jalili Sani, Hamed Yavari, Mahdi Mozaffari Legha

Abstract:

This paper present a new method for design of power system stabilizer (PSS) based on sliding mode control (SMC) technique. The control objective is to enhance stability and improve the dynamic response of the multi-machine power system. In order to test effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation will be carried out to analyze the small signal stability characteristics of the system about the steady state operating condition following the change in reference mechanical torque and also parameters uncertainties. For comparison, simulation of a conventional control PSS (lead-lag compensation type) will be carried out. The main approach is focusing on the control performance which later proven to have the degree of shorter reaching time and lower spike.

Keywords: Power system stabilizer (PSS), multi-machine power system, sliding mode control

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2393 Application of Boost Converter for Ride-through Capability of Adjustable Speed Drives during Sag and Swell Conditions

Authors: S. S. Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain

Abstract:

Process control and energy conservation are the two primary reasons for using an adjustable speed drive. However, voltage sags are the most important power quality problems facing many commercial and industrial customers. The development of boost converters has raised much excitement and speculation throughout the electric industry. Now utilities are looking to these devices for performance improvement and reliability in a variety of areas. Examples of these include sags, spikes, or transients in supply voltage as well as unbalanced voltages, poor electrical system grounding, and harmonics. In this paper, simulations results are presented for the verification of the proposed boost converter topology. Boost converter provides ride through capability during sag and swell. Further, input currents are near sinusoidal. This eliminates the need of braking resistor also.

Keywords: Adjustable speed drive, power quality, boost converter, ride through capabilities.

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2392 Approach to Implementation of Power Management with Load Prioritizations in Modern Civil Aircraft

Authors: Brice Nya, Detlef Schulz

Abstract:

Any use of energy in industrial productive activities is combined with various environment impacts. Withintransportation, this fact was not only found among land transport, railways and maritime transport, but also in the air transport industry. An effective climate protection requires strategies and measures for reducing all greenhouses gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, and must take into account the economic, ecologic and social aspects. It seem simperative now to develop and manufacture environmentally friendly products and systems, to reduce consumption and use less resource, and to save energy and power. Today-sproducts could better serve these requirements taking into account the integration of a power management system into the electrical power system.This paper gives an overview of an approach ofpower management with load prioritization in modernaircraft. Load dimensioning and load management strategies on current civil aircraft will be presented and used as a basis for the proposed approach.

Keywords: Load management, power management, electrical load analysis, flight mission, power load profile.

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2391 Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm for Voltage Stability in Large Power Systems

Authors: Mohamad R. Khaldi, Christine S. Khoury, Guy M. Naim

Abstract:

The steady-state operation of maintaining voltage stability is done by switching various controllers scattered all over the power network. When a contingency occurs, whether forced or unforced, the dispatcher is to alleviate the problem in a minimum time, cost, and effort. Persistent problem may lead to blackout. The dispatcher is to have the appropriate switching of controllers in terms of type, location, and size to remove the contingency and maintain voltage stability. Wrong switching may worsen the problem and that may lead to blackout. This work proposed and used a Fuzzy CMeans Clustering (FCMC) to assist the dispatcher in the decision making. The FCMC is used in the static voltage stability to map instantaneously a contingency to a set of controllers where the types, locations, and amount of switching are induced.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Power system control, Reactive power control, Voltage control

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2390 Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Stepdown Transformers for DC-DC Converter Applications

Authors: Radhika Ambatipudi, Hari Babu Kotte, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayered coreless printed circuit board (PCB) step-down power transformers for DC-DC converter applications have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. A set of two different circular spiral step-down transformers were fabricated in the four layered PCB. These transformers have been modelled with the assistance of high frequency equivalent circuit and characterized with both sinusoidal and square wave excitation. This paper provides the comparative results of these two different transformers in terms of their resistances, self, leakage, mutual inductances, coupling coefficient and also their energy efficiencies. The operating regions for optimal performance of these transformers for power transfer applications are determined. These transformers were tested for the output power levels of about 30 Watts within the input voltage range of 12-50 Vrms. The energy efficiency for these step down transformers is observed to be in the range of 90%-97% in MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless Step down Transformer, DC-DC Converterapplications, High frequency transformer, MHz operating frequency, Multilayered PCB transformers, Power Transfer Applications.

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2389 High-Speed High-Gain CMOS OTA for SC Applications

Authors: M.Yousefi, A.Vatanjou, F.Nazeri

Abstract:

A fast settling multipath CMOS OTA for high speed switched capacitor applications is presented here. With the basic topology similar to folded-cascode, bandwidth and DC gain of the OTA are enhanced by adding extra paths for signal from input to output. Designed circuit is simulated with HSPICE using level 49 parameters (BSIM 3v3) in 0.35mm standard CMOS technology. DC gain achieved is 56.7dB and Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) obtained is 1.15GHz. These results confirm that adding extra paths for signal can improve DC gain and UGB of folded-cascode significantly.

Keywords: OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier), DC gain, Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGBW)

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2388 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: Power Quality Disturbances, Power Quality Evaluation, Statistical Analysis.

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2387 A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics

Authors: Aylin Alin

Abstract:

In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.

Keywords: Contingency table, Log-linear models, Penalization, Power-divergence measure, Penalized power-divergence measure.

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2386 Genetic Algorithm Based Design of Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizers in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Aalok Dubey

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizers using genetic algorithms. In the proposed fuzzy expert system, speed deviation and its derivative have been selected as fuzzy inputs. In this approach the parameters of the fuzzy logic controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithm. Incorporation of GA in the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizer will add an intelligent dimension to the stabilizer and significantly reduces computational time in the design process. It is shown in this paper that the system dynamic performance can be improved significantly by incorporating a genetic-based searching mechanism. To demonstrate the robustness of the genetic based fuzzy logic power system stabilizer (GFLPSS), simulation studies on multimachine system subjected to small perturbation and three-phase fault have been carried out. Simulation results show the superiority and robustness of GA based power system stabilizer as compare to conventionally tuned controller to enhance system dynamic performance over a wide range of operating conditions.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Fuzzy logic power systemstabilizer, Genetic Algorithms, Genetic based power systemstabilizer

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2385 Operational- Economics Based Evaluation And Selection of A Power Plant Using Graph Theoretic Approach

Authors: Naresh Yadav, I.A. Khan, Sandeep Grover

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for operational and economic characteristics based evaluation and selection of a power plant using Graph theoretic approach. A universal evaluation index on the basis of Operational and economics characteristics of a plant is proposed which evaluates and ranks the various types of power plants. The index thus obtained from the pool of operational characteristics of the power plant attributes Digraph. The Digraph is developed considering Operational and economics attributes of the power plants and their relative importance for their smooth operation, installation and commissioning and prioritizing their selection. The sensitivity analysis of the attributes towards the objective has also been carried out in order to study the impact of attributes over the desired outcome i.e. the universal operational-economics index of the power plant.

Keywords: Power plant evaluation, Digraph methods, Matrixmethod, operational characteristics of Power plant, Gas turbines

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2384 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: Compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash.

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2383 ARMrayan Multimedia Mobile CMS: a Simplified Approach towards Content-Oriented Mobile Application Designing

Authors: Ali Reza Manashty, Mohammad Reza Ahmadzadeh Raji, Zahra Forootan Jahromi, Amir Rajabzadeh

Abstract:

The ARMrayan Multimedia Mobile CMS (Content Management System) is the first mobile CMS that gives the opportunity to users for creating multimedia J2ME mobile applications with their desired content, design and logo; simply, without any need for writing even a line of code. The low-level programming and compatibility problems of the J2ME, along with UI designing difficulties, makes it hard for most people –even programmers- to broadcast their content to the widespread mobile phones used by nearly all people. This system provides user-friendly, PC-based tools for creating a tree index of pages and inserting multiple multimedia contents (e.g. sound, video and picture) in each page for creating a J2ME mobile application. The output is a standalone Java mobile application that has a user interface, shows texts and pictures and plays music and videos regardless of the type of devices used as long as the devices support the J2ME platform. Bitmap fonts have also been used thus Middle Eastern languages can be easily supported on all mobile phone devices. We omitted programming concepts for users in order to simplify multimedia content-oriented mobile applictaion designing for use in educational, cultural or marketing centers. Ordinary operators can now create a variety of multimedia mobile applications such as tutorials, catalogues, books, and guides in minutes rather than months. Simplicity and power has been the goal of this CMS. In this paper, we present the software engineered-designed concepts of the ARMrayan MCMS along with the implementation challenges faces and solutions adapted.

Keywords: Mobile CMS, MCMS, Mobile Content Builder, J2ME Application, Multimedia Mobile Application, MultimediaCMS, Multimedia Mobile CMS, Content Management System.

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2382 Coordinated Q–V Controller for Multi-machine Steam Power Plant: Design and Validation

Authors: Jasna Dragosavac, Žarko Janda, J.V. Milanović, Dušan Arnautović

Abstract:

This paper discusses coordinated reactive power - voltage (Q-V) control in a multi machine steam power plant. The drawbacks of manual Q-V control are briefly listed, and the design requirements for coordinated Q-V controller are specified. Theoretical background and mathematical model of the new controller are presented next followed by validation of developed Matlab/Simulink model through comparison with recorded responses in real steam power plant and description of practical realisation of the controller. Finally, the performance of commissioned controller is illustrated on several examples of coordinated Q-V control in real steam power plant and compared with manual control.

Keywords: Coordinated Voltage Control, Power Plant Control, Reactive Power Control, Sensitivity Matrix

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2381 Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: Djilani Kobibi Youcef Islam, Hadjeri Samir, Djehaf Mohamed Abdeldjalil

Abstract:

The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Keywords: FACTS, load flow, modal analysis, UPFC, voltage stability.

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2380 A Voltage Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Low Power and Low Cost Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Jawad Ahmad, Hee-Jun Kim

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a voltage based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Of the various MPPT methods, the voltage based method is considered to be the simplest and cost effective. The major disadvantage of this method is that the PV array is disconnected from the load for the sampling of its open circuit voltage, which inevitably results in power loss. Another disadvantage, in case of rapid irradiance variation, is that if the duration between two successive samplings, called the sampling period, is too long there is a considerable loss. This is because the output voltage of the PV array follows the unchanged reference during one sampling period. Once a maximum power point (MPP) is tracked and a change in irradiation occurs between two successive samplings, then the new MPP is not tracked until the next sampling of the PV array voltage. This paper proposes an MPPT circuit in which the sampling interval of the PV array voltage, and the sampling period have been shortened. The sample and hold circuit has also been simplified. The proposed circuit does not utilize a microcontroller or a digital signal processor and is thus suitable for low cost and low power applications.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracker, Sample and hold amplifier, Sampling interval, Sampling period.

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2379 Numerical Simulation of Multiple Arrays Arrangement of Micro Hydro Power Turbines

Authors: M. A. At-Tasneem, N. T. Rao, T. M. Y. S. Tuan Ya, M. S. Idris, M. Ammar

Abstract:

River flow over micro hydro power (MHP) turbines of multiple arrays arrangement is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to obtain the flow characteristics. In this paper, CFD software is used to simulate the water flow over MHP turbines as they are placed in a river. Multiple arrays arrangement of MHP turbines lead to generate large amount of power. In this study, a river model is created and simulated in CFD software to obtain the water flow characteristic. The process then continued by simulating different types of arrays arrangement in the river model. A MHP turbine model consists of a turbine outer body and static propeller blade in it. Five types of arrangements are used which are parallel, series, triangular, square and rhombus with different spacing sizes. The velocity profiles on each MHP turbines are identified at the mouth of each turbine bodies. This study is required to obtain the arrangement with increasing spacing sizes that can produce highest power density through the water flow variation.

Keywords: Micro hydro power, CFD, arrays arrangement, spacing sizes, velocity profile, power.

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2378 Wireless Sensor Networks:A Survey on Ultra-Low Power-Aware Design

Authors: Itziar Marín, Eduardo Arceredillo, Aitzol Zuloaga, Jagoba Arias

Abstract:

Distributed wireless sensor network consist on several scattered nodes in a knowledge area. Those sensors have as its only power supplies a pair of batteries that must let them live up to five years without substitution. That-s why it is necessary to develop some power aware algorithms that could save battery lifetime as much as possible. In this is document, a review of power aware design for sensor nodes is presented. As example of implementations, some resources and task management, communication, topology control and routing protocols are named.

Keywords: Low Power Design, Power Awareness, RemoteSensing, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN).

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2377 Three-Level Converters based Generalized Unified Power Quality Conditioner

Authors: Bahr Eldin S. M, K. S. Rama Rao, N. Perumal

Abstract:

A generalized unified power quality conditioner (GUPQC) by using three single-phase three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) connected back-to-back through a common dc link is proposed in this paper as a new custom power device for a three-feeder distribution system. One of the converters is connected in shunt with one feeder for mitigation of current harmonics and reactive power compensation, while the other two VSCs are connected in series with the other two feeders to maintain the load voltage sinusoidal and at constant level. A new control scheme based on synchronous reference frame is proposed for series converters. The simulation analysis on compensation performance of GUPQC based on PSCAD/EMTDC is reported.

Keywords: Custom power device, generalized unified power quality conditioner, PSCAD/ETMDC, voltage source converter

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2376 Possibilities of Sewage Sludge Application in the Conditions of Slovak Republic

Authors: Peter Takáč, Dana Šimová, Terézia Szabová, Tomáš Bakalár

Abstract:

The direct sewage sludge application is a relative cheap method for their liquidation. In the past heavy metal contents increase in soils treated with sewage sludge was observed. In 2003 there was acceptance on act n.188/2003 about sewage sludge application on soils. The basic philosophy of act is a safety of the environmental proof of sludge application on soils. The samples of soils from wastewater treatment plant (WTP) Poprad (35) and WTP Michalovce (33 samples) were analyzed which were chosen for sludge application on soils. According to the results only 14 areas for Poprad and 25 areas for Michalovce are suitable for sludge application according to act No. 188/2003. The application dose of sludge was calculated 50 t.ha-1 or 75 t. ha-1 once in 5 years to ensure that heavy metal contents in treated soils will be kept.

Keywords: Environmental safety, heavy metals in soils, sewagesludge application.

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2375 System and Method for Providing Web-Based Remote Application Service

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Yu-Ching Lin, Hsi-Ya Chang

Abstract:

With the development of virtualization technologies, a new type of service named cloud computing service is produced. Cloud users usually encounter the problem of how to use the virtualized platform easily over the web without requiring the plug-in or installation of special software. The object of this paper is to develop a system and a method enabling process interfacing within an automation scenario for accessing remote application by using the web browser. To meet this challenge, we have devised a web-based interface that system has allowed to shift the GUI application from the traditional local environment to the cloud platform, which is stored on the remote virtual machine. We designed the sketch of web interface following the cloud virtualization concept that sought to enable communication and collaboration among users. We describe the design requirements of remote application technology and present implementation details of the web application and its associated components. We conclude that this effort has the potential to provide an elastic and resilience environment for several application services. Users no longer have to burden the system maintenances and reduce the overall cost of software licenses and hardware. Moreover, this remote application service represents the next step to the mobile workplace, and it lets user to use the remote application virtually from anywhere.

Keywords: Virtualization technology, virtualized platform, web interface, remote application.

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2374 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo

Abstract:

Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, EV, Power Consumption, Power Management, Simulation.

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2373 Simulation and Configuration of Hydrogen Assisted Renewable Energy Power System

Authors: V. Karri, W. K. Yap, J. Titchen

Abstract:

A renewable energy system discussed in this paper is a stand-alone wind-hydrogen system for a remote island in Australia. The analysis of an existing wind-diesel power system was performed. Simulation technique was used to model the power system currently employed on the island, and simulated different configurations of additional hydrogen energy system. This study aims to determine the suitable hydrogen integrated configuration to setting up the prototype system for the island, which helps to reduce the diesel consumption on the island. A set of configurations for the hydrogen system and associated parameters that consists of wind turbines, electrolysers, hydrogen internal combustion engines, and storage tanks has been purposed. The simulation analyses various configurations that perfectly balances the system to meet the demand on the island.

Keywords: Hydrogen power systems, hydrogen internal combustion engine, modeling and simulation of hydrogen power systems.

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2372 Highly Optimized Novel High Speed Low Power Barrel Shifter at 22nm Hi K Metal Gate Strained Si Technology Node

Authors: Shobha Sharma, Amita Dev

Abstract:

This research paper presents highly optimized barrel shifter at 22nm Hi K metal gate strained Si technology node. This barrel shifter is having a unique combination of static and dynamic body bias which gives lowest power delay product. This power delay product is compared with the same circuit at same technology node with static forward biasing at ‘supply/2’ and also with normal reverse substrate biasing and still found to be the lowest. The power delay product of this barrel sifter is .39362X10-17J and is lowered by approximately 78% to reference proposed barrel shifter at 32nm bulk CMOS technology. Power delay product of barrel shifter at 22nm Hi K Metal gate technology with normal reverse substrate bias is 2.97186933X10-17J and can be compared with this design’s PDP of .39362X10-17J. This design uses both static and dynamic substrate biasing and also has approximately 96% lower power delay product compared to only forward body biased at half of supply voltage. The NMOS model used are predictive technology models of Arizona state university and the simulations to be carried out using HSPICE simulator.

Keywords: Dynamic body biasing, highly optimized barrel shifter, PDP, Static body biasing.

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2371 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khaing Yadana Swe, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Model free Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, Adaptive Control, PID.

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2370 Design of High-speed Modified Booth Multipliers Operating at GHz Ranges

Authors: Soojin Kim, Kyeongsoon Cho

Abstract:

This paper describes the pipeline architecture of high-speed modified Booth multipliers. The proposed multiplier circuits are based on the modified Booth algorithm and the pipeline technique which are the most widely used to accelerate the multiplication speed. In order to implement the optimally pipelined multipliers, many kinds of experiments have been conducted. The speed of the multipliers is greatly improved by properly deciding the number of pipeline stages and the positions for the pipeline registers to be inserted. We described the proposed modified Booth multiplier circuits in Verilog HDL and synthesized the gate-level circuits using 0.13um standard cell library. The resultant multiplier circuits show better performance than others. Since the proposed multipliers operate at GHz ranges, they can be used in the systems requiring very high performance.

Keywords: multiplier, pipeline, high-speed, modified Boothalgorithm.

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2369 High-Speed Train Planning in France, Lessons from Mediterranean TGV-Line

Authors: Stéphanie Leheis

Abstract:

To fight against the economic crisis, French Government, like many others in Europe, has decided to give a boost to high-speed line projects. This paper explores the implementation and decision-making process in TGV projects, their evolutions, especially since the Mediterranean TGV-line. This project was probably the most controversial, but paradoxically represents today a huge success for all the actors involved. What kind of lessons we can learn from this experience? How to evaluate the impact of this project on TGV-line planning? How can we characterize this implementation and decision-making process regards to the sustainability challenges? The construction of Mediterranean TGV-line was the occasion to make several innovations: to introduce more dialog into the decisionmaking process, to take into account the environment, to introduce a new project management and technological innovations. That-s why this project appears today as an example in terms of integration of sustainable development. In this paper we examine the different kinds of innovations developed in this project, by using concepts from sociology of innovation to understand how these solutions emerged in a controversial situation. Then we analyze the lessons which were drawn from this decision-making process (in the immediacy and a posteriori) and the way in which procedures evolved: creation of new tools and devices (public consultation, project management...). Finally we try to highlight the impact of this evolution on TGV projects governance. In particular, new methods of implementation and financing involve a reconfiguration of the system of actors. The aim of this paper is to define the impact of this reconfiguration on negotiations between stakeholders.

Keywords: High-speed train, innovation, governance, sustainability.

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