Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2547

Search results for: High Power Application

2487 A Two-Way Wilkinson Power Divider Realized Using One Eighth Wave Transmission Line for GSM Application

Authors: G. Kalpanadevi, S. Ravimaran, M. Shanmugapriya

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified Wilkinson power divider for GSM application is presented. The quarter–wavelength microstrip lines in the conventional Wilkinson power divider (WPD) are replaced by one-eighth wavelength transmission line. Wilkinson power divider is designed using λ/4 and λ/8 transmission line. It has the operating frequency of 915 MHz which is used in the GSM standard. The proposed Wilkinson Power Divider is designed using the simulation tool Advanced Design System. The results of λ/8 transmission line are very close to the results of λ/4 transmission line. The isolation loss of λ/8 transmission line is improved by introducing a capacitor between the output ports. The proposed Wilkinson power divider has the best return loss of greater than -10 dB and isolation loss of -15.25 dB. The λ/8 transmission line Wilkinson power divider has the reduced size of 53.9 percentages than λ/4 transmission line WPD. The proposed design has simple structure, better isolation loss and good insertion loss.

Keywords: Wilkinson Power Divider, Quarter wave line, one eighth wave transmission line, microstrip line.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2486 Certain Data Dimension Reduction Techniques for application with ANN based MCS for Study of High Energy Shower

Authors: Gitanjali Devi, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma, Pranayee Datta, Anjana Kakoti Mahanta

Abstract:

Cosmic showers, from their places of origin in space, after entering earth generate secondary particles called Extensive Air Shower (EAS). Detection and analysis of EAS and similar High Energy Particle Showers involve a plethora of experimental setups with certain constraints for which soft-computational tools like Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s can be adopted. The optimality of ANN classifiers can be enhanced further by the use of Multiple Classifier System (MCS) and certain data - dimension reduction techniques. This work describes the performance of certain data dimension reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) approximators for application with an MCS formed using Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The data inputs are obtained from an array of detectors placed in a circular arrangement resembling a practical detector grid which have a higher dimension and greater correlation among themselves. The PCA, ICA and SOM blocks reduce the correlation and generate a form suitable for real time practical applications for prediction of primary energy and location of EAS from density values captured using detectors in a circular grid.

Keywords: EAS, Shower, Core, ANN, Location.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2485 A Very High Speed, High Resolution Current Comparator Design

Authors: Neeraj K. Chasta

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea for analog current comparison which compares input signal and reference currents with high speed and accuracy. Proposed circuit utilizes amplification properties of common gate configuration, where voltage variations of input current are amplified and a compared output voltage is developed. Cascaded inverter stages are used to generate final CMOS compatible output voltage. Power consumption of circuit can be controlled by the applied gate bias voltage. The comparator is designed and studied at 180nm CMOS process technology for a supply voltage of 3V.

Keywords: Current Mode, Comparator, High Resolution, High Speed.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2484 Radio Technology Frequency Identification Applied in High-Voltage Power Transmission- Line for Sag Measurement

Authors: Tlotlollo Sidwell Hlalele, Shengzhi Du

Abstract:

High-voltage power transmission lines are the back bone of electrical power utilities. The stability and continuous monitoring of this critical infrastructure is pivotal. Nine-Sigma representing Eskom Holding SOC limited, South Africa has a major problem on proactive detection of fallen power lines and real time sagging measurement together with slipping of such conductors. The main objective of this research is to innovate RFID technology to solve this challenge. Various options and technologies such as GPS, PLC, image processing, MR sensors and etc., have been reviewed and draw backs were made. The potential of RFID to give precision measurement will be observed and presented. The future research will look at magnetic and electrical interference as well as corona effect on the technology.

Keywords: Precision Measurement, RFID and Sag.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2483 Application of ANN for Estimation of Power Demand of Villages in Sulaymaniyah Governorate

Authors: A. Majeed, P. Ali

Abstract:

Before designing an electrical system, the estimation of load is necessary for unit sizing and demand-generation balancing. The system could be a stand-alone system for a village or grid connected or integrated renewable energy to grid connection, especially as there are non–electrified villages in developing countries. In the classical model, the energy demand was found by estimating the household appliances multiplied with the amount of their rating and the duration of their operation, but in this paper, information exists for electrified villages could be used to predict the demand, as villages almost have the same life style. This paper describes a method used to predict the average energy consumed in each two months for every consumer living in a village by Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The input data are collected using a regional survey for samples of consumers representing typical types of different living, household appliances and energy consumption by a list of information, and the output data are collected from administration office of Piramagrun for each corresponding consumer. The result of this study shows that the average demand for different consumers from four villages in different months throughout the year is approximately 12 kWh/day, this model estimates the average demand/day for every consumer with a mean absolute percent error of 11.8%, and MathWorks software package MATLAB version 7.6.0 that contains and facilitate Neural Network Toolbox was used.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, load estimation, regional survey, rural electrification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2482 New Approach to Spectral Analysis of High Bit Rate PCM Signals

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Pulse code modulation is a widespread technique in digital communication with significant impact on existing modern and proposed future communication technologies. Its widespread utilization is due to its simplicity and attractive spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present a new approach to the spectral analysis of PCM signals using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, which is very accurate for high bit rates. This approach can serve as a model for similar spectral analysis of other competing modulation schemes.

Keywords: Coding, discrete Fourier, power spectral density, pulse code modulation, Riemann-Stieltjes integrals.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2481 Enhanced Efficacy of Kinetic Power Transform for High-Speed Wind Field

Authors: Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Chao-Wen Chiang, Bai-Lu Wang

Abstract:

The three-time-scale plant model of a wind power generator, including a wind turbine, a flexible vertical shaft, a Variable Inertia Flywheel (VIF) module, an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) unit and the applied wind sequence, is constructed. In order to make the wind power generator be still able to operate as the spindle speed exceeds its rated speed, the VIF is equipped so that the spindle speed can be appropriately slowed down once any stronger wind field is exerted. To prevent any potential damage due to collision by shaft against conventional bearings, the AMB unit is proposed to regulate the shaft position deviation. By singular perturbation order-reduction technique, a lower-order plant model can be established for the synthesis of feedback controller. Two major system parameter uncertainties, an additive uncertainty and a multiplicative uncertainty, are constituted by the wind turbine and the VIF respectively. Frequency Shaping Sliding Mode Control (FSSMC) loop is proposed to account for these uncertainties and suppress the unmodeled higher-order plant dynamics. At last, the efficacy of the FSSMC is verified by intensive computer and experimental simulations for regulation on position deviation of the shaft and counter-balance of unpredictable wind disturbance.

Keywords: Sliding Mode Control, Singular Perturbation, Variable Inertia Flywheel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2480 Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion

Authors: A. Alghanim, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker

Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Keywords: Low Frequency Memory, IntermodulationDistortion (IMD).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2479 Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems

Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju, Ch.Padmanabharaju, T.Ramana

Abstract:

The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controller used to control power flows of multiple transmission lines. This paper presents a mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM). This model is incorporated in Newton- Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the power flow control in transmission lines in which IPFC is placed. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this model. Numerical results are carried out on a standard 2 machine 5 bus system. The results without and with IPFC are compared in terms of voltages, active and reactive power flows to demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model.

Keywords: flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM), power flow control.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2478 Network Application Identification Based on Communication Characteristics of Application Messages

Authors: Yuji Waizumi, Yuya Tsukabe, Hiroshi Tsunoda, Yoshiaki Nemoto

Abstract:

A person-to-person information sharing is easily realized by P2P networks in which servers are not essential. Leakage of information, which are caused by malicious accesses for P2P networks, has become a new social issues. To prevent information leakage, it is necessary to detect and block traffics of P2P software. Since some P2P softwares can spoof port numbers, it is difficult to detect the traffics sent from P2P softwares by using port numbers. It is more difficult to devise effective countermeasures for detecting the software because their protocol are not public. In this paper, a discriminating method of network applications based on communication characteristics of application messages without port numbers is proposed. The proposed method is based on an assumption that there can be some rules about time intervals to transmit messages in application layer and the number of necessary packets to send one message. By extracting the rule from network traffic, the proposed method can discriminate applications without port numbers.

Keywords: Network Application Identification, Message Transition Pattern

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2477 Tuning of Power System Stabilizers in a Multi- Machine Power System using C-Catfish PSO

Authors: M. H. Moradi, S. M. Moosavi, A. R. Reisi

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of power system stability via coordinated tuning of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) in a multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem. Chaotic catfish particle swarm optimization (C-Catfish PSO) algorithm is used to minimize the ITAE objective function. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a two-area, 4- machines system. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified on this system under different operating conditions and applying a three-phase fault. The nonlinear time-domain simulation results and some performance indices show the effectiveness of the proposed controller in damping power system oscillations and this novel optimization algorithm is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO).

Keywords: Power system stabilizer, C-Catfish PSO, ITAE objective function, Power system control, Multi-machine power system

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2476 Rule-Based Message Passing for Collaborative Application in Distributed Environments

Authors: Wataru Yamazaki, Hironori Hiraishi, Fumio Mizoguchi

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe a rule-based message passing method to support developing collaborative applications, in which multiple users share resources in distributed environments. Message communications of applications in collaborative environments tend to be very complex because of the necessity to manage context situations such as sharing events, access controlling of users, and network places. In this paper, we propose a message communications method based on unification of artificial intelligence and logic programming for defining rules of such context information in a procedural object-oriented programming language. We also present an implementation of the method as java classes.

Keywords: agent programming, logic programming, multi-media application, collaborative application.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2475 STATCOM based Damping Controller in Power Systems for Enhance the Power System Stability

Authors: Sangram Keshori Mohapatra, Sidhartha Panda, Prasant Kumar Satpathy

Abstract:

This paper describes the power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based damping controller with Differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. The present study considered both local and remote signals with associated time delays. The performances of the proposed controllers have been compared with different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller the Simulation results are presented under different disturbances and loading conditions.

Keywords: Controller Design, Differential Evolution Algorithm Static Synchronous Compensator, Time Delay, Power System Stability, Single Machine Infinite-bus Power System, Multi-Machine Power System.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2474 Embedding a Large Amount of Information Using High Secure Neural Based Steganography Algorithm

Authors: Nameer N. EL-Emam

Abstract:

In this paper, we construct and implement a new Steganography algorithm based on learning system to hide a large amount of information into color BMP image. We have used adaptive image filtering and adaptive non-uniform image segmentation with bits replacement on the appropriate pixels. These pixels are selected randomly rather than sequentially by using new concept defined by main cases with sub cases for each byte in one pixel. According to the steps of design, we have been concluded 16 main cases with their sub cases that covere all aspects of the input information into color bitmap image. High security layers have been proposed through four layers of security to make it difficult to break the encryption of the input information and confuse steganalysis too. Learning system has been introduces at the fourth layer of security through neural network. This layer is used to increase the difficulties of the statistical attacks. Our results against statistical and visual attacks are discussed before and after using the learning system and we make comparison with the previous Steganography algorithm. We show that our algorithm can embed efficiently a large amount of information that has been reached to 75% of the image size (replace 18 bits for each pixel as a maximum) with high quality of the output.

Keywords: Adaptive image segmentation, hiding with high capacity, hiding with high security, neural networks, Steganography.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2473 Evaluation of the Zero Sequence Impedance of Overhead High Voltage Lines

Authors: Rabah Diabi

Abstract:

As known, the guard wires of overhead high voltage are usually grounded through the grounding systems of support and of the terminal stations. They do affect the zero sequence impedance value of the line, Z0, which is generally, calculated assuming that the wires guard are at ground potential. In this way it is not considered the effect of the resistances of earth of supports and stations. In this work is formed a formula for the calculation of Z0 which takes account of said resistances. Is also proposed a method of calculating the impedance zero sequence overhead lines in which, in various sections or spans, the guard wires are connected to the supports, or isolated from them, or are absent. Parametric analysis is given for lines 220 kV and 400 kV, which shows the extent of the errors made with traditional methods of calculation.

Keywords: Overhead line, power system, zero sequence, wire guard, grounding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2472 GRNN Application in Power Systems Simulation for Integrated SOFC Plant Dynamic Model

Authors: N. Nim-on, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of GRNN in modeling of SOFC fuel cells were studied. The parameters are of interested as voltage and power value and the current changes are investigated. In addition, the comparison between GRNN neural network application and conventional method was made. The error value showed the superlative results.

Keywords: SOFC, GRNN, Fuel cells.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2471 Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

Keywords: Gas analysis, high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fibers, raw rice husk.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2470 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya

Abstract:

The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.

Keywords: Inter line power flow controller, Transmission Pricing, Unified power flow controller, cost allocation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2469 Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Madhuranthi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.

Keywords: Power consumption, energy efficiency, low power WSN node, recursive structure, sleep/wake scheduling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2468 Is the Expansion of High-Tech Leaders Possible Within the New EU Members? A Case Study of Ammono S.A. and the High-Tech Financing System in Poland

Authors: Monika Dwilinska

Abstract:

Innovations, especially technological, are considered key-drivers for sustainable economic growth and competitiveness in the globalised world. As such they should also play an important role in the process of economical convergence inside the EU. Unfortunately, the problem of insufficient innovation performance concerns around half of the EU countries. Poland shows that a lack of a consistent high-tech financing system constitutes a serious obstacle for the development of innovative firms. In this article we will evaluate these questions referring to the example of Ammono S.A., a Polish company established to develop and commercialise an original technology for the production of bulk GaN crystals. We will focus on its efforts to accumulate the financial resources necessary at different stages of its development. The purpose of this article is to suggest possible ways to improve the national innovative system, which would make it more competent in generating high-tech leaders.

Keywords: High-tech financing, innovation, national innovative system

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2467 The Establishment and Application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: S. W. Chen, W. K. Lin, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chang, W. Y. Li

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 type NPP and located on the northern coast of Taiwan. First, Kuosheng NPP TRACE model were developed in this research. In order to assess the system response of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model, startup tests data were used to evaluate Kuosheng NPP TRACE model. Second, the overpressurization transient analysis of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model was performed. Besides, in order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, FRAPTRAN analysis was also performed in this study.

Keywords: TRACE, Safety analysis, BWR/6, FRAPTRAN.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2466 An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor

Authors: F. Rarbi, D. Dzahini, W. Uhring

Abstract:

In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.

Keywords: CMOS analog to digital converter, dynamic comparator, image sensor application, successive approximation register.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2465 The Necessity of Biomass Application for Developing Combined Heat and Power (CHP)with Biogas Fuel: Case Study

Authors: F. Amin Salehi, L. Sharp, M. A. Abdoli, D.E.Cotton, K.Rezapour

Abstract:

The daily increase of organic waste materials resulting from different activities in the country is one of the main factors for the pollution of environment. Today, with regard to the low level of the output of using traditional methods, the high cost of disposal waste materials and environmental pollutions, the use of modern methods such as anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas has been prevailing. The collected biogas from the process of anaerobic digestion, as a renewable energy source similar to natural gas but with a less methane and heating value is usable. Today, with the help of technologies of filtration and proper preparation, access to biogas with features fully similar to natural gas has become possible. At present biogas is one of the main sources of supplying electrical and thermal energy and also an appropriate option to be used in four stroke engine, diesel engine, sterling engine, gas turbine, gas micro turbine and fuel cell to produce electricity. The use of biogas for different reasons which returns to socio-economic and environmental advantages has been noticed in CHP for the production of energy in the world. The production of biogas from the technology of anaerobic digestion and its application in CHP power plants in Iran can not only supply part of the energy demands in the country, but it can materialize moving in line with the sustainable development. In this article, the necessity of the development of CHP plants with biogas fuels in the country will be dealt based on studies performed from the economic, environmental and social aspects. Also to prove the importance of the establishment of these kinds of power plants from the economic point of view, necessary calculations has been done as a case study for a CHP power plant with a biogas fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biogas, CHP, Organic Wastes

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2464 Robust & Energy Efficient Universal Gates for High Performance Computer Networks at 22nm Process Technology

Authors: M. Geetha Priya, K. Baskaran, S. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Digital systems are said to be constructed using basic logic gates. These gates are the NOR, NAND, AND, OR, EXOR & EXNOR gates. This paper presents a robust three transistors (3T) based NAND and NOR gates with precise output logic levels, yet maintaining equivalent performance than the existing logic structures. This new set of 3T logic gates are based on CMOS inverter and Pass Transistor Logic (PTL). The new universal logic gates are characterized by better speed and lower power dissipation which can be straightforwardly fabricated as memory ICs for high performance computer networks. The simulation tests were performed using standard BPTM 22nm process technology using SYNOPSYS HSPICE. The 3T NAND gate is evaluated using C17 benchmark circuit and 3T NOR is gate evaluated using a D-Latch. According to HSPICE simulation in 22 nm CMOS BPTM process technology under given conditions and at room temperature, the proposed 3T gates shows an improvement of 88% less power consumption on an average over conventional CMOS logic gates. The devices designed with 3T gates will make longer battery life by ensuring extremely low power consumption.

Keywords: Low power, CMOS, pass-transistor, flash memory, logic gates.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2463 Dynamic Performance Analysis of Distribution/ Sub-Transmission Networks with High Penetration of PV Generation

Authors: Cristian F.T. Montenegro, Luís F. N. Lourenço, Maurício B. C. Salles, Renato M. Monaro

Abstract:

More PV systems have been connected to the electrical network each year. As the number of PV systems increases, some issues affecting grid operations have been identified. This paper studied the impacts related to changes in solar irradiance on a distribution/sub-transmission network, considering variations due to moving clouds and daily cycles. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a solar farm of 30 MWp was built and then implemented to a test network. From simulations, it has been determined that irradiance changes can have a significant impact on the grid by causing voltage fluctuations outside the allowable thresholds. This work discussed some local control strategies and grid reinforcements to mitigate the negative effects of the irradiance changes on the grid.

Keywords: Utility-scale PV systems, reactive power control, solar irradiance, voltage fluctuation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2462 Comparative Study on Soil Tillage Using Rotary Tiller and Power Harrow

Authors: Watcharachan Sukcharoenvipharat, Prathuang Usaborisut, Sirisak Choedkiatphon

Abstract:

Farmers try to reduce steps of soil preparation by using subsoiler and then following by equipment for soil pulverization such as a rotary tiller and a power harrow which take advantage of using a power take-off of a tractor. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the tilling performances of a rotary tiller and a power harrow applying after subsoiling. The results showed that both the rotary tiller and the power harrow had negative slip, indicating that they generated force to push a tractor. The rotary tiller created negative vertical force to lift up the tractor whereas opposite result was found when using the power harrow. Since working depths were different, vertical forces, torques and PTO powers for two equipment types were significantly different. However, no significant differences were found for the forward speeds, slips, drawbar pulls and drawbar powers. Comparative analysis showed that two equipment types had significant difference in PTO power to working depth, drawbar power to working depth, PTO power to working area, drawbar power to working area and soil pulverization.

Keywords: Rotary tiller, power harrow, drawbar pull, drawbar power, PTO power.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2461 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: Harmonics, Harmonic compensation, Parallel active power filters, Power quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2460 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2459 On the Verification of Power Nap Associated with Stage 2 Sleep and Its Application

Authors: Jetsada Arnin, Yodchanan Wongsawat

Abstract:

One of the most important causes of accidents is driver fatigue. To reduce the accidental rate, the driver needs a quick nap when feeling sleepy. Hence, searching for the minimum time period of nap is a very challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is twofold, i.e. to investigate the possible fastest time period for nap and its relationship with stage 2 sleep, and to develop an automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device. The experiment for this investigation is designed with 21 subjects. It yields the result that waking up the subjects after getting into stage 2 sleep for 3-5 minutes can efficiently reduce the sleepiness. Furthermore, the automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 85% which is comparable with the commercial sleep lab system.

Keywords: Stage 2 sleep, nap, sleep detection, real-time, EEG

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
2458 Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites

Authors: Rui Magalhães, Sohel Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Clara Gonçalves, Pedro Nunes, Gustavo Dias

Abstract:

Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.

Keywords: Auxetic fabrics, high performance, composites, impact resistance, energy absorption.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF