Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Hidden Markov Models

12 Analysis of Linguistic Disfluencies in Bilingual Children’s Discourse

Authors: Sheena Christabel Pravin, M. Palanivelan

Abstract:

Speech disfluencies are common in spontaneous speech. The primary purpose of this study was to distinguish linguistic disfluencies from stuttering disfluencies in bilingual Tamil–English (TE) speaking children. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluencies are mediated by native language dominance and/or on an early onset of developmental stuttering at childhood. A detailed study was carried out to identify the prosodic and acoustic features that uniquely represent the disfluent regions of speech. This paper focuses on statistical modeling of repetitions, prolongations, pauses and interjections in the speech corpus encompassing bilingual spontaneous utterances from school going children – English and Tamil. Two classifiers including Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network, were compared in the classification of disfluencies. The results of the classifiers document the patterns of disfluency in spontaneous speech samples of school-aged children to distinguish between Children Who Stutter (CWS) and Children with Language Impairment CLI). The ability of the models in classifying the disfluencies was measured in terms of F-measure, Recall, and Precision.

Keywords: Bilingual, children who stutter, children with language impairment, Hidden Markov Models, multi-layer perceptron, linguistic disfluencies, stuttering disfluencies.

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11 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence/pattern recognition/classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Hidden Markov Models, Recurrent neural networks, Deterministic finite state automata.

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10 Advances in Artificial Intelligence Using Speech Recognition

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This research study aims to present a retrospective study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence. Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies, as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This research intends to present the illustration of recent technological advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence. Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition. Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable methods, which are being used in speech recognition.

Keywords: Speech recognition, acoustic phonetic, artificial intelligence, Hidden Markov Models (HMM), statistical models of speech recognition, human machine performance.

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9 Musical Instrument Classification Using Embedded Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Ehsan Amid, Sina Rezaei Aghdam

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel method for recognition of musical instruments in a polyphonic music is presented by using an embedded hidden Markov model (EHMM). EHMM is a doubly embedded HMM structure where each state of the external HMM is an independent HMM. The classification is accomplished for two different internal HMM structures where GMMs are used as likelihood estimators for the internal HMMs. The results are compared to those achieved by an artificial neural network with two hidden layers. Appropriate classification accuracies were achieved both for solo instrument performance and instrument combinations which demonstrates that the new approach outperforms the similar classification methods by means of the dynamic of the signal.

Keywords: hidden Markov model (HMM), embedded hidden Markov models (EHMM), MFCC, musical instrument.

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8 Unconstrained Arabic Online Handwritten Words Segmentation using New HMM State Design

Authors: Randa Ibrahim Elanwar, Mohsen Rashwan, Samia Mashali

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a segmentation system for unconstrained Arabic online handwriting. An essential problem addressed by analytical-based word recognition system. The system is composed of two-stages the first is a newly special designed hidden Markov model (HMM) and the second is a rules based stage. In our system, handwritten words are broken up into characters by simultaneous segmentation-recognition using HMMs of unique design trained using online features most of which are novel. The HMM output characters boundaries represent the proposed segmentation points (PSP) which are then validated by rules-based post stage without any contextual information help to solve different segmentation errors. The HMM has been designed and tested using a self collected dataset (OHASD) [1]. Most errors cases are cured and remarkable segmentation enhancement is achieved. Very promising word and character segmentation rates are obtained regarding the unconstrained Arabic handwriting difficulty and not using context help.

Keywords: Arabic, Hidden Markov Models, online handwriting, word segmentation

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7 Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Combined Features Extraction

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Hand gesture is an active area of research in the vision community, mainly for the purpose of sign language recognition and Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we propose a system to recognize alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) in real-time from stereo color image sequences using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Our system is based on three main stages; automatic segmentation and preprocessing of the hand regions, feature extraction and classification. In automatic segmentation and preprocessing stage, color and 3D depth map are used to detect hands where the hand trajectory will take place in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter. In the feature extraction stage, 3D combined features of location, orientation and velocity with respected to Cartesian systems are used. And then, k-means clustering is employed for HMMs codeword. The final stage so-called classification, Baum- Welch algorithm is used to do a full train for HMMs parameters. The gesture of alphabets and numbers is recognized using Left-Right Banded model in conjunction with Viterbi algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that, our system can successfully recognize hand gestures with 98.33% recognition rate.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Computer Vision & Image Processing, Pattern Recognition.

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6 An Adaptive Hand-Talking System for the Hearing Impaired

Authors: Zhou Yu, Jiang Feng

Abstract:

An adaptive Chinese hand-talking system is presented in this paper. By analyzing the 3 data collecting strategies for new users, the adaptation framework including supervised and unsupervised adaptation methods is proposed. For supervised adaptation, affinity propagation (AP) is used to extract exemplar subsets, and enhanced maximum a posteriori / vector field smoothing (eMAP/VFS) is proposed to pool the adaptation data among different models. For unsupervised adaptation, polynomial segment models (PSMs) are used to help hidden Markov models (HMMs) to accurately label the unlabeled data, then the "labeled" data together with signerindependent models are inputted to MAP algorithm to generate signer-adapted models. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can execute both supervised adaptation with small amount of labeled data and unsupervised adaptation with large amount of unlabeled data to tailor the original models, and both achieve improvements on the performance of recognition rate.

Keywords: sign language recognition, signer adaptation, eMAP/VFS, polynomial segment model.

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5 Application of Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model in Text to Speech Systems

Authors: Armin Ghayoori, Faramarz Hendessi, Asrar Sheikh

Abstract:

In developing a text-to-speech system, it is well known that the accuracy of information extracted from a text is crucial to produce high quality synthesized speech. In this paper, a new scheme for converting text into its equivalent phonetic spelling is introduced and developed. This method is applicable to many applications in text to speech converting systems and has many advantages over other methods. The proposed method can also complement the other methods with a purpose of improving their performance. The proposed method is a probabilistic model and is based on Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model. This model can be considered as an extension to HMM. The proposed method is applied to Persian language and its accuracy in converting text to speech phonetics is evaluated using simulations.

Keywords: Hidden Markov Models, text, synthesis.

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4 A Hidden Markov Model-Based Isolated and Meaningful Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Jörg Appenrodt, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Gesture recognition is a challenging task for extracting meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion. In this paper, we propose an automatic system that recognizes isolated gesture, in addition meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion for Arabic numbers from 0 to 9 in real-time based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). In order to handle isolated gesture, HMM using Ergodic, Left-Right (LR) and Left-Right Banded (LRB) topologies is applied over the discrete vector feature that is extracted from stereo color image sequences. These topologies are considered to different number of states ranging from 3 to 10. A new system is developed to recognize the meaningful gesture based on zero-codeword detection with static velocity motion for continuous gesture. Therefore, the LRB topology in conjunction with Baum-Welch (BW) algorithm for training and forward algorithm with Viterbi path for testing presents the best performance. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated and meaningful gesture and achieve average rate recognition 98.6% and 94.29% respectively.

Keywords: Computer Vision & Image Processing, Gesture Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Application

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3 Evolutionary Training of Hybrid Systems of Recurrent Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Rohitash Chandra, Christian W. Omlin

Abstract:

We present a hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) inspired by hidden Markov models (HMMs). We train the hybrid architecture using genetic algorithms to learn and represent dynamical systems. We train the hybrid architecture on a set of deterministic finite-state automata strings and observe the generalization performance of the hybrid architecture when presented with a new set of strings which were not present in the training data set. In this way, we show that the hybrid system of HMM and RNN can learn and represent deterministic finite-state automata. We ran experiments with different sets of population sizes in the genetic algorithm; we also ran experiments to find out which weight initializations were best for training the hybrid architecture. The results show that the hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks inspired by hidden Markov models can train and represent dynamical systems. The best training and generalization performance is achieved when the hybrid architecture is initialized with random real weight values of range -15 to 15.

Keywords: Deterministic finite-state automata, genetic algorithm, hidden Markov models, hybrid systems and recurrent neural networks.

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2 Word Recognition and Learning based on Associative Memories and Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Zöhre Kara Kayikci, Günther Palm

Abstract:

A word recognition architecture based on a network of neural associative memories and hidden Markov models has been developed. The input stream, composed of subword-units like wordinternal triphones consisting of diphones and triphones, is provided to the network of neural associative memories by hidden Markov models. The word recognition network derives words from this input stream. The architecture has the ability to handle ambiguities on subword-unit level and is also able to add new words to the vocabulary during performance. The architecture is implemented to perform the word recognition task in a language processing system for understanding simple command sentences like “bot show apple".

Keywords: Hebbian learning, hidden Markov models, neuralassociative memories, word recognition.

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1 A New Vector Quantization Front-End Process for Discrete HMM Speech Recognition System

Authors: M. Debyeche, J.P Haton, A. Houacine

Abstract:

The paper presents a complete discrete statistical framework, based on a novel vector quantization (VQ) front-end process. This new VQ approach performs an optimal distribution of VQ codebook components on HMM states. This technique that we named the distributed vector quantization (DVQ) of hidden Markov models, succeeds in unifying acoustic micro-structure and phonetic macro-structure, when the estimation of HMM parameters is performed. The DVQ technique is implemented through two variants. The first variant uses the K-means algorithm (K-means- DVQ) to optimize the VQ, while the second variant exploits the benefits of the classification behavior of neural networks (NN-DVQ) for the same purpose. The proposed variants are compared with the HMM-based baseline system by experiments of specific Arabic consonants recognition. The results show that the distributed vector quantization technique increase the performance of the discrete HMM system.

Keywords: Hidden Markov Model, Vector Quantization, Neural Network, Speech Recognition, Arabic Language

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