Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3873

Search results for: Generation Rate Constraint (GRC)

3873 Automatic Generation Control of Interconnected Power System with Generation Rate Constraintsby Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Approach

Authors: Gayadhar Panda, Sidhartha Panda, C. Ardil

Abstract:

The design of Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system plays a vital role in automation of power system. This paper proposes Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy (HNF) approach for AGC of two-area interconnected reheat thermal power system with the consideration of Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). The advantage of proposed controller is that it can handle the system non-linearities and at the same time the proposed approach is faster than conventional controllers. The performance of HNF controller has been compared with that of both conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller as well as Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) both in the absence and presence of Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). System performance is examined considering disturbance in each area of interconnected power system.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control (AGC), Dynamic Response, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC), Proportional Integral(PI) Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy(HNF) Control, MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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3872 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Interconnected Hydro-Thermal AGC System Considering GRC and TCPS

Authors: Banaja Mohanty, Prakash Kumar Hota

Abstract:

This paper represents performance of particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm based integral (I) controller and proportional-integral controller (PI) for interconnected hydro-thermal automatic generation control (AGC) with generation rate constraint (GRC) and Thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with tie line. The control strategy of TCPS provides active control of system frequency. Conventional objective function integral square error (ISE) and another objective function considering square of derivative of change in frequencies of both areas and change in tie line power are considered. The aim of designing the objective function is to suppress oscillation in frequency deviations and change in tie line power oscillation. The controller parameters are searched by PSO algorithm by minimising the objective functions. The dynamic performance of the controllers I and PI, for both the objective functions, are compared with conventionally optimized I controller.

Keywords: Automatic generation control (AGC), Generation rate constraint (GRC), Thyristor control phase shifter (TCPS), Particle swarm optimization (PSO).

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3871 Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Differential Evolution Technique

Authors: Banaja Mohanty, Prakash Kumar Hota

Abstract:

This paper presents a differential evolution algorithm to design a robust PI and PID controllers for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of nonlinear interconnected power systems considering the boiler dynamics, Governor Dead Band (GDB), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). Differential evolution algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The proposed method easily copes of with nonlinear constraints. Further the proposed controller is simple, effective and can ensure the desirable overall system performance. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic controller for the same power systems. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a 1% step load perturbation in hydro area. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than fuzzy logic controller. Furthermore, it is also seen that the proposed system is robust and is not affected by change in the system parameters.

Keywords: Automatic Generation control (AGC), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC), Governor Dead Band (GDB), Differential Evolution (DE)

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3870 Discovery of Sequential Patterns Based On Constraint Patterns

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Youichi Kitahata, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that discovers sequential patterns corresponding to user-s interests from sequential data. This method expresses the interests as constraint patterns. The constraint patterns can define relationships among attributes of the items composing the data. The method recursively decomposes the constraint patterns into constraint subpatterns. The method evaluates the constraint subpatterns in order to efficiently discover sequential patterns satisfying the constraint patterns. Also, this paper applies the method to the sequential data composed of stock price indexes and verifies its effectiveness through comparing it with a method without using the constraint patterns.

Keywords: Sequential pattern mining, Constraint pattern, Attribute constraint, Stock price indexes

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3869 Comparative Dynamic Performance of Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Intelligent Techniques

Authors: Banaja Mohanty, Prakash Kumar Hota

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates dynamic performance evaluation of load frequency control (LFC) with different intelligent techniques. All non-linearities and physical constraints have been considered in simulation studies such as governor dead band (GDB), generation rate constraint (GRC) and boiler dynamics. The conventional integral time absolute error has been considered as objective function. The design problem is formulated as an optimisation problem and particle swarm optimisation (PSO), bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm (BFOA) and differential evolution (DE) are employed to search optimal controller parameters. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the same interconnected power system. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, undershoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a step load perturbation (SLP). It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than FLC. Further, robustness analysis is carried out by varying the time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power in the range of +40% to -40% to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DE optimized PID controller.

Keywords: Automatic generation control, governor dead band, generation rate constraint, differential evolution.

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3868 PI Controller for Automatic Generation Control Based on Performance Indices

Authors: Kalyan Chatterjee

Abstract:

The optimal design of PI controller for Automatic Generation Control in two area is presented in this paper. The concept of Dual mode control is applied in the PI controller, such that the proportional mode is made active when the rate of change of the error is sufficiently larger than a specified limit otherwise switched to the integral mode. A digital simulation is used in conjunction with the Hooke-Jeeve’s optimization technique to determine the optimum parameters (individual gain of proportional and integral controller) of the PI controller. Integrated Square of the Error (ISE), Integrated Time multiplied by Absolute Error(ITAE) , and Integrated Absolute Error(IAE) performance indices are considered to measure the appropriateness of the designed controller.  The proposed controller are tested for a two area single nonreheat thermal system considering the practical aspect of the problem such as Deadband and Generation Rate Constraint(GRC). Simulation results show that  dual mode with optimized values of the gains improved the control performance than the commonly used Variable Structure .

Keywords: Load Frequency Control, Area Control Error(ACE), Dual Mode PI Controller, Performance Index

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3867 New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR) adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel. By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their superior performance over the conventional DR ones.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, data-reusing, least-mean square (LMS), affine projection (AP), noise constraint.

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3866 A Cross-Layer Approach for Cooperative MIMO Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this work, we study the problem of determining the minimum scheduling length that can satisfy end-to-end (ETE) traffic demand in scheduling-based multihop WSNs with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme. Specifically, we present a cross-layer formulation for the joint routing, scheduling and stream control problem by incorporating various power and rate adaptation schemes, and taking into account an antenna beam pattern model and the signal-to-interference-and-noise (SINR) constraint at the receiver. In the context, we also propose column generation (CG) solutions to get rid of the complexity requiring the enumeration of all possible sets of scheduling links.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Cross-Layer Design, CooperativeMIMO System, Column Generation.

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3865 Performance Evaluation of Intelligent Controllers for AGC in Thermal Systems

Authors: Muhammad Muhsin, Abhishek Mishra, Shreyansh Vishwakarma, K. Dasaratha Babu, Anudevi Samuel

Abstract:

In an interconnected power system, any sudden small load perturbation in any of the interconnected areas causes the deviation of the area frequencies, the tie line power and voltage deviation at the generator terminals. This paper deals with the study of performance of intelligent Fuzzy Logic controllers coupled with Conventional Controllers (PI and PID) for Load Frequency Control. For analysis, an isolated single area and interconnected two area thermal power systems with and without generation rate constraints (GRC) have been considered. The studies have been performed with conventional PI and PID controllers and their performance has been compared with intelligent fuzzy controllers. It can be demonstrated that these controllers can successfully bring back the excursions in area frequencies and tie line powers within acceptable limits in smaller time periods and with lesser transients as compared to the performance of conventional controllers under same load disturbance conditions. The simulations in MATLAB have been used for comparative studies.

Keywords: Area Control Error, Fuzzy Logic, Generation rate constraint, Load Frequency, Tie line Power.

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3864 Two Area Power Systems Economic Dispatch Problem Solving Considering Transmission Capacity Constraints

Authors: M. Zarei, A. Roozegar, R. Kazemzadeh, J.M. Kauffmann

Abstract:

This paper describes an efficient and practical method for economic dispatch problem in one and two area electrical power systems with considering the constraint of the tie transmission line capacity constraint. Direct search method (DSM) is used with some equality and inequality constraints of the production units with any kind of fuel cost function. By this method, it is possible to use several inequality constraints without having difficulty for complex cost functions or in the case of unavailability of the cost function derivative. To minimize the number of total iterations in searching, process multi-level convergence is incorporated in the DSM. Enhanced direct search method (EDSM) for two area power system will be investigated. The initial calculation step size that causes less iterations and then less calculation time is presented. Effect of the transmission tie line capacity, between areas, on economic dispatch problem and on total generation cost will be studied; line compensation and active power with reactive power dispatch are proposed to overcome the high generation costs for this multi-area system.

Keywords: Economic dispatch, Power System Operation, Direct Search Method, Transmission Capacity Constraint.

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3863 Generation Scheduling Optimization of Multi-Hydroplants: A Case Study

Authors: Shuangquan Liu, Jinwen Wang, Dada Wang

Abstract:

A case study of the generation scheduling optimization of the multi-hydroplants on the Yuan River Basin in China is reported in this paper. Concerning the uncertainty of the inflows, the long/mid-term generation scheduling (LMTGS) problem is solved by a stochastic model in which the inflows are considered as stochastic variables. For the short-term generation scheduling (STGS) problem, a constraint violation priority is defined in case not all constraints are satisfied. Provided the stage-wise separable condition and low dimensions, the hydroplant-based operational region schedules (HBORS) problem is solved by dynamic programming (DP). The coordination of LMTGS and STGS is presented as well. The feasibility and the effectiveness of the models and solution methods are verified by the numerical results.

Keywords: generation scheduling, multi-hydroplants, optimization.

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3862 Effect of Scene Changing on Image Sequences Compression Using Zero Tree Coding

Authors: Mbainaibeye Jérôme, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

We study in this paper the effect of the scene changing on image sequences coding system using Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW). The scene changing considered here is the full motion which may occurs. A special image sequence is generated where the scene changing occurs randomly. Two scenarios are considered: In the first scenario, the system must provide the reconstruction quality as best as possible by the management of the bit rate (BR) while the scene changing occurs. In the second scenario, the system must keep the bit rate as constant as possible by the management of the reconstruction quality. The first scenario may be motivated by the availability of a large band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate may be possible to keep the reconstruction quality up to a given threshold. The second scenario may be concerned by the narrow band pass transmission channel where an increase of the bit rate is not possible. In this last case, applications for which the reconstruction quality is not a constraint may be considered. The simulations are performed with five scales wavelet decomposition using the 9/7-tap filter bank biorthogonal wavelet. The entropy coding is performed using a specific defined binary code book and EZW algorithm. Experimental results are presented and compared to LEAD H263 EVAL. It is shown that if the reconstruction quality is the constraint, the system increases the bit rate to obtain the required quality. In the case where the bit rate must be constant, the system is unable to provide the required quality if the scene change occurs; however, the system is able to improve the quality while the scene changing disappears.

Keywords: Image Sequence Compression, Wavelet Transform, Scene Changing, Zero Tree, Bit Rate, Quality.

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3861 Entropy Generation Analysis of Free Convection Film Condensation on a Vertical Ellipsoid with Variable Wall Temperature

Authors: Sheng-An Yang, Ren-Yi Hung, Ying-Yi Ho

Abstract:

This paper aims to perform the second law analysis of thermodynamics on the laminar film condensation of pure saturated vapor flowing in the direction of gravity on an ellipsoid with variable wall temperature. The analysis provides us understanding how the geometric parameter- ellipticity and non-isothermal wall temperature variation amplitude “A." affect entropy generation during film-wise condensation heat transfer process. To understand of which irreversibility involved in this condensation process, we derived an expression for the entropy generation number in terms of ellipticity and A. The result indicates that entropy generation increases with ellipticity. Furthermore, the irreversibility due to finite temperature difference heat transfer dominates over that due to condensate film flow friction and the local entropy generation rate decreases with increasing A in the upper half of ellipsoid. Meanwhile, the local entropy generation rate enhances with A around the rear lower half of ellipsoid.

Keywords: Free convection; Non-isothermal; Thermodynamic second law; Entropy, Ellipsoid.

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3860 Data-Reusing Adaptive Filtering Algorithms with Adaptive Error Constraint

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a family of data-reusing and affine projection algorithms. For identification of a noisy linear finite impulse response channel, a partial knowledge of a channel, especially noise, can be used to improve the performance of the adaptive filter. Motivated by this fact, the proposed scheme incorporates an estimate of a knowledge of noise. A constraint, called the adaptive noise constraint, estimates an unknown information of noise. By imposing this constraint on a cost function of data-reusing and affine projection algorithms, a cost function based on the adaptive noise constraint and Lagrange multiplier is defined. Minimizing the new cost function leads to the adaptive noise constrained (ANC) data-reusing and affine projection algorithms. Experimental results comparing the proposed schemes to standard data-reusing and affine projection algorithms clearly indicate their superior performance.

Keywords: Data-reusing, affine projection algorithm, error constraint, system identification.

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3859 A Kernel Based Rejection Method for Supervised Classification

Authors: Abdenour Bounsiar, Edith Grall, Pierre Beauseroy

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in classification problems with a performance constraint on error probability. In such problems if the constraint cannot be satisfied, then a rejection option is introduced. For binary labelled classification, a number of SVM based methods with rejection option have been proposed over the past few years. All of these methods use two thresholds on the SVM output. However, in previous works, we have shown on synthetic data that using thresholds on the output of the optimal SVM may lead to poor results for classification tasks with performance constraint. In this paper a new method for supervised classification with rejection option is proposed. It consists in two different classifiers jointly optimized to minimize the rejection probability subject to a given constraint on error rate. This method uses a new kernel based linear learning machine that we have recently presented. This learning machine is characterized by its simplicity and high training speed which makes the simultaneous optimization of the two classifiers computationally reasonable. The proposed classification method with rejection option is compared to a SVM based rejection method proposed in recent literature. Experiments show the superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: rejection, Chow's rule, error-reject tradeoff, SupportVector Machine.

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3858 Subband Adaptive Filter Exploiting Sparsity of System

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a normalized subband adaptive filtering (NSAF) algorithm to cope with the sparsity condition of an underlying system in the context of compressive sensing. By regularizing a weighted l1-norm of the filter taps estimate onto the cost function of the NSAF and utilizing a subgradient analysis, the update recursion of the l1-norm constraint NSAF is derived. Considering two distinct weighted l1-norm regularization cases, two versions of the l1-norm constraint NSAF are presented. Simulation results clearly indicate the superior performance of the proposed l1-norm constraint NSAFs comparing with the classical NSAF.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filtering, sparsity constraint, weighted l1-norm.

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3857 Heat Generation Rate and Computational Simulation for Li-Ion Battery Module

Authors: Ravichandra R., Srithar Rajoo, Tan Lit Wen

Abstract:

In recent years Li-Ion batteries getting more attention among the Electrical Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) energy storage. Li-Ion has shown extended power density and light weight compared to other batteries readily available in the market. One of the major drawbacks in Li-Ion batteries is their sensitivity to the temperature. If the working temperature is beyond the limit, that could affect seriously on the durability and performance of Li-Ion battery. Thus Battery Thermal Management (BTM) is the most essential in adapting Li-Ion battery to the EVs and HEVs.

Keywords: Li-Ion battery, HEV/EV, battery thermal management, heat generation rate.

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3856 Economic Load Dispatch with Daily Load Patterns and Generator Constraints by Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: N. Phanthuna V. Phupha N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Lerdwanittip

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization technique to economic load dispatch (ELD) problems with considering the daily load patterns and generator constraints using a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective is to minimize the fuel cost. The optimization problem is subject to system constraints consisting of power balance and generation output of each units. The application of a constriction factor into PSO is a useful strategy to ensure convergence of the particle swarm algorithm. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total constraint cost function is minimized. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated by case studies in test system of fifteen-generation units. The results show that the proposed algorithm scan give the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Economic Load Dispatch, Generator Constraints.

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3855 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang

Abstract:

This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: Topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint.

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3854 Generator Capability Curve Constraint for PSO Based Optimal Power Flow

Authors: Mat Syai'in, Adi Soeprijanto, Takashi Hiyama

Abstract:

An optimal power flow (OPF) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed with more realistic generator security constraint using the capability curve instead of only Pmin/Pmax and Qmin/Qmax. Neural network (NN) was used in designing digital capability curve and the security check algorithm. The algorithm is very simple and flexible especially for representing non linear generation operation limit near steady state stability limit and under excitation operation area. In effort to avoid local optimal power flow solution, the particle swarm optimization was implemented with enough widespread initial population. The objective function used in the optimization process is electric production cost which is dominated by fuel cost. The proposed method was implemented at Java Bali 500 kV power systems contain of 7 generators and 20 buses. The simulation result shows that the combination of generator power output resulted from the proposed method was more economic compared with the result using conventional constraint but operated at more marginal operating point.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Generator Capability Curve, Particle Swarm Optimization, Neural Network

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3853 Slime Mould Optimization Algorithms for Optimal Distributed Generation Integration in Distribution Electrical Network

Authors: F. Fissou Amigue, S. Ndjakomo Essiane, S. Pérabi Ngoffé, G. Abessolo Ondoa, G. Mengata Mengounou, T. P. Nna Nna

Abstract:

This document proposes a method for determining the optimal point of integration of distributed generation (DG) in distribution grid. Slime mould optimization is applied to determine best node in case of one and two injection point. Problem has been modeled as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize joule loses and main constraint is to regulate voltage in each point. The proposed method has been implemented in MATLAB and applied in IEEE network 33 and 69 nodes. Comparing results obtained with other algorithms showed that slime mould optimization algorithms (SMOA) have the best reduction of power losses and good amelioration of voltage profile.

Keywords: Optimization, distributed generation, integration, slime mould algorithm.

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3852 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

 

Keywords: Irradiation, Primary Defects, Interaction, Fluctuations.

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3851 Ramp Rate and Constriction Factor Based Dual Objective Economic Load Dispatch Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Himanshu Shekhar Maharana, S. K .Dash

Abstract:

Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) proves to be a vital optimization process in electric power system for allocating generation amongst various units to compute the cost of generation, the cost of emission involving global warming gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide etc. In this dissertation, we emphasize ramp rate constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO) for analyzing various performance objectives, namely cost of generation, cost of emission, and a dual objective function involving both these objectives through the experimental simulated results. A 6-unit 30 bus IEEE test case system has been utilized for simulating the results involving improved weight factor advanced ramp rate limit constraints for optimizing total cost of generation and emission. This method increases the tendency of particles to venture into the solution space to ameliorate their convergence rates. Earlier works through dispersed PSO (DPSO) and constriction factor based PSO (CPSO) give rise to comparatively higher computational time and less good optimal solution at par with current dissertation. This paper deals with ramp rate and constriction factor based well defined ramp rate PSO to compute various objectives namely cost, emission and total objective etc. and compares the result with DPSO and weight improved PSO (WIPSO) techniques illustrating lesser computational time and better optimal solution. 

Keywords: Economic load dispatch, constriction factor based particle swarm optimization, dispersed particle swarm optimization, weight improved particle swarm optimization, ramp rate and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization.

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3850 Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device

Authors: Lei Lei, Hongbo Zhang, Donald J. Bergstrom, Bing Zhang, K. Y. Song, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.

Keywords: CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation, modified T-junction.

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3849 Optimal Solution of Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Jeffrey L. Duffany

Abstract:

An optimal solution for a large number of constraint satisfaction problems can be found using the technique of substitution and elimination of variables analogous to the technique that is used to solve systems of equations. A decision function f(A)=max(A2) is used to determine which variables to eliminate. The algorithm can be expressed in six lines and is remarkable in both its simplicity and its ability to find an optimal solution. However it is inefficient in that it needs to square the updated A matrix after each variable elimination. To overcome this inefficiency the algorithm is analyzed and it is shown that the A matrix only needs to be squared once at the first step of the algorithm and then incrementally updated for subsequent steps, resulting in significant improvement and an algorithm complexity of O(n3).

Keywords: Algorithm, complexity, constraint, np-complete.

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3848 Distributed Generator Placement for Loss Reduction and Improvement in Reliability

Authors: Priyanka Paliwal, N.P. Patidar

Abstract:

Distributed Power generation has gained a lot of attention in recent times due to constraints associated with conventional power generation and new advancements in DG technologies .The need to operate the power system economically and with optimum levels of reliability has further led to an increase in interest in Distributed Generation. However it is important to place Distributed Generator on an optimum location so that the purpose of loss minimization and voltage regulation is dully served on the feeder. This paper investigates the impact of DG units installation on electric losses, reliability and voltage profile of distribution networks. In this paper, our aim would be to find optimal distributed generation allocation for loss reduction subjected to constraint of voltage regulation in distribution network. The system is further analyzed for increased levels of Reliability. Distributed Generator offers the additional advantage of increase in reliability levels as suggested by the improvements in various reliability indices such as SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS. Comparative studies are performed and related results are addressed. An analytical technique is used in order to find the optimal location of Distributed Generator. The suggested technique is programmed under MATLAB software. The results clearly indicate that DG can reduce the electrical line loss while simultaneously improving the reliability of the system.

Keywords: AENS, CAIDI, Distributed Generation, lossreduction, Reliability, SAIDI

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3847 Combining Variable Ordering Heuristics for Improving Search Algorithms Performance

Authors: Abdolreza Hatamlou, Yusef Farhang, Mohammad Reza Meybodi

Abstract:

Variable ordering heuristics are used in constraint satisfaction algorithms. Different characteristics of various variable ordering heuristics are complementary. Therefore we have tried to get the advantages of all heuristics to improve search algorithms performance for solving constraint satisfaction problems. This paper considers combinations based on products and quotients, and then a newer form of combination based on weighted sums of ratings from a set of base heuristics, some of which result in definite improvements in performance.

Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problems, Variable Ordering Heuristics, Combination, Search Algorithms

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3846 Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy Storage

Authors: Rajesh Joseph Abraham, D. Das, Amit Patra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of small rating Capacitive Energy Storage units for the improvement of Automatic Generation Control of a multiunit multiarea power system. Generation Rate Constraints are also considered in the investigations. Integral Squared Error technique is used to obtain the optimal integral gain settings by minimizing a quadratic performance index. Simulation studies reveal that with CES units, the deviations in area frequencies and inter-area tie-power are considerably improved in terms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to that obtained without CES units.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control, Capacitive EnergyStorage, Integral Squared Error.

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3845 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid.

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3844 Decoy-pulse Protocol for Frequency-coded Quantum Key Distribution

Authors: Sudeshna Bhattacharya, Pratyush Pandey, Pradeep Kumar K

Abstract:

We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.

Keywords: B92, decoy-pulse, frequency-coding, quantum key distribution.

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